Abstract

We discuss the behavior of the transmission spectra of a long-period grating (LPG) with an external medium of refractive index higher than that of silica. We studied the evolution of the features of LPG’s surrounded by several liquid media for several kinds of fiber. The study demonstrated that the behavior depends strongly on the fiber type. Efficient couplings (efficiency greater than 50%) have been obtained with an external medium of a refractive index larger than that of silica. This result indicates that a LPG can operate with surrounding materials of a refractive index higher than that of silica, promising new applications for LPG’s as active optical filters.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Protopopov, S. A. Vasiliev, “Gain spectrum flattening of erbium-doped fiber amplifier using long-period gratings,” in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper SaB3.
  3. V. Bhatia, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21, 692–694 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O. Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, L. Rivoallan, “Long-period fibre grating as a wavelength selective polarisation element,” Electron. Lett. 33, 616–618 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. H. Lee, Y. Liu, S. B. Lee, S. S. Choi, J. N. Jang, “Displacements of the resonant peaks of a long-period fiber grating induced by a change of ambient refractive index,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1769–1771 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1997

A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O. Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, L. Rivoallan, “Long-period fibre grating as a wavelength selective polarisation element,” Electron. Lett. 33, 616–618 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Lee, Y. Liu, S. B. Lee, S. S. Choi, J. N. Jang, “Displacements of the resonant peaks of a long-period fiber grating induced by a change of ambient refractive index,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1769–1771 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Bhatia, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21, 692–694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagratashvili, V. N.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J. F.

A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O. Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, L. Rivoallan, “Long-period fibre grating as a wavelength selective polarisation element,” Electron. Lett. 33, 616–618 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

V. Bhatia, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21, 692–694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. S.

de Sandro, J. P.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Protopopov, S. A. Vasiliev, “Gain spectrum flattening of erbium-doped fiber amplifier using long-period gratings,” in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper SaB3.

Dong, L.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O. Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, L. Rivoallan, “Long-period fibre grating as a wavelength selective polarisation element,” Electron. Lett. 33, 616–618 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Duhem, O.

A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O. Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, L. Rivoallan, “Long-period fibre grating as a wavelength selective polarisation element,” Electron. Lett. 33, 616–618 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Henninot, J. F.

A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O. Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, L. Rivoallan, “Long-period fibre grating as a wavelength selective polarisation element,” Electron. Lett. 33, 616–618 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. N.

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Karpov, V. I.

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Protopopov, S. A. Vasiliev, “Gain spectrum flattening of erbium-doped fiber amplifier using long-period gratings,” in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper SaB3.

Kurkov, A. S.

A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O. Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, L. Rivoallan, “Long-period fibre grating as a wavelength selective polarisation element,” Electron. Lett. 33, 616–618 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Protopopov, S. A. Vasiliev, “Gain spectrum flattening of erbium-doped fiber amplifier using long-period gratings,” in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper SaB3.

Laming, R. I.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

Lee, S. B.

Leleu, B.

A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O. Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, L. Rivoallan, “Long-period fibre grating as a wavelength selective polarisation element,” Electron. Lett. 33, 616–618 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. F.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Medvedkov, O. I.

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Protopopov, S. A. Vasiliev, “Gain spectrum flattening of erbium-doped fiber amplifier using long-period gratings,” in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper SaB3.

Ortega, B.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorov, A. M.

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Protopopov, S. A. Vasiliev, “Gain spectrum flattening of erbium-doped fiber amplifier using long-period gratings,” in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper SaB3.

Protopopov, V. N.

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Protopopov, S. A. Vasiliev, “Gain spectrum flattening of erbium-doped fiber amplifier using long-period gratings,” in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper SaB3.

Reekie, L.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rivoallan, L.

A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O. Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, L. Rivoallan, “Long-period fibre grating as a wavelength selective polarisation element,” Electron. Lett. 33, 616–618 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsypina, S. I.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vasiliev, S. A.

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Protopopov, S. A. Vasiliev, “Gain spectrum flattening of erbium-doped fiber amplifier using long-period gratings,” in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper SaB3.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Bhatia, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21, 692–694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett.

A. S. Kurkov, M. Douay, O. Duhem, B. Leleu, J. F. Henninot, J. F. Bayon, L. Rivoallan, “Long-period fibre grating as a wavelength selective polarisation element,” Electron. Lett. 33, 616–618 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, “High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370–1372 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Protopopov, S. A. Vasiliev, “Gain spectrum flattening of erbium-doped fiber amplifier using long-period gratings,” in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper SaB3.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Evolution of the refractive indices in the 300–1600-nm range of six liquids.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectrum in air of a LPG written in BPG 2010 at a wavelength range of 1400–1800 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of the coupling intensities versus the external index of a LPG written in BPG 2010.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectrum in bromobenzene (index 1.54) of a LPG written in BPG 2010 at a wavelength range of 1400–1800 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission spectrum in air of a LPG written in FPG 2034 at a wavelength range of 1300–1625 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Evolution of the coupling intensities versus the external index of a LPG written in FPG 2034.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmission spectrum in bromobenzene (index 1.54) of a LPG written in FPG 2034 at a wavelength range of 1300–1625 nm.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

β co - β cl n = 2 π / Λ ,
S L = sin 2 kL ,

Metrics