Abstract

A measurement of the signal noise was carried out with a shot-per-shot lidar. This system was operated in the UV spectral region for ozone profiling in the low troposphere. We report on important discrepancies between our results and the estimations based on the assumptions commonly supporting the numerical modeling of lidar experiments.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Krieger, Malabar, Fla., 1992).
  2. B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, J. N. Pitts, Atmospheric Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1986).
  3. E. V. Browell, “Lidar measurements of tropospheric gases,” Opt. Eng. 21, 128–132 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Durieux, B. Calpini, A. Clappier, L. Fiorani, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “An innovative high repetition rate shot per shot acquisition system and its application to a new kind of tropospheric lidar measurements,” in Excimer Lasers, L. D. Laude, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 245–267.
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT–TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT–TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2151–2159 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Elbaum, P. Diament, “SNR in photocounting images of rough objects in partially coherent light,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2268–2275 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. S. Khmelevtsov, “Propagation of laser radiation in a turbulent atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2421–2433 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. E. Zuev, “Laser-light transmission through the atmosphere,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 29–69.
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. A. Banakh, V. L. Mironov, Lidar in a Turbulent Atmosphere (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1987).
  11. D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Effect of turbulence-induced correlation on laser remote sensing errors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 968–970 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. F. Holmes, “The effects of target-induced speckle, atmospheric turbulence, and beam pointing jitter on the errors in remote sensing measurements,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), pp. 164–169.
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, C. R. Menyuk, “Error reduction in laser remote sensing: combined effects of cross correlation and signal averaging,” Appl. Opt. 24, 118–131 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. Mégie, R. T. Menzies, “Complementarity of UV and IR differential absorption lidar for global measurements of atmospheric species,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1173–1183 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Maeda, T. Sibata, H. Akiyoshi, “Optimum wavelengths in solar-blind UV ozone lidars,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2843–2846 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Multiwavelength lidar for ozone measurements in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1173–1183 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “Correction scheme for experimental biases in differential absorption lidar tropospheric ozone measurements based on the analysis of shot per shot data samples,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6857–6863 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71–77 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, “Data processing,” in Instrument Development for Atmospheric Research and Monitoring, J. Bösenberg, D. J. Brassington, P. C. Simon, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 89–116.
    [CrossRef]

1998

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT–TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT–TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2151–2159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1990

M. Maeda, T. Sibata, H. Akiyoshi, “Optimum wavelengths in solar-blind UV ozone lidars,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2843–2846 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Multiwavelength lidar for ozone measurements in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1173–1183 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985

1982

E. V. Browell, “Lidar measurements of tropospheric gases,” Opt. Eng. 21, 128–132 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Effect of turbulence-induced correlation on laser remote sensing errors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 968–970 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

1976

1974

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71–77 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

Akiyoshi, H.

M. Maeda, T. Sibata, H. Akiyoshi, “Optimum wavelengths in solar-blind UV ozone lidars,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2843–2846 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ancellet, G.

A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Multiwavelength lidar for ozone measurements in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1173–1183 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Banakh, V. A.

V. A. Banakh, V. L. Mironov, Lidar in a Turbulent Atmosphere (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1987).

Browell, E. V.

E. V. Browell, “Lidar measurements of tropospheric gases,” Opt. Eng. 21, 128–132 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Calpini, B.

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT–TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2151–2159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT–TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “Correction scheme for experimental biases in differential absorption lidar tropospheric ozone measurements based on the analysis of shot per shot data samples,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6857–6863 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Durieux, B. Calpini, A. Clappier, L. Fiorani, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “An innovative high repetition rate shot per shot acquisition system and its application to a new kind of tropospheric lidar measurements,” in Excimer Lasers, L. D. Laude, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 245–267.
[CrossRef]

Clappier, A.

E. Durieux, B. Calpini, A. Clappier, L. Fiorani, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “An innovative high repetition rate shot per shot acquisition system and its application to a new kind of tropospheric lidar measurements,” in Excimer Lasers, L. D. Laude, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 245–267.
[CrossRef]

Diament, P.

Durieux, E.

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT–TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2151–2159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT–TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “Correction scheme for experimental biases in differential absorption lidar tropospheric ozone measurements based on the analysis of shot per shot data samples,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6857–6863 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, “Data processing,” in Instrument Development for Atmospheric Research and Monitoring, J. Bösenberg, D. J. Brassington, P. C. Simon, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 89–116.
[CrossRef]

E. Durieux, B. Calpini, A. Clappier, L. Fiorani, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “An innovative high repetition rate shot per shot acquisition system and its application to a new kind of tropospheric lidar measurements,” in Excimer Lasers, L. D. Laude, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 245–267.
[CrossRef]

Elbaum, M.

Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, J. N. Pitts, Atmospheric Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Fiorani, L.

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT–TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT–TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2151–2159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “Correction scheme for experimental biases in differential absorption lidar tropospheric ozone measurements based on the analysis of shot per shot data samples,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6857–6863 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, “Data processing,” in Instrument Development for Atmospheric Research and Monitoring, J. Bösenberg, D. J. Brassington, P. C. Simon, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 89–116.
[CrossRef]

E. Durieux, B. Calpini, A. Clappier, L. Fiorani, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “An innovative high repetition rate shot per shot acquisition system and its application to a new kind of tropospheric lidar measurements,” in Excimer Lasers, L. D. Laude, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 245–267.
[CrossRef]

Flamm, M.

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT–TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Durieux, B. Calpini, A. Clappier, L. Fiorani, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “An innovative high repetition rate shot per shot acquisition system and its application to a new kind of tropospheric lidar measurements,” in Excimer Lasers, L. D. Laude, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 245–267.
[CrossRef]

Holmes, J. F.

J. F. Holmes, “The effects of target-induced speckle, atmospheric turbulence, and beam pointing jitter on the errors in remote sensing measurements,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), pp. 164–169.
[CrossRef]

Jaquet, L.

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT–TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT–TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2151–2159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “Correction scheme for experimental biases in differential absorption lidar tropospheric ozone measurements based on the analysis of shot per shot data samples,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6857–6863 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Durieux, B. Calpini, A. Clappier, L. Fiorani, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “An innovative high repetition rate shot per shot acquisition system and its application to a new kind of tropospheric lidar measurements,” in Excimer Lasers, L. D. Laude, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 245–267.
[CrossRef]

Khmelevtsov, S. S.

Killinger, D. K.

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, C. R. Menyuk, “Error reduction in laser remote sensing: combined effects of cross correlation and signal averaging,” Appl. Opt. 24, 118–131 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Effect of turbulence-induced correlation on laser remote sensing errors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 968–970 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M.

M. Maeda, T. Sibata, H. Akiyoshi, “Optimum wavelengths in solar-blind UV ozone lidars,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2843–2846 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Krieger, Malabar, Fla., 1992).

Mégie, G.

A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Multiwavelength lidar for ozone measurements in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1173–1183 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Mégie, R. T. Menzies, “Complementarity of UV and IR differential absorption lidar for global measurements of atmospheric species,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1173–1183 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menyuk, C. R.

Menyuk, N.

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, C. R. Menyuk, “Error reduction in laser remote sensing: combined effects of cross correlation and signal averaging,” Appl. Opt. 24, 118–131 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Effect of turbulence-induced correlation on laser remote sensing errors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 968–970 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Menzies, R. T.

Mironov, V. L.

V. A. Banakh, V. L. Mironov, Lidar in a Turbulent Atmosphere (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1987).

Papayannis, A.

A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Multiwavelength lidar for ozone measurements in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1173–1183 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Multiwavelength lidar for ozone measurements in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1173–1183 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, J. N.

B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, J. N. Pitts, Atmospheric Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Schotland, R. M.

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71–77 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sibata, T.

M. Maeda, T. Sibata, H. Akiyoshi, “Optimum wavelengths in solar-blind UV ozone lidars,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2843–2846 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Van den Bergh, H.

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT–TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT–TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2151–2159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “Correction scheme for experimental biases in differential absorption lidar tropospheric ozone measurements based on the analysis of shot per shot data samples,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6857–6863 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Durieux, B. Calpini, A. Clappier, L. Fiorani, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “An innovative high repetition rate shot per shot acquisition system and its application to a new kind of tropospheric lidar measurements,” in Excimer Lasers, L. D. Laude, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 245–267.
[CrossRef]

Zuev, V. E.

V. E. Zuev, “Laser-light transmission through the atmosphere,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 29–69.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Effect of turbulence-induced correlation on laser remote sensing errors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 968–970 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ.

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT–TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT–TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2151–2159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71–77 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Maeda, T. Sibata, H. Akiyoshi, “Optimum wavelengths in solar-blind UV ozone lidars,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2843–2846 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

E. V. Browell, “Lidar measurements of tropospheric gases,” Opt. Eng. 21, 128–132 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. Durieux, B. Calpini, A. Clappier, L. Fiorani, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “An innovative high repetition rate shot per shot acquisition system and its application to a new kind of tropospheric lidar measurements,” in Excimer Lasers, L. D. Laude, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 245–267.
[CrossRef]

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Krieger, Malabar, Fla., 1992).

B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, J. N. Pitts, Atmospheric Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1986).

V. E. Zuev, “Laser-light transmission through the atmosphere,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 29–69.
[CrossRef]

V. A. Banakh, V. L. Mironov, Lidar in a Turbulent Atmosphere (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1987).

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, “Data processing,” in Instrument Development for Atmospheric Research and Monitoring, J. Bösenberg, D. J. Brassington, P. C. Simon, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 89–116.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Holmes, “The effects of target-induced speckle, atmospheric turbulence, and beam pointing jitter on the errors in remote sensing measurements,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), pp. 164–169.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measurement of the noise-to-signal ratio for a typical data acquisition during the MEDCAPHOT–TRACE campaign.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measurements of the s n / n ratio. They were obtained for 11 data acquisitions during the MEDCAPHOT–TRACE campaign. When an unusual PMT (ADC) was used, the corresponding results were marked by a square (triangle). To reduce the complexity of the figure, we drew the error bars for only a set of determinations.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Typical Characteristics and Performances of the EPFL DIAL

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

s n = η λ hc   s W 2 + n + n B + n D 1 / 2 ,
s n n = 1 ,
p R ,   λ = p 0 ζ R ,   λ A R 2   β R ,   λ c τ L 2   ×   exp - 2   0 R   α R ,   λ d R ,
R = ct 2 ,
p = i = 1 N   p i N ,
s p = i = 1 N p i - p 2 N - 1 1 / 2 .
n R ,   λ = n 0 ζ R ,   λ A R 2   β R ,   λ c τ D 2 ×   exp - 2   0 R   α R ,   λ d R ,
p = c pn n ,
s p = c pn s n ,
c pn = p 0 τ L n 0 τ D .
s n n = 1 c pn s p p .
y ln pR 2 a + bR ,
a = ln p 0 ζ A β   c τ L 2 ,
b = - 2 α .
p 0 τ L = 2   exp a ζ A β c ,
n 0 = λ hc   E ,

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