Abstract

The photosensitizer hematoporphyrin (HP) was site specifically attached to a murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) fragment OC125F(ab′)2 directed against ovarian cancer cells and to nonspecific rabbit immunoglobulin G. The photoimmunoconjugates were positively charged and were purified by column chromatography. The OC125F(ab′)2 conjugate retained immunoreactivity with human ovarian cancer cells, and the binding was competed with unmodified MAb. Phototoxicity paralleled the cellular uptake with the OC125F(ab′)2 conjugate and the light showing selective killing of target cells compared with nontarget cells. Nontargeted conjugates and free HP produced lower levels of phototoxicity and showed no selectivity.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. K. L. Molpus, D. Koelliker, L. Atkins, D. Kato, J. Buczek-Thomas, A. F. J. Fuller, T. Hasan, “Characterization of a xenograft model of human ovarian carcinoma which produces intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and metastases in mice,” Int. J. Cancer 67, 588–595 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. Larson, B. Howlett, A. Jagendorf, “Artificial reductant enhancement of the Lowry method for protein determination,” Anal. Biochem. 155, 243–248 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. T. Mosmann, “Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays,” J. Immunol. Methods. 65, 55–63 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  30. R. M. Reilly, J. Sandhu, T. M. Alvarez-Diez, S. Gallinger, J. Kirsh, H. Stern, “Problems of delivery of monoclonal antibodies. Pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic solutions,” Clin. Pharmacokinet. 28, 126–142 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  32. R. K. Jain, “Transport of molecules across tumor vasculature,” Cancer Metastasis Rev. 6, 559–593 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. M. A. Clauss, R. K. Jain, “Interstitial transport of rabbit and sheep antibodies in normal and neoplastic tissues,” Cancer Res. 50, 3487–3492 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  34. H. M. Davis, V. R. Zurawski, R. C. Bast, T. L. Klug, “Characterization of the CA 125 antigen associated with human epithelial ovarian carcinomas,” Cancer Res. 46, 6143–6148 (1986).
    [PubMed]
  35. T. M. Behr, W. S. Becker, M. W. Klein, H. J. Bair, J. R. Scheele, F. G. Wolf, “Diagnostic accuracy and tumor-targeting kinetics of complete versus fragmented 99mTc-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies: an intraindividual comparison,” Cancer Res. 55, 5786s–5793s (1995).
    [PubMed]
  36. R. T. Maguire, V. L. Pascucci, A. N. Maroli, J. V. Gulfo, “Immunoscintigraphy in patients with colorectal, ovarian, and prostate cancer. Results with site-specific immunoconjugates,” Cancer 72, 3453–3462 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. S. P. Creekmore, D. S. Zaharko, “Modification of chemotherapeutic effects on L1210 cells using hematoporphyrin and light,” Cancer Res. 43, 5252–5257 (1983).
    [PubMed]

1998

J. A. Buczek-Thomas, N. Chen, T. Hasan, “Integrin-mediated adhesion and signalling in ovarian cancer cells,” Cell. Signal. 10, 55–63 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

R. B. Veenhuizen, M. C. Ruevekamp, H. Oppelaar, B. Ransdorp, M. van de Vijver, T. J. Helmerhorst, P. Kenemans, F. A. Stewart, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy: comparison of red and green light distribution and toxicity,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 389–395 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Duska, M. R. Hamblin, M. P. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Biodistribution of charged F(ab′)2 photoimmunoconjugates in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer,” Br. J. Cancer 75, 837–844 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Akhlynina, D. A. Jans, A. A. Rosenkranz, N. V. Statsyuk, I. Y. Balashova, G. Toth, I. Pavo, A. B. Rubin, A. S. Sobolev, “Nuclear targeting of chlorin e6 enhances its photosensitizing activity,” J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20328–20331 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. Soukos, M. R. Hamblin, T. Hasan, “The effect of charge on cellular uptake and phototoxicity of polylysine chlorin(e6) conjugates,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 723–729 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

K. L. Molpus, D. Kato, M. R. Hamblin, L. Lilge, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy of human epithelial ovarian carcinomatosis in a xenograft murine model,” Cancer Res. 56, 1075–1082 (1996).
[PubMed]

B. A. Goff, J. Blake, M. P. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Treatment of ovarian cancer with photodynamic therapy and immunoconjugates in a murine ovarian cancer model,” Br. J. Cancer 74, 1194–1198 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hamblin, J. L. Miller, T. Hasan, “The effect of charge on the interaction of site-specific photoimmunoconjugates with human ovarian cancer cells,” Cancer Res. 56, 5205–5210 (1996).
[PubMed]

K. L. Molpus, D. Koelliker, L. Atkins, D. Kato, J. Buczek-Thomas, A. F. J. Fuller, T. Hasan, “Characterization of a xenograft model of human ovarian carcinoma which produces intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and metastases in mice,” Int. J. Cancer 67, 588–595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. M. Reilly, J. Sandhu, T. M. Alvarez-Diez, S. Gallinger, J. Kirsh, H. Stern, “Problems of delivery of monoclonal antibodies. Pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic solutions,” Clin. Pharmacokinet. 28, 126–142 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. B. Sivolapenko, V. Douli, D. Pectasides, D. Skarlos, G. Sirmalis, R. Hussain, J. Cook, N. S. Courtenay-Luck, E. Merkouri, K. Konstantinides, A. A. Epenetos, “Breast cancer imaging with radiolabelled peptide from complementarily-determining region of antitumour antibody,” Lancet 346, 1662–1666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Behr, W. S. Becker, M. W. Klein, H. J. Bair, J. R. Scheele, F. G. Wolf, “Diagnostic accuracy and tumor-targeting kinetics of complete versus fragmented 99mTc-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies: an intraindividual comparison,” Cancer Res. 55, 5786s–5793s (1995).
[PubMed]

D. A. Johnson, S. L. Briggs, M. C. Gutowski, R. Barton, “Anti-tumor activity of CC49-doxorubicin immunoconjugates,” Anticancer Res. 15, 1387–1393 (1995).
[PubMed]

A. M. Fisher, A. L. Murphree, C. J. Gomer, “Clinical and preclinical photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 2–31 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

M. R. Hamblin, E. L. Newman, “Photosensitizer targeting in photodynamic therapy. II. Conjugates of haematoporphyrin with serum lipoproteins,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 26, 147–157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Goff, U. Hermanto, J. Rumbaugh, J. Blake, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Photoimmunotherapy and biodistribution with an OC125-chlorin immunoconjugate in an in vivo murine ovarian cancer model,” Br. J. Cancer 70, 474–480 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Veenhuizen, M. C. Ruevekamp-Helmers, T. J. Helmerhorst, P. Kenemans, W. J. Mooi, J. P. Marijnissen, F. A. Stewart, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy in the rat: comparison of toxicity profiles for photofrin and MTHPC,” Int. J. Cancer 59, 830–836 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

M. L. Yarmush, W. P. Thorpe, L. Strong, S. L. Rakestraw, M. Toner, R. G. Tompkins, “Antibody targeted photolysis,” Crit. Rev. Ther. Drug Carrier Syst. 10, 197–252 (1993).
[PubMed]

T. F. DeLaney, W. F. Sindelar, Z. Tochner, P. D. Smith, W. S. Friauf, G. Thomas, L. Dachowski, J. W. Cole, S. M. Steinberg, E. Glatstein, “Phase I study of debulking surgery and photodynamic therapy for disseminated intraperitoneal tumors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 25, 445–457 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Richter, E. Waterfield, A. K. Jain, A. J. Canaan, B. A. Allison, J. G. Levy, “Liposomal delivery of a photosensitizer, benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD), to tumor tissue in a mouse tumor model,” Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 1000–1006 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Buchsbaum, V. K. Langmuir, B. W. Wessels, “Experimental radioimmunotherapy,” Med. Phys. 20, 551–567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Houston, “Targeted delivery of toxins and enzymes by antibodies and growth factors,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 4, 739–744 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Maguire, V. L. Pascucci, A. N. Maroli, J. V. Gulfo, “Immunoscintigraphy in patients with colorectal, ovarian, and prostate cancer. Results with site-specific immunoconjugates,” Cancer 72, 3453–3462 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

P. W. Cobb, C. F. LeMaistre, “Therapeutic use of immunotoxins,” Semin. Hematol. 29, 6–13 (1992).
[PubMed]

B. W. Henderson, T. J. Dougherty, “How does photodynamic therapy work?” Photochem. Photobiol. 55, 145–157 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

R. Bachor, C. R. Shea, R. Gillies, T. Hasan, “Photosensitized destruction of human bladder carcinoma cells treated with chlorin e6-conjugated microspheres,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 1580–1584 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Goff, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Photoimmunotherapy of human ovarian carcinoma cells ex vivo,” Cancer Res. 51, 4762–4767 (1991).
[PubMed]

1990

R. K. Jain, “Physiological barriers to delivery of monoclonal antibodies and other macromolecules in tumors,” Cancer Res. 50, 814s–819s (1990).
[PubMed]

M. A. Clauss, R. K. Jain, “Interstitial transport of rabbit and sheep antibodies in normal and neoplastic tissues,” Cancer Res. 50, 3487–3492 (1990).
[PubMed]

1988

H. J. Haisma, K. R. Moseley, A. Battaile, T. C. Griffiths, R. C. Knapp, “Distribution and pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody OC 125 after intravenous and intraperitoneal administration in gynecologic tumors,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159, 843–848 (1988).
[PubMed]

1987

R. K. Jain, “Transport of molecules across tumor vasculature,” Cancer Metastasis Rev. 6, 559–593 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

E. Larson, B. Howlett, A. Jagendorf, “Artificial reductant enhancement of the Lowry method for protein determination,” Anal. Biochem. 155, 243–248 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Davis, V. R. Zurawski, R. C. Bast, T. L. Klug, “Characterization of the CA 125 antigen associated with human epithelial ovarian carcinomas,” Cancer Res. 46, 6143–6148 (1986).
[PubMed]

1983

S. P. Creekmore, D. S. Zaharko, “Modification of chemotherapeutic effects on L1210 cells using hematoporphyrin and light,” Cancer Res. 43, 5252–5257 (1983).
[PubMed]

T. Mosmann, “Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays,” J. Immunol. Methods. 65, 55–63 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akhlynina, T. V.

T. V. Akhlynina, D. A. Jans, A. A. Rosenkranz, N. V. Statsyuk, I. Y. Balashova, G. Toth, I. Pavo, A. B. Rubin, A. S. Sobolev, “Nuclear targeting of chlorin e6 enhances its photosensitizing activity,” J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20328–20331 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allison, B. A.

A. M. Richter, E. Waterfield, A. K. Jain, A. J. Canaan, B. A. Allison, J. G. Levy, “Liposomal delivery of a photosensitizer, benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD), to tumor tissue in a mouse tumor model,” Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 1000–1006 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alvarez-Diez, T. M.

R. M. Reilly, J. Sandhu, T. M. Alvarez-Diez, S. Gallinger, J. Kirsh, H. Stern, “Problems of delivery of monoclonal antibodies. Pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic solutions,” Clin. Pharmacokinet. 28, 126–142 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkins, L.

K. L. Molpus, D. Koelliker, L. Atkins, D. Kato, J. Buczek-Thomas, A. F. J. Fuller, T. Hasan, “Characterization of a xenograft model of human ovarian carcinoma which produces intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and metastases in mice,” Int. J. Cancer 67, 588–595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bachor, R.

R. Bachor, C. R. Shea, R. Gillies, T. Hasan, “Photosensitized destruction of human bladder carcinoma cells treated with chlorin e6-conjugated microspheres,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 1580–1584 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bair, H. J.

T. M. Behr, W. S. Becker, M. W. Klein, H. J. Bair, J. R. Scheele, F. G. Wolf, “Diagnostic accuracy and tumor-targeting kinetics of complete versus fragmented 99mTc-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies: an intraindividual comparison,” Cancer Res. 55, 5786s–5793s (1995).
[PubMed]

Balashova, I. Y.

T. V. Akhlynina, D. A. Jans, A. A. Rosenkranz, N. V. Statsyuk, I. Y. Balashova, G. Toth, I. Pavo, A. B. Rubin, A. S. Sobolev, “Nuclear targeting of chlorin e6 enhances its photosensitizing activity,” J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20328–20331 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bamberg, M.

K. L. Molpus, D. Kato, M. R. Hamblin, L. Lilge, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy of human epithelial ovarian carcinomatosis in a xenograft murine model,” Cancer Res. 56, 1075–1082 (1996).
[PubMed]

B. A. Goff, U. Hermanto, J. Rumbaugh, J. Blake, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Photoimmunotherapy and biodistribution with an OC125-chlorin immunoconjugate in an in vivo murine ovarian cancer model,” Br. J. Cancer 70, 474–480 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Goff, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Photoimmunotherapy of human ovarian carcinoma cells ex vivo,” Cancer Res. 51, 4762–4767 (1991).
[PubMed]

Bamberg, M. P.

L. R. Duska, M. R. Hamblin, M. P. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Biodistribution of charged F(ab′)2 photoimmunoconjugates in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer,” Br. J. Cancer 75, 837–844 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Goff, J. Blake, M. P. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Treatment of ovarian cancer with photodynamic therapy and immunoconjugates in a murine ovarian cancer model,” Br. J. Cancer 74, 1194–1198 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, R.

D. A. Johnson, S. L. Briggs, M. C. Gutowski, R. Barton, “Anti-tumor activity of CC49-doxorubicin immunoconjugates,” Anticancer Res. 15, 1387–1393 (1995).
[PubMed]

Bast, R. C.

H. M. Davis, V. R. Zurawski, R. C. Bast, T. L. Klug, “Characterization of the CA 125 antigen associated with human epithelial ovarian carcinomas,” Cancer Res. 46, 6143–6148 (1986).
[PubMed]

Battaile, A.

H. J. Haisma, K. R. Moseley, A. Battaile, T. C. Griffiths, R. C. Knapp, “Distribution and pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody OC 125 after intravenous and intraperitoneal administration in gynecologic tumors,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159, 843–848 (1988).
[PubMed]

Becker, W. S.

T. M. Behr, W. S. Becker, M. W. Klein, H. J. Bair, J. R. Scheele, F. G. Wolf, “Diagnostic accuracy and tumor-targeting kinetics of complete versus fragmented 99mTc-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies: an intraindividual comparison,” Cancer Res. 55, 5786s–5793s (1995).
[PubMed]

Behr, T. M.

T. M. Behr, W. S. Becker, M. W. Klein, H. J. Bair, J. R. Scheele, F. G. Wolf, “Diagnostic accuracy and tumor-targeting kinetics of complete versus fragmented 99mTc-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies: an intraindividual comparison,” Cancer Res. 55, 5786s–5793s (1995).
[PubMed]

Blake, J.

B. A. Goff, J. Blake, M. P. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Treatment of ovarian cancer with photodynamic therapy and immunoconjugates in a murine ovarian cancer model,” Br. J. Cancer 74, 1194–1198 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Goff, U. Hermanto, J. Rumbaugh, J. Blake, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Photoimmunotherapy and biodistribution with an OC125-chlorin immunoconjugate in an in vivo murine ovarian cancer model,” Br. J. Cancer 70, 474–480 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs, S. L.

D. A. Johnson, S. L. Briggs, M. C. Gutowski, R. Barton, “Anti-tumor activity of CC49-doxorubicin immunoconjugates,” Anticancer Res. 15, 1387–1393 (1995).
[PubMed]

Buchsbaum, D. J.

D. J. Buchsbaum, V. K. Langmuir, B. W. Wessels, “Experimental radioimmunotherapy,” Med. Phys. 20, 551–567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buczek-Thomas, J.

K. L. Molpus, D. Koelliker, L. Atkins, D. Kato, J. Buczek-Thomas, A. F. J. Fuller, T. Hasan, “Characterization of a xenograft model of human ovarian carcinoma which produces intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and metastases in mice,” Int. J. Cancer 67, 588–595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Buczek-Thomas, J. A.

J. A. Buczek-Thomas, N. Chen, T. Hasan, “Integrin-mediated adhesion and signalling in ovarian cancer cells,” Cell. Signal. 10, 55–63 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canaan, A. J.

A. M. Richter, E. Waterfield, A. K. Jain, A. J. Canaan, B. A. Allison, J. G. Levy, “Liposomal delivery of a photosensitizer, benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD), to tumor tissue in a mouse tumor model,” Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 1000–1006 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, N.

J. A. Buczek-Thomas, N. Chen, T. Hasan, “Integrin-mediated adhesion and signalling in ovarian cancer cells,” Cell. Signal. 10, 55–63 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clauss, M. A.

M. A. Clauss, R. K. Jain, “Interstitial transport of rabbit and sheep antibodies in normal and neoplastic tissues,” Cancer Res. 50, 3487–3492 (1990).
[PubMed]

Cobb, P. W.

P. W. Cobb, C. F. LeMaistre, “Therapeutic use of immunotoxins,” Semin. Hematol. 29, 6–13 (1992).
[PubMed]

Cole, J. W.

T. F. DeLaney, W. F. Sindelar, Z. Tochner, P. D. Smith, W. S. Friauf, G. Thomas, L. Dachowski, J. W. Cole, S. M. Steinberg, E. Glatstein, “Phase I study of debulking surgery and photodynamic therapy for disseminated intraperitoneal tumors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 25, 445–457 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, J.

G. B. Sivolapenko, V. Douli, D. Pectasides, D. Skarlos, G. Sirmalis, R. Hussain, J. Cook, N. S. Courtenay-Luck, E. Merkouri, K. Konstantinides, A. A. Epenetos, “Breast cancer imaging with radiolabelled peptide from complementarily-determining region of antitumour antibody,” Lancet 346, 1662–1666 (1995).
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G. B. Sivolapenko, V. Douli, D. Pectasides, D. Skarlos, G. Sirmalis, R. Hussain, J. Cook, N. S. Courtenay-Luck, E. Merkouri, K. Konstantinides, A. A. Epenetos, “Breast cancer imaging with radiolabelled peptide from complementarily-determining region of antitumour antibody,” Lancet 346, 1662–1666 (1995).
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S. P. Creekmore, D. S. Zaharko, “Modification of chemotherapeutic effects on L1210 cells using hematoporphyrin and light,” Cancer Res. 43, 5252–5257 (1983).
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T. F. DeLaney, W. F. Sindelar, Z. Tochner, P. D. Smith, W. S. Friauf, G. Thomas, L. Dachowski, J. W. Cole, S. M. Steinberg, E. Glatstein, “Phase I study of debulking surgery and photodynamic therapy for disseminated intraperitoneal tumors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 25, 445–457 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, H. M.

H. M. Davis, V. R. Zurawski, R. C. Bast, T. L. Klug, “Characterization of the CA 125 antigen associated with human epithelial ovarian carcinomas,” Cancer Res. 46, 6143–6148 (1986).
[PubMed]

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T. F. DeLaney, W. F. Sindelar, Z. Tochner, P. D. Smith, W. S. Friauf, G. Thomas, L. Dachowski, J. W. Cole, S. M. Steinberg, E. Glatstein, “Phase I study of debulking surgery and photodynamic therapy for disseminated intraperitoneal tumors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 25, 445–457 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dougherty, T. J.

B. W. Henderson, T. J. Dougherty, “How does photodynamic therapy work?” Photochem. Photobiol. 55, 145–157 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douli, V.

G. B. Sivolapenko, V. Douli, D. Pectasides, D. Skarlos, G. Sirmalis, R. Hussain, J. Cook, N. S. Courtenay-Luck, E. Merkouri, K. Konstantinides, A. A. Epenetos, “Breast cancer imaging with radiolabelled peptide from complementarily-determining region of antitumour antibody,” Lancet 346, 1662–1666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Duska, L. R.

L. R. Duska, M. R. Hamblin, M. P. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Biodistribution of charged F(ab′)2 photoimmunoconjugates in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer,” Br. J. Cancer 75, 837–844 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Epenetos, A. A.

G. B. Sivolapenko, V. Douli, D. Pectasides, D. Skarlos, G. Sirmalis, R. Hussain, J. Cook, N. S. Courtenay-Luck, E. Merkouri, K. Konstantinides, A. A. Epenetos, “Breast cancer imaging with radiolabelled peptide from complementarily-determining region of antitumour antibody,” Lancet 346, 1662–1666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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A. M. Fisher, A. L. Murphree, C. J. Gomer, “Clinical and preclinical photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 2–31 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friauf, W. S.

T. F. DeLaney, W. F. Sindelar, Z. Tochner, P. D. Smith, W. S. Friauf, G. Thomas, L. Dachowski, J. W. Cole, S. M. Steinberg, E. Glatstein, “Phase I study of debulking surgery and photodynamic therapy for disseminated intraperitoneal tumors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 25, 445–457 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuller, A. F. J.

K. L. Molpus, D. Koelliker, L. Atkins, D. Kato, J. Buczek-Thomas, A. F. J. Fuller, T. Hasan, “Characterization of a xenograft model of human ovarian carcinoma which produces intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and metastases in mice,” Int. J. Cancer 67, 588–595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gallinger, S.

R. M. Reilly, J. Sandhu, T. M. Alvarez-Diez, S. Gallinger, J. Kirsh, H. Stern, “Problems of delivery of monoclonal antibodies. Pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic solutions,” Clin. Pharmacokinet. 28, 126–142 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillies, R.

R. Bachor, C. R. Shea, R. Gillies, T. Hasan, “Photosensitized destruction of human bladder carcinoma cells treated with chlorin e6-conjugated microspheres,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 1580–1584 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glatstein, E.

T. F. DeLaney, W. F. Sindelar, Z. Tochner, P. D. Smith, W. S. Friauf, G. Thomas, L. Dachowski, J. W. Cole, S. M. Steinberg, E. Glatstein, “Phase I study of debulking surgery and photodynamic therapy for disseminated intraperitoneal tumors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 25, 445–457 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goff, B. A.

B. A. Goff, J. Blake, M. P. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Treatment of ovarian cancer with photodynamic therapy and immunoconjugates in a murine ovarian cancer model,” Br. J. Cancer 74, 1194–1198 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Goff, U. Hermanto, J. Rumbaugh, J. Blake, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Photoimmunotherapy and biodistribution with an OC125-chlorin immunoconjugate in an in vivo murine ovarian cancer model,” Br. J. Cancer 70, 474–480 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Goff, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Photoimmunotherapy of human ovarian carcinoma cells ex vivo,” Cancer Res. 51, 4762–4767 (1991).
[PubMed]

Gomer, C. J.

A. M. Fisher, A. L. Murphree, C. J. Gomer, “Clinical and preclinical photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 2–31 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffiths, T. C.

H. J. Haisma, K. R. Moseley, A. Battaile, T. C. Griffiths, R. C. Knapp, “Distribution and pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody OC 125 after intravenous and intraperitoneal administration in gynecologic tumors,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159, 843–848 (1988).
[PubMed]

Gulfo, J. V.

R. T. Maguire, V. L. Pascucci, A. N. Maroli, J. V. Gulfo, “Immunoscintigraphy in patients with colorectal, ovarian, and prostate cancer. Results with site-specific immunoconjugates,” Cancer 72, 3453–3462 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutowski, M. C.

D. A. Johnson, S. L. Briggs, M. C. Gutowski, R. Barton, “Anti-tumor activity of CC49-doxorubicin immunoconjugates,” Anticancer Res. 15, 1387–1393 (1995).
[PubMed]

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H. J. Haisma, K. R. Moseley, A. Battaile, T. C. Griffiths, R. C. Knapp, “Distribution and pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody OC 125 after intravenous and intraperitoneal administration in gynecologic tumors,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159, 843–848 (1988).
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N. S. Soukos, M. R. Hamblin, T. Hasan, “The effect of charge on cellular uptake and phototoxicity of polylysine chlorin(e6) conjugates,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 723–729 (1997).
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L. R. Duska, M. R. Hamblin, M. P. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Biodistribution of charged F(ab′)2 photoimmunoconjugates in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer,” Br. J. Cancer 75, 837–844 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Molpus, D. Kato, M. R. Hamblin, L. Lilge, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy of human epithelial ovarian carcinomatosis in a xenograft murine model,” Cancer Res. 56, 1075–1082 (1996).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hamblin, J. L. Miller, T. Hasan, “The effect of charge on the interaction of site-specific photoimmunoconjugates with human ovarian cancer cells,” Cancer Res. 56, 5205–5210 (1996).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hamblin, E. L. Newman, “Photosensitizer targeting in photodynamic therapy. II. Conjugates of haematoporphyrin with serum lipoproteins,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 26, 147–157 (1994).
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J. A. Buczek-Thomas, N. Chen, T. Hasan, “Integrin-mediated adhesion and signalling in ovarian cancer cells,” Cell. Signal. 10, 55–63 (1998).
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N. S. Soukos, M. R. Hamblin, T. Hasan, “The effect of charge on cellular uptake and phototoxicity of polylysine chlorin(e6) conjugates,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 723–729 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Duska, M. R. Hamblin, M. P. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Biodistribution of charged F(ab′)2 photoimmunoconjugates in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer,” Br. J. Cancer 75, 837–844 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Goff, J. Blake, M. P. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Treatment of ovarian cancer with photodynamic therapy and immunoconjugates in a murine ovarian cancer model,” Br. J. Cancer 74, 1194–1198 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Molpus, D. Koelliker, L. Atkins, D. Kato, J. Buczek-Thomas, A. F. J. Fuller, T. Hasan, “Characterization of a xenograft model of human ovarian carcinoma which produces intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and metastases in mice,” Int. J. Cancer 67, 588–595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Molpus, D. Kato, M. R. Hamblin, L. Lilge, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy of human epithelial ovarian carcinomatosis in a xenograft murine model,” Cancer Res. 56, 1075–1082 (1996).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hamblin, J. L. Miller, T. Hasan, “The effect of charge on the interaction of site-specific photoimmunoconjugates with human ovarian cancer cells,” Cancer Res. 56, 5205–5210 (1996).
[PubMed]

B. A. Goff, U. Hermanto, J. Rumbaugh, J. Blake, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Photoimmunotherapy and biodistribution with an OC125-chlorin immunoconjugate in an in vivo murine ovarian cancer model,” Br. J. Cancer 70, 474–480 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bachor, C. R. Shea, R. Gillies, T. Hasan, “Photosensitized destruction of human bladder carcinoma cells treated with chlorin e6-conjugated microspheres,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 1580–1584 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Goff, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Photoimmunotherapy of human ovarian carcinoma cells ex vivo,” Cancer Res. 51, 4762–4767 (1991).
[PubMed]

T. Hasan, J. A. Parrish, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer,” in Cancer Medicine, 4th ed. Vol. 1, J. F. Holland, E. Frei, R. C. Bast, D. W. Kufe, D. L. Morton, R. R. Weichselbaum, eds. (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, 1996), pp. 739–751.

T. Hasan, “Photosensitizer delivery mediated by macromolecular carrier systems,” in Photodynamic Therapy: Basic Principles and Clinical Applications, B. Henderson, T. Dougherty, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1992), pp. 187–200.

Helmerhorst, T. J.

R. B. Veenhuizen, M. C. Ruevekamp, H. Oppelaar, B. Ransdorp, M. van de Vijver, T. J. Helmerhorst, P. Kenemans, F. A. Stewart, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy: comparison of red and green light distribution and toxicity,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 389–395 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Veenhuizen, M. C. Ruevekamp-Helmers, T. J. Helmerhorst, P. Kenemans, W. J. Mooi, J. P. Marijnissen, F. A. Stewart, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy in the rat: comparison of toxicity profiles for photofrin and MTHPC,” Int. J. Cancer 59, 830–836 (1994).
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B. W. Henderson, T. J. Dougherty, “How does photodynamic therapy work?” Photochem. Photobiol. 55, 145–157 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. A. Goff, U. Hermanto, J. Rumbaugh, J. Blake, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Photoimmunotherapy and biodistribution with an OC125-chlorin immunoconjugate in an in vivo murine ovarian cancer model,” Br. J. Cancer 70, 474–480 (1994).
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L. L. Houston, “Targeted delivery of toxins and enzymes by antibodies and growth factors,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 4, 739–744 (1993).
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E. Larson, B. Howlett, A. Jagendorf, “Artificial reductant enhancement of the Lowry method for protein determination,” Anal. Biochem. 155, 243–248 (1986).
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G. B. Sivolapenko, V. Douli, D. Pectasides, D. Skarlos, G. Sirmalis, R. Hussain, J. Cook, N. S. Courtenay-Luck, E. Merkouri, K. Konstantinides, A. A. Epenetos, “Breast cancer imaging with radiolabelled peptide from complementarily-determining region of antitumour antibody,” Lancet 346, 1662–1666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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E. Larson, B. Howlett, A. Jagendorf, “Artificial reductant enhancement of the Lowry method for protein determination,” Anal. Biochem. 155, 243–248 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, A. K.

A. M. Richter, E. Waterfield, A. K. Jain, A. J. Canaan, B. A. Allison, J. G. Levy, “Liposomal delivery of a photosensitizer, benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD), to tumor tissue in a mouse tumor model,” Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 1000–1006 (1993).
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M. A. Clauss, R. K. Jain, “Interstitial transport of rabbit and sheep antibodies in normal and neoplastic tissues,” Cancer Res. 50, 3487–3492 (1990).
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T. V. Akhlynina, D. A. Jans, A. A. Rosenkranz, N. V. Statsyuk, I. Y. Balashova, G. Toth, I. Pavo, A. B. Rubin, A. S. Sobolev, “Nuclear targeting of chlorin e6 enhances its photosensitizing activity,” J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20328–20331 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, D. A.

D. A. Johnson, S. L. Briggs, M. C. Gutowski, R. Barton, “Anti-tumor activity of CC49-doxorubicin immunoconjugates,” Anticancer Res. 15, 1387–1393 (1995).
[PubMed]

Kato, D.

K. L. Molpus, D. Kato, M. R. Hamblin, L. Lilge, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy of human epithelial ovarian carcinomatosis in a xenograft murine model,” Cancer Res. 56, 1075–1082 (1996).
[PubMed]

K. L. Molpus, D. Koelliker, L. Atkins, D. Kato, J. Buczek-Thomas, A. F. J. Fuller, T. Hasan, “Characterization of a xenograft model of human ovarian carcinoma which produces intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and metastases in mice,” Int. J. Cancer 67, 588–595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kenemans, P.

R. B. Veenhuizen, M. C. Ruevekamp, H. Oppelaar, B. Ransdorp, M. van de Vijver, T. J. Helmerhorst, P. Kenemans, F. A. Stewart, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy: comparison of red and green light distribution and toxicity,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 389–395 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Veenhuizen, M. C. Ruevekamp-Helmers, T. J. Helmerhorst, P. Kenemans, W. J. Mooi, J. P. Marijnissen, F. A. Stewart, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy in the rat: comparison of toxicity profiles for photofrin and MTHPC,” Int. J. Cancer 59, 830–836 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirsh, J.

R. M. Reilly, J. Sandhu, T. M. Alvarez-Diez, S. Gallinger, J. Kirsh, H. Stern, “Problems of delivery of monoclonal antibodies. Pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic solutions,” Clin. Pharmacokinet. 28, 126–142 (1995).
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T. M. Behr, W. S. Becker, M. W. Klein, H. J. Bair, J. R. Scheele, F. G. Wolf, “Diagnostic accuracy and tumor-targeting kinetics of complete versus fragmented 99mTc-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies: an intraindividual comparison,” Cancer Res. 55, 5786s–5793s (1995).
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Klug, T. L.

H. M. Davis, V. R. Zurawski, R. C. Bast, T. L. Klug, “Characterization of the CA 125 antigen associated with human epithelial ovarian carcinomas,” Cancer Res. 46, 6143–6148 (1986).
[PubMed]

Knapp, R. C.

H. J. Haisma, K. R. Moseley, A. Battaile, T. C. Griffiths, R. C. Knapp, “Distribution and pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody OC 125 after intravenous and intraperitoneal administration in gynecologic tumors,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159, 843–848 (1988).
[PubMed]

Koelliker, D.

K. L. Molpus, D. Koelliker, L. Atkins, D. Kato, J. Buczek-Thomas, A. F. J. Fuller, T. Hasan, “Characterization of a xenograft model of human ovarian carcinoma which produces intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and metastases in mice,” Int. J. Cancer 67, 588–595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Konstantinides, K.

G. B. Sivolapenko, V. Douli, D. Pectasides, D. Skarlos, G. Sirmalis, R. Hussain, J. Cook, N. S. Courtenay-Luck, E. Merkouri, K. Konstantinides, A. A. Epenetos, “Breast cancer imaging with radiolabelled peptide from complementarily-determining region of antitumour antibody,” Lancet 346, 1662–1666 (1995).
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D. J. Buchsbaum, V. K. Langmuir, B. W. Wessels, “Experimental radioimmunotherapy,” Med. Phys. 20, 551–567 (1993).
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Larson, E.

E. Larson, B. Howlett, A. Jagendorf, “Artificial reductant enhancement of the Lowry method for protein determination,” Anal. Biochem. 155, 243–248 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. W. Cobb, C. F. LeMaistre, “Therapeutic use of immunotoxins,” Semin. Hematol. 29, 6–13 (1992).
[PubMed]

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A. M. Richter, E. Waterfield, A. K. Jain, A. J. Canaan, B. A. Allison, J. G. Levy, “Liposomal delivery of a photosensitizer, benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD), to tumor tissue in a mouse tumor model,” Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 1000–1006 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lilge, L.

K. L. Molpus, D. Kato, M. R. Hamblin, L. Lilge, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy of human epithelial ovarian carcinomatosis in a xenograft murine model,” Cancer Res. 56, 1075–1082 (1996).
[PubMed]

Maguire, R. T.

R. T. Maguire, V. L. Pascucci, A. N. Maroli, J. V. Gulfo, “Immunoscintigraphy in patients with colorectal, ovarian, and prostate cancer. Results with site-specific immunoconjugates,” Cancer 72, 3453–3462 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marijnissen, J. P.

R. B. Veenhuizen, M. C. Ruevekamp-Helmers, T. J. Helmerhorst, P. Kenemans, W. J. Mooi, J. P. Marijnissen, F. A. Stewart, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy in the rat: comparison of toxicity profiles for photofrin and MTHPC,” Int. J. Cancer 59, 830–836 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maroli, A. N.

R. T. Maguire, V. L. Pascucci, A. N. Maroli, J. V. Gulfo, “Immunoscintigraphy in patients with colorectal, ovarian, and prostate cancer. Results with site-specific immunoconjugates,” Cancer 72, 3453–3462 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merkouri, E.

G. B. Sivolapenko, V. Douli, D. Pectasides, D. Skarlos, G. Sirmalis, R. Hussain, J. Cook, N. S. Courtenay-Luck, E. Merkouri, K. Konstantinides, A. A. Epenetos, “Breast cancer imaging with radiolabelled peptide from complementarily-determining region of antitumour antibody,” Lancet 346, 1662–1666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. L.

M. R. Hamblin, J. L. Miller, T. Hasan, “The effect of charge on the interaction of site-specific photoimmunoconjugates with human ovarian cancer cells,” Cancer Res. 56, 5205–5210 (1996).
[PubMed]

Molpus, K. L.

K. L. Molpus, D. Kato, M. R. Hamblin, L. Lilge, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy of human epithelial ovarian carcinomatosis in a xenograft murine model,” Cancer Res. 56, 1075–1082 (1996).
[PubMed]

K. L. Molpus, D. Koelliker, L. Atkins, D. Kato, J. Buczek-Thomas, A. F. J. Fuller, T. Hasan, “Characterization of a xenograft model of human ovarian carcinoma which produces intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and metastases in mice,” Int. J. Cancer 67, 588–595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mooi, W. J.

R. B. Veenhuizen, M. C. Ruevekamp-Helmers, T. J. Helmerhorst, P. Kenemans, W. J. Mooi, J. P. Marijnissen, F. A. Stewart, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy in the rat: comparison of toxicity profiles for photofrin and MTHPC,” Int. J. Cancer 59, 830–836 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moseley, K. R.

H. J. Haisma, K. R. Moseley, A. Battaile, T. C. Griffiths, R. C. Knapp, “Distribution and pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody OC 125 after intravenous and intraperitoneal administration in gynecologic tumors,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159, 843–848 (1988).
[PubMed]

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T. Mosmann, “Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays,” J. Immunol. Methods. 65, 55–63 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. M. Fisher, A. L. Murphree, C. J. Gomer, “Clinical and preclinical photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 2–31 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newman, E. L.

M. R. Hamblin, E. L. Newman, “Photosensitizer targeting in photodynamic therapy. II. Conjugates of haematoporphyrin with serum lipoproteins,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 26, 147–157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oppelaar, H.

R. B. Veenhuizen, M. C. Ruevekamp, H. Oppelaar, B. Ransdorp, M. van de Vijver, T. J. Helmerhorst, P. Kenemans, F. A. Stewart, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy: comparison of red and green light distribution and toxicity,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 389–395 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parrish, J. A.

T. Hasan, J. A. Parrish, “Photodynamic therapy of cancer,” in Cancer Medicine, 4th ed. Vol. 1, J. F. Holland, E. Frei, R. C. Bast, D. W. Kufe, D. L. Morton, R. R. Weichselbaum, eds. (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, 1996), pp. 739–751.

Pascucci, V. L.

R. T. Maguire, V. L. Pascucci, A. N. Maroli, J. V. Gulfo, “Immunoscintigraphy in patients with colorectal, ovarian, and prostate cancer. Results with site-specific immunoconjugates,” Cancer 72, 3453–3462 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavo, I.

T. V. Akhlynina, D. A. Jans, A. A. Rosenkranz, N. V. Statsyuk, I. Y. Balashova, G. Toth, I. Pavo, A. B. Rubin, A. S. Sobolev, “Nuclear targeting of chlorin e6 enhances its photosensitizing activity,” J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20328–20331 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pectasides, D.

G. B. Sivolapenko, V. Douli, D. Pectasides, D. Skarlos, G. Sirmalis, R. Hussain, J. Cook, N. S. Courtenay-Luck, E. Merkouri, K. Konstantinides, A. A. Epenetos, “Breast cancer imaging with radiolabelled peptide from complementarily-determining region of antitumour antibody,” Lancet 346, 1662–1666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rakestraw, S. L.

M. L. Yarmush, W. P. Thorpe, L. Strong, S. L. Rakestraw, M. Toner, R. G. Tompkins, “Antibody targeted photolysis,” Crit. Rev. Ther. Drug Carrier Syst. 10, 197–252 (1993).
[PubMed]

Ransdorp, B.

R. B. Veenhuizen, M. C. Ruevekamp, H. Oppelaar, B. Ransdorp, M. van de Vijver, T. J. Helmerhorst, P. Kenemans, F. A. Stewart, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy: comparison of red and green light distribution and toxicity,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 389–395 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reilly, R. M.

R. M. Reilly, J. Sandhu, T. M. Alvarez-Diez, S. Gallinger, J. Kirsh, H. Stern, “Problems of delivery of monoclonal antibodies. Pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic solutions,” Clin. Pharmacokinet. 28, 126–142 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, A. M.

A. M. Richter, E. Waterfield, A. K. Jain, A. J. Canaan, B. A. Allison, J. G. Levy, “Liposomal delivery of a photosensitizer, benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD), to tumor tissue in a mouse tumor model,” Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 1000–1006 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenkranz, A. A.

T. V. Akhlynina, D. A. Jans, A. A. Rosenkranz, N. V. Statsyuk, I. Y. Balashova, G. Toth, I. Pavo, A. B. Rubin, A. S. Sobolev, “Nuclear targeting of chlorin e6 enhances its photosensitizing activity,” J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20328–20331 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubin, A. B.

T. V. Akhlynina, D. A. Jans, A. A. Rosenkranz, N. V. Statsyuk, I. Y. Balashova, G. Toth, I. Pavo, A. B. Rubin, A. S. Sobolev, “Nuclear targeting of chlorin e6 enhances its photosensitizing activity,” J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20328–20331 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruevekamp, M. C.

R. B. Veenhuizen, M. C. Ruevekamp, H. Oppelaar, B. Ransdorp, M. van de Vijver, T. J. Helmerhorst, P. Kenemans, F. A. Stewart, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy: comparison of red and green light distribution and toxicity,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 389–395 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruevekamp-Helmers, M. C.

R. B. Veenhuizen, M. C. Ruevekamp-Helmers, T. J. Helmerhorst, P. Kenemans, W. J. Mooi, J. P. Marijnissen, F. A. Stewart, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy in the rat: comparison of toxicity profiles for photofrin and MTHPC,” Int. J. Cancer 59, 830–836 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rumbaugh, J.

B. A. Goff, U. Hermanto, J. Rumbaugh, J. Blake, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Photoimmunotherapy and biodistribution with an OC125-chlorin immunoconjugate in an in vivo murine ovarian cancer model,” Br. J. Cancer 70, 474–480 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandhu, J.

R. M. Reilly, J. Sandhu, T. M. Alvarez-Diez, S. Gallinger, J. Kirsh, H. Stern, “Problems of delivery of monoclonal antibodies. Pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic solutions,” Clin. Pharmacokinet. 28, 126–142 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheele, J. R.

T. M. Behr, W. S. Becker, M. W. Klein, H. J. Bair, J. R. Scheele, F. G. Wolf, “Diagnostic accuracy and tumor-targeting kinetics of complete versus fragmented 99mTc-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies: an intraindividual comparison,” Cancer Res. 55, 5786s–5793s (1995).
[PubMed]

Shea, C. R.

R. Bachor, C. R. Shea, R. Gillies, T. Hasan, “Photosensitized destruction of human bladder carcinoma cells treated with chlorin e6-conjugated microspheres,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 1580–1584 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sindelar, W. F.

T. F. DeLaney, W. F. Sindelar, Z. Tochner, P. D. Smith, W. S. Friauf, G. Thomas, L. Dachowski, J. W. Cole, S. M. Steinberg, E. Glatstein, “Phase I study of debulking surgery and photodynamic therapy for disseminated intraperitoneal tumors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 25, 445–457 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirmalis, G.

G. B. Sivolapenko, V. Douli, D. Pectasides, D. Skarlos, G. Sirmalis, R. Hussain, J. Cook, N. S. Courtenay-Luck, E. Merkouri, K. Konstantinides, A. A. Epenetos, “Breast cancer imaging with radiolabelled peptide from complementarily-determining region of antitumour antibody,” Lancet 346, 1662–1666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sivolapenko, G. B.

G. B. Sivolapenko, V. Douli, D. Pectasides, D. Skarlos, G. Sirmalis, R. Hussain, J. Cook, N. S. Courtenay-Luck, E. Merkouri, K. Konstantinides, A. A. Epenetos, “Breast cancer imaging with radiolabelled peptide from complementarily-determining region of antitumour antibody,” Lancet 346, 1662–1666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Skarlos, D.

G. B. Sivolapenko, V. Douli, D. Pectasides, D. Skarlos, G. Sirmalis, R. Hussain, J. Cook, N. S. Courtenay-Luck, E. Merkouri, K. Konstantinides, A. A. Epenetos, “Breast cancer imaging with radiolabelled peptide from complementarily-determining region of antitumour antibody,” Lancet 346, 1662–1666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. D.

T. F. DeLaney, W. F. Sindelar, Z. Tochner, P. D. Smith, W. S. Friauf, G. Thomas, L. Dachowski, J. W. Cole, S. M. Steinberg, E. Glatstein, “Phase I study of debulking surgery and photodynamic therapy for disseminated intraperitoneal tumors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 25, 445–457 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sobolev, A. S.

T. V. Akhlynina, D. A. Jans, A. A. Rosenkranz, N. V. Statsyuk, I. Y. Balashova, G. Toth, I. Pavo, A. B. Rubin, A. S. Sobolev, “Nuclear targeting of chlorin e6 enhances its photosensitizing activity,” J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20328–20331 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukos, N. S.

N. S. Soukos, M. R. Hamblin, T. Hasan, “The effect of charge on cellular uptake and phototoxicity of polylysine chlorin(e6) conjugates,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 723–729 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Statsyuk, N. V.

T. V. Akhlynina, D. A. Jans, A. A. Rosenkranz, N. V. Statsyuk, I. Y. Balashova, G. Toth, I. Pavo, A. B. Rubin, A. S. Sobolev, “Nuclear targeting of chlorin e6 enhances its photosensitizing activity,” J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20328–20331 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinberg, S. M.

T. F. DeLaney, W. F. Sindelar, Z. Tochner, P. D. Smith, W. S. Friauf, G. Thomas, L. Dachowski, J. W. Cole, S. M. Steinberg, E. Glatstein, “Phase I study of debulking surgery and photodynamic therapy for disseminated intraperitoneal tumors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 25, 445–457 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stern, H.

R. M. Reilly, J. Sandhu, T. M. Alvarez-Diez, S. Gallinger, J. Kirsh, H. Stern, “Problems of delivery of monoclonal antibodies. Pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic solutions,” Clin. Pharmacokinet. 28, 126–142 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, F. A.

R. B. Veenhuizen, M. C. Ruevekamp, H. Oppelaar, B. Ransdorp, M. van de Vijver, T. J. Helmerhorst, P. Kenemans, F. A. Stewart, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy: comparison of red and green light distribution and toxicity,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 389–395 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Veenhuizen, M. C. Ruevekamp-Helmers, T. J. Helmerhorst, P. Kenemans, W. J. Mooi, J. P. Marijnissen, F. A. Stewart, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy in the rat: comparison of toxicity profiles for photofrin and MTHPC,” Int. J. Cancer 59, 830–836 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strong, L.

M. L. Yarmush, W. P. Thorpe, L. Strong, S. L. Rakestraw, M. Toner, R. G. Tompkins, “Antibody targeted photolysis,” Crit. Rev. Ther. Drug Carrier Syst. 10, 197–252 (1993).
[PubMed]

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T. F. DeLaney, W. F. Sindelar, Z. Tochner, P. D. Smith, W. S. Friauf, G. Thomas, L. Dachowski, J. W. Cole, S. M. Steinberg, E. Glatstein, “Phase I study of debulking surgery and photodynamic therapy for disseminated intraperitoneal tumors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 25, 445–457 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorpe, W. P.

M. L. Yarmush, W. P. Thorpe, L. Strong, S. L. Rakestraw, M. Toner, R. G. Tompkins, “Antibody targeted photolysis,” Crit. Rev. Ther. Drug Carrier Syst. 10, 197–252 (1993).
[PubMed]

Tochner, Z.

T. F. DeLaney, W. F. Sindelar, Z. Tochner, P. D. Smith, W. S. Friauf, G. Thomas, L. Dachowski, J. W. Cole, S. M. Steinberg, E. Glatstein, “Phase I study of debulking surgery and photodynamic therapy for disseminated intraperitoneal tumors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 25, 445–457 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tompkins, R. G.

M. L. Yarmush, W. P. Thorpe, L. Strong, S. L. Rakestraw, M. Toner, R. G. Tompkins, “Antibody targeted photolysis,” Crit. Rev. Ther. Drug Carrier Syst. 10, 197–252 (1993).
[PubMed]

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M. L. Yarmush, W. P. Thorpe, L. Strong, S. L. Rakestraw, M. Toner, R. G. Tompkins, “Antibody targeted photolysis,” Crit. Rev. Ther. Drug Carrier Syst. 10, 197–252 (1993).
[PubMed]

Toth, G.

T. V. Akhlynina, D. A. Jans, A. A. Rosenkranz, N. V. Statsyuk, I. Y. Balashova, G. Toth, I. Pavo, A. B. Rubin, A. S. Sobolev, “Nuclear targeting of chlorin e6 enhances its photosensitizing activity,” J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20328–20331 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. B. Veenhuizen, M. C. Ruevekamp, H. Oppelaar, B. Ransdorp, M. van de Vijver, T. J. Helmerhorst, P. Kenemans, F. A. Stewart, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy: comparison of red and green light distribution and toxicity,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 389–395 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veenhuizen, R. B.

R. B. Veenhuizen, M. C. Ruevekamp, H. Oppelaar, B. Ransdorp, M. van de Vijver, T. J. Helmerhorst, P. Kenemans, F. A. Stewart, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy: comparison of red and green light distribution and toxicity,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 389–395 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Veenhuizen, M. C. Ruevekamp-Helmers, T. J. Helmerhorst, P. Kenemans, W. J. Mooi, J. P. Marijnissen, F. A. Stewart, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy in the rat: comparison of toxicity profiles for photofrin and MTHPC,” Int. J. Cancer 59, 830–836 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waterfield, E.

A. M. Richter, E. Waterfield, A. K. Jain, A. J. Canaan, B. A. Allison, J. G. Levy, “Liposomal delivery of a photosensitizer, benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD), to tumor tissue in a mouse tumor model,” Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 1000–1006 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. J. Buchsbaum, V. K. Langmuir, B. W. Wessels, “Experimental radioimmunotherapy,” Med. Phys. 20, 551–567 (1993).
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T. M. Behr, W. S. Becker, M. W. Klein, H. J. Bair, J. R. Scheele, F. G. Wolf, “Diagnostic accuracy and tumor-targeting kinetics of complete versus fragmented 99mTc-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies: an intraindividual comparison,” Cancer Res. 55, 5786s–5793s (1995).
[PubMed]

Yarmush, M. L.

M. L. Yarmush, W. P. Thorpe, L. Strong, S. L. Rakestraw, M. Toner, R. G. Tompkins, “Antibody targeted photolysis,” Crit. Rev. Ther. Drug Carrier Syst. 10, 197–252 (1993).
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S. P. Creekmore, D. S. Zaharko, “Modification of chemotherapeutic effects on L1210 cells using hematoporphyrin and light,” Cancer Res. 43, 5252–5257 (1983).
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Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.

H. J. Haisma, K. R. Moseley, A. Battaile, T. C. Griffiths, R. C. Knapp, “Distribution and pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody OC 125 after intravenous and intraperitoneal administration in gynecologic tumors,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159, 843–848 (1988).
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D. A. Johnson, S. L. Briggs, M. C. Gutowski, R. Barton, “Anti-tumor activity of CC49-doxorubicin immunoconjugates,” Anticancer Res. 15, 1387–1393 (1995).
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Br. J. Cancer

L. R. Duska, M. R. Hamblin, M. P. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Biodistribution of charged F(ab′)2 photoimmunoconjugates in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer,” Br. J. Cancer 75, 837–844 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Goff, U. Hermanto, J. Rumbaugh, J. Blake, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Photoimmunotherapy and biodistribution with an OC125-chlorin immunoconjugate in an in vivo murine ovarian cancer model,” Br. J. Cancer 70, 474–480 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Goff, J. Blake, M. P. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Treatment of ovarian cancer with photodynamic therapy and immunoconjugates in a murine ovarian cancer model,” Br. J. Cancer 74, 1194–1198 (1996).
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Cancer

R. T. Maguire, V. L. Pascucci, A. N. Maroli, J. V. Gulfo, “Immunoscintigraphy in patients with colorectal, ovarian, and prostate cancer. Results with site-specific immunoconjugates,” Cancer 72, 3453–3462 (1993).
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[PubMed]

H. M. Davis, V. R. Zurawski, R. C. Bast, T. L. Klug, “Characterization of the CA 125 antigen associated with human epithelial ovarian carcinomas,” Cancer Res. 46, 6143–6148 (1986).
[PubMed]

T. M. Behr, W. S. Becker, M. W. Klein, H. J. Bair, J. R. Scheele, F. G. Wolf, “Diagnostic accuracy and tumor-targeting kinetics of complete versus fragmented 99mTc-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies: an intraindividual comparison,” Cancer Res. 55, 5786s–5793s (1995).
[PubMed]

S. P. Creekmore, D. S. Zaharko, “Modification of chemotherapeutic effects on L1210 cells using hematoporphyrin and light,” Cancer Res. 43, 5252–5257 (1983).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hamblin, J. L. Miller, T. Hasan, “The effect of charge on the interaction of site-specific photoimmunoconjugates with human ovarian cancer cells,” Cancer Res. 56, 5205–5210 (1996).
[PubMed]

K. L. Molpus, D. Kato, M. R. Hamblin, L. Lilge, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy of human epithelial ovarian carcinomatosis in a xenograft murine model,” Cancer Res. 56, 1075–1082 (1996).
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B. A. Goff, M. Bamberg, T. Hasan, “Photoimmunotherapy of human ovarian carcinoma cells ex vivo,” Cancer Res. 51, 4762–4767 (1991).
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Cell. Signal.

J. A. Buczek-Thomas, N. Chen, T. Hasan, “Integrin-mediated adhesion and signalling in ovarian cancer cells,” Cell. Signal. 10, 55–63 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Pharmacokinet.

R. M. Reilly, J. Sandhu, T. M. Alvarez-Diez, S. Gallinger, J. Kirsh, H. Stern, “Problems of delivery of monoclonal antibodies. Pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic solutions,” Clin. Pharmacokinet. 28, 126–142 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crit. Rev. Ther. Drug Carrier Syst.

M. L. Yarmush, W. P. Thorpe, L. Strong, S. L. Rakestraw, M. Toner, R. G. Tompkins, “Antibody targeted photolysis,” Crit. Rev. Ther. Drug Carrier Syst. 10, 197–252 (1993).
[PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.

L. L. Houston, “Targeted delivery of toxins and enzymes by antibodies and growth factors,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 4, 739–744 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Cancer

K. L. Molpus, D. Koelliker, L. Atkins, D. Kato, J. Buczek-Thomas, A. F. J. Fuller, T. Hasan, “Characterization of a xenograft model of human ovarian carcinoma which produces intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and metastases in mice,” Int. J. Cancer 67, 588–595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Veenhuizen, M. C. Ruevekamp-Helmers, T. J. Helmerhorst, P. Kenemans, W. J. Mooi, J. P. Marijnissen, F. A. Stewart, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy in the rat: comparison of toxicity profiles for photofrin and MTHPC,” Int. J. Cancer 59, 830–836 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.

T. F. DeLaney, W. F. Sindelar, Z. Tochner, P. D. Smith, W. S. Friauf, G. Thomas, L. Dachowski, J. W. Cole, S. M. Steinberg, E. Glatstein, “Phase I study of debulking surgery and photodynamic therapy for disseminated intraperitoneal tumors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 25, 445–457 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biol. Chem.

T. V. Akhlynina, D. A. Jans, A. A. Rosenkranz, N. V. Statsyuk, I. Y. Balashova, G. Toth, I. Pavo, A. B. Rubin, A. S. Sobolev, “Nuclear targeting of chlorin e6 enhances its photosensitizing activity,” J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20328–20331 (1997).
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M. R. Hamblin, E. L. Newman, “Photosensitizer targeting in photodynamic therapy. II. Conjugates of haematoporphyrin with serum lipoproteins,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 26, 147–157 (1994).
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Lancet

G. B. Sivolapenko, V. Douli, D. Pectasides, D. Skarlos, G. Sirmalis, R. Hussain, J. Cook, N. S. Courtenay-Luck, E. Merkouri, K. Konstantinides, A. A. Epenetos, “Breast cancer imaging with radiolabelled peptide from complementarily-determining region of antitumour antibody,” Lancet 346, 1662–1666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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A. M. Fisher, A. L. Murphree, C. J. Gomer, “Clinical and preclinical photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 2–31 (1995).
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Med. Phys.

D. J. Buchsbaum, V. K. Langmuir, B. W. Wessels, “Experimental radioimmunotherapy,” Med. Phys. 20, 551–567 (1993).
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B. W. Henderson, T. J. Dougherty, “How does photodynamic therapy work?” Photochem. Photobiol. 55, 145–157 (1992).
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A. M. Richter, E. Waterfield, A. K. Jain, A. J. Canaan, B. A. Allison, J. G. Levy, “Liposomal delivery of a photosensitizer, benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD), to tumor tissue in a mouse tumor model,” Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 1000–1006 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. Soukos, M. R. Hamblin, T. Hasan, “The effect of charge on cellular uptake and phototoxicity of polylysine chlorin(e6) conjugates,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 723–729 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Veenhuizen, M. C. Ruevekamp, H. Oppelaar, B. Ransdorp, M. van de Vijver, T. J. Helmerhorst, P. Kenemans, F. A. Stewart, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy: comparison of red and green light distribution and toxicity,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 389–395 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

R. Bachor, C. R. Shea, R. Gillies, T. Hasan, “Photosensitized destruction of human bladder carcinoma cells treated with chlorin e6-conjugated microspheres,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 1580–1584 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. W. Cobb, C. F. LeMaistre, “Therapeutic use of immunotoxins,” Semin. Hematol. 29, 6–13 (1992).
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T. Hasan, “Photosensitizer delivery mediated by macromolecular carrier systems,” in Photodynamic Therapy: Basic Principles and Clinical Applications, B. Henderson, T. Dougherty, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1992), pp. 187–200.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reaction scheme for the preparation of OC125F(ab′)2-pl-HP.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

G200 Sephadex column chromatography of the PIC’s. Fractions (6 ml) were collected and the absorbance was monitored at 280 and 380 nm. (a) OC125F(ab′)2-pl-HP, (b) rabbit IgG-pl-HP.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cellular uptake of the PIC’s. The three cell lines were incubated with the PIC’s measured as micromolar HP equivalent concentration for 3 h at 37 °C in serum-containing medium. Cellular uptake of HP was quantitated with fluorescence spectroscopy and is expressed as nanomole HP eq. per milligram cell protein. Each point is the mean of 6 wells, and bars are standard error of mean (SEM). (a) OC125F(ab′)2-pl-HP, (b) rabbit IgG-pl-HP.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Competition of uptake by unmodified MAb’s. Each cell line was treated with a PIC (1.4 μM HP eq) alone or simultaneously with the PIC (1.4 μM HP eq) and unmodified MAb (fivefold excess) for 2 h. In addition, PIC was added before and after incubation with MAb alone (1 h each). Uptakes of HP were measured as described. Each point is the mean of 3 wells, and bars are SEM. (a) OVCAR-3, (b) OVCAR-5, (c) SW1116.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phototoxicity. Experiments were carried out in 96-well plates, and PIC’s or PS were added at 1.4-μm HP eq. for 3 h followed by delivery of 25 Jcm-2 630-nm light (620 for free HP). Cells were returned to the incubator for 24 h; viability was determined with MTT assay; and cell survival was expressed as a percentage of those incubated with PS in the dark. Each point is the mean of 6 wells, and bars are SEM. (a) OVCAR-3, (b) OVCAR-5, (c) SW1116.

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