Abstract

We report the passive mode locking of a diode-pumped Cr:forsterite laser using a semiconductor saturable absorber. The laser generates 10-pJ pulses as short as 1.5 ps in duration with ∼650 mW of absorbed pump power. We measured the transient reflectance of the saturable absorber mirror under different incident energy fluences by using a standard pump–probe method. The performance of this laser is also compared with a high-power fiber-laser-pumped femtosecond forsterite laser mode locked with the same absorber.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. M. Evans, V. Petricevic, A. B. Bykov, A. Delgado, R. R. Alfano, “Direct diode-pumped continuous-wave near-infrared tunable laser operation of Cr4+:forsterite and Cr4+:Ca2GeO4,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1171–1173 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Qian, X. Liu, F. Wise, “Cr:forsterite laser pumped by broad-area diodes,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1707–1709 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. C. Collings, J. B. Stark, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, R. Pathak, K. Bergman, “Saturable Bragg reflector self-starting passive mode locking of a Cr4+:YAG laser pumped with a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1171–1173 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. Yanovsky, Y. Pang, F. Wise, B. I. Minkov, “Generation of 25-fs pulses from a self-mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser with optimized group-delay dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1541–1543 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. P. Tong, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, “All-solid-state Kerr lens mode-locked Cr4+:forsterite laser,” Electron. Lett. 32, 737–738 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, T. Nakagawa, “Self-starting mode-locked femtosecond forsterite laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1006–1008 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. X. Liu, L. Qian, F. Wise, T. Sugaya, T. Nakagawa, Z. Zhang, T. Itatani, K. Torizuka, “Femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser diode pumped by a double-clad fiber,” Opt. Lett. 23, 129–131 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bourna, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Xu, W. Denk, “Two-photon optical beam induced current imaging through the backside of integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2578–2580 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, “Analytic theory of additive pulse and Kerr lens mode-locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2086–2096 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. A. Haus, “Parameter ranges for CW passive mode locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 169–176 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Fluck, G. Zhang, U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, M. Moser, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked 1.3-μm Nd:YVO4 and Nd:YLF lasers by use of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1378–1380 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Flunk, C. Honinger, N. Matusckek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, “Pump source requirements for end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 311–316 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Kopf, J. Aus der Au, U. Keller, “400-mW continuous-wave diode-pumped Cr:LiSaF laser based on a power-scalable concept,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1782–1784 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Aus der Au, D. Kopf, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, U. Keller, “60-fs pulses from a diode-pumped Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 307–309 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Honninger, G. Zhang, U. Keller, A. Giesen, “Femtosecond Yb:YAG laser using semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2402–2404 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (6)

1996 (4)

Y. P. Tong, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, “All-solid-state Kerr lens mode-locked Cr4+:forsterite laser,” Electron. Lett. 32, 737–738 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Fluck, G. Zhang, U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, M. Moser, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked 1.3-μm Nd:YVO4 and Nd:YLF lasers by use of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1378–1380 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Flunk, C. Honinger, N. Matusckek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Collings, J. B. Stark, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, R. Pathak, K. Bergman, “Saturable Bragg reflector self-starting passive mode locking of a Cr4+:YAG laser pumped with a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1171–1173 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, “Analytic theory of additive pulse and Kerr lens mode-locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2086–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, “Pump source requirements for end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 311–316 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

H. A. Haus, “Parameter ranges for CW passive mode locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 169–176 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Aus der Au, J.

J. Aus der Au, D. Kopf, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, U. Keller, “60-fs pulses from a diode-pumped Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 307–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Flunk, C. Honinger, N. Matusckek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Kopf, J. Aus der Au, U. Keller, “400-mW continuous-wave diode-pumped Cr:LiSaF laser based on a power-scalable concept,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1782–1784 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, K.

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bourna, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourna, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bourna, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Flunk, C. Honinger, N. Matusckek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bourna, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bykov, A. B.

Collings, B. C.

Cunningham, J. E.

Delgado, A.

Denk, W.

C. Xu, W. Denk, “Two-photon optical beam induced current imaging through the backside of integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2578–2580 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J. M.

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, “Pump source requirements for end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 311–316 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fluck, R.

Flunk, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Flunk, C. Honinger, N. Matusckek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

French, P. M. W.

Y. P. Tong, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, “All-solid-state Kerr lens mode-locked Cr4+:forsterite laser,” Electron. Lett. 32, 737–738 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bourna, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, “Analytic theory of additive pulse and Kerr lens mode-locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2086–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Giesen, A.

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, “Analytic theory of additive pulse and Kerr lens mode-locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2086–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, “Parameter ranges for CW passive mode locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 169–176 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Honinger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Flunk, C. Honinger, N. Matusckek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Honninger, C.

Ippen, E. P.

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, “Analytic theory of additive pulse and Kerr lens mode-locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2086–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Itatani, T.

Jan, W. Y.

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Flunk, C. Honinger, N. Matusckek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Flunk, C. Honinger, N. Matusckek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

Knox, W. H.

Kobayashi, K.

Kopf, D.

J. Aus der Au, D. Kopf, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, U. Keller, “60-fs pulses from a diode-pumped Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 307–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Flunk, C. Honinger, N. Matusckek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Kopf, J. Aus der Au, U. Keller, “400-mW continuous-wave diode-pumped Cr:LiSaF laser based on a power-scalable concept,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1782–1784 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Matusckek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Flunk, C. Honinger, N. Matusckek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Minkov, B. I.

Morier-Genoud, F.

Moser, M.

Nakagawa, T.

Pang, Y.

Pathak, R.

Petricevic, V.

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bourna, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, L.

Sanchez, A.

T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, “Pump source requirements for end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 311–316 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bourna, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stark, J. B.

Sugaya, T.

Taylor, J. R.

Y. P. Tong, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, “All-solid-state Kerr lens mode-locked Cr4+:forsterite laser,” Electron. Lett. 32, 737–738 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bourna, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, Y. P.

Y. P. Tong, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, “All-solid-state Kerr lens mode-locked Cr4+:forsterite laser,” Electron. Lett. 32, 737–738 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Torizuka, K.

Tsuda, S.

Weingarten, K. J.

R. Fluck, G. Zhang, U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, M. Moser, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked 1.3-μm Nd:YVO4 and Nd:YLF lasers by use of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1378–1380 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Flunk, C. Honinger, N. Matusckek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F.

Xu, C.

C. Xu, W. Denk, “Two-photon optical beam induced current imaging through the backside of integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2578–2580 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yanovsky, V.

Zhang, G.

Zhang, Z.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Xu, W. Denk, “Two-photon optical beam induced current imaging through the backside of integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2578–2580 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. P. Tong, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, “All-solid-state Kerr lens mode-locked Cr4+:forsterite laser,” Electron. Lett. 32, 737–738 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, “Analytic theory of additive pulse and Kerr lens mode-locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2086–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, “Parameter ranges for CW passive mode locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 169–176 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, “Pump source requirements for end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 311–316 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Flunk, C. Honinger, N. Matusckek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (10)

D. Kopf, J. Aus der Au, U. Keller, “400-mW continuous-wave diode-pumped Cr:LiSaF laser based on a power-scalable concept,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1782–1784 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aus der Au, D. Kopf, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, U. Keller, “60-fs pulses from a diode-pumped Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 307–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Honninger, G. Zhang, U. Keller, A. Giesen, “Femtosecond Yb:YAG laser using semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2402–2404 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Fluck, G. Zhang, U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, M. Moser, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked 1.3-μm Nd:YVO4 and Nd:YLF lasers by use of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1378–1380 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, T. Nakagawa, “Self-starting mode-locked femtosecond forsterite laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1006–1008 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, L. Qian, F. Wise, T. Sugaya, T. Nakagawa, Z. Zhang, T. Itatani, K. Torizuka, “Femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser diode pumped by a double-clad fiber,” Opt. Lett. 23, 129–131 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Evans, V. Petricevic, A. B. Bykov, A. Delgado, R. R. Alfano, “Direct diode-pumped continuous-wave near-infrared tunable laser operation of Cr4+:forsterite and Cr4+:Ca2GeO4,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1171–1173 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Qian, X. Liu, F. Wise, “Cr:forsterite laser pumped by broad-area diodes,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1707–1709 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Collings, J. B. Stark, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, R. Pathak, K. Bergman, “Saturable Bragg reflector self-starting passive mode locking of a Cr4+:YAG laser pumped with a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1171–1173 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Yanovsky, Y. Pang, F. Wise, B. I. Minkov, “Generation of 25-fs pulses from a self-mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser with optimized group-delay dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1541–1543 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bourna, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the laser resonator: M1–M4, cavity mirrors; M5, output coupler; L1–L4, diffraction-limited collection lenses; AP1, AP2, anamorphic prisms; C1, C2, polarizing beam splitters; L5, L6, pump-beam focusing lenses (76 mm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cr:forsterite laser cw output as a function of absorbed power for 1% and 2% output couplers. The lasing wavelength is 1260 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Structure of the AFPSA mirror.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Typical intensity autocorrelation and (b) power spectrum of the mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transient reflectance of the AFPSA with incident energy fluence of 70 μJ/cm2, measured with 100-MHz pulses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transient reflectance of the AFPSA, measured with 1-kHz pulses, with incident fluence of (a) 70 μJ/cm2, (b) 160 μJ/cm2, (c) 300 μJ/cm2, (d) 500 μJ/cm2. The dashed lines represent the pump pulse profiles.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Typical interferometric autocorrelation and (b) power spectrum of the fiber-laser-pumped Cr:forsterite laser.

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