Abstract

We report a single-mode P-P-p-i-n-N-N GaAs/AlGaAs W waveguide phase modulator with a high phase modulation efficiency and a low propagation loss. The phase modulator with a W-shaped refractive-index profile utilizes a novel epilayer structure to reduce the propagation loss associated with doped layers and to obtain a phase modulation efficiency larger than those of P-i-N double heterostructure modulators. The phase shift and propagation loss were measured with a Fabry–Perot resonance method at 1.31-μm wavelength. A phase modulation efficiency as high as 34.6°/V mm was measured for TE polarized light. Also propagation losses of less than 0.6 dB/cm were achieved. As a result, the W waveguide phase modulator that exhibits a high phase modulation efficiency and a low propagation loss have been experimentally realized for the first time as far as we know.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Mendoza-Alvarez, L. A. Coldren, A. Alping, R. H. Yan, T. Hausken, K. Lee, K. Pedrotti, “Analysis of depletion edge translation lightwave modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 793–808 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Faist, F. K. Reinhart, “Phase modulation in AlGaAs/GaAs double heterostructure. Part I: Theory, Part II: Experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6998–7012 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Buchman, H. Kaufmann, H. Melchior, G. Guekos, “Broadband Y-branch electro-optic GaAs waveguide interferometer for 1.3 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 462–464 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. H. Lin, S. Y. Wang, Y. M. Houng, “GaAs PIN electro-optic travelling-wave modulator at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 22, 934–935 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. J. Deri, E. Kapon, J. P. Harbison, M. Seto, C. P. Yun, L. T. Florez, “Low-loss GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide phase modulator using a W-shaped index profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1803–1805 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. S. Lee, R. V. Ramaswamy, V. S. Sundaram, “Analysis and design of high-speed high-efficiency GaAs-AlGaAs double-heterostructure waveguide phase modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 726–736 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Wakita, O. Motomi, I. Kotaka, S. Nojima, Y. Kawamura, “High-speed electrooptic phase modulators using InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 441–442 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J.-F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailes, M. Erman, P. Jarry, M. Renaud, “InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 63–69 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Faist, F.-K. Reinhart, D. Martin, E. Tuncel, “Orientation dependence of the phase modulation in a p-n junction GaAs/AlxGa1–xAs waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 68–70 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Faist, F.-K. Reinhart, D. Martin, “Comparison of phase modulation of GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructures,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1391–1392 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Alping, X. S. Wu, L. A. Coldren, “Wavelength dependence of high-performance AlGaAs/GaAs waveguide phase modulators,” Electron. Lett. 23, 93–95 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. T. Byun, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, S. S. Choi, T. K. Lim, “Comparison of propagation losses of single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides in a three- and a five-layer structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1051–L1054 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. T. Byun, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, S. S. Choi, T. K. Lim, “Single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs W waveguides with a low propagation loss,” Appl. Opt. 35, 928–933 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. C. Yi, N. Dagli, “Finite-element analysis of valence band structure and optical properties of quantum-wire arrays on vicinal substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 208–218 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. M. Rodgers, M. J. Robertson, A. K. Chaterjee, S. Y. Wong, “High-performance InGaAsP/InP phase modulators for integrated optics,” in Technical Digest of Meeting on Integrated Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), pp. 22–23.
  16. U. Koren, T. L. Koch, H. Presting, B. I. Miller, “InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well waveguide phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 368–370 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. S. Lee, R. V. Ramaswamy, V. S. Sundaram, “Highly efficient separate-confinement PpinN GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1865–1867 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Regner, W. Sohler, “Loss in low finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 143–147 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Takeuchi, K. Oe, “Very low loss GaAs/AlGaAs miniature bending waveguide with curvature radii less than 1 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 87–89 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

Y. T. Byun, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, S. S. Choi, T. K. Lim, “Comparison of propagation losses of single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides in a three- and a five-layer structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1051–L1054 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Yi, N. Dagli, “Finite-element analysis of valence band structure and optical properties of quantum-wire arrays on vicinal substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 208–218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J.-F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailes, M. Erman, P. Jarry, M. Renaud, “InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 63–69 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. S. Lee, R. V. Ramaswamy, V. S. Sundaram, “Analysis and design of high-speed high-efficiency GaAs-AlGaAs double-heterostructure waveguide phase modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 726–736 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. Faist, F. K. Reinhart, “Phase modulation in AlGaAs/GaAs double heterostructure. Part I: Theory, Part II: Experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6998–7012 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

K. Wakita, O. Motomi, I. Kotaka, S. Nojima, Y. Kawamura, “High-speed electrooptic phase modulators using InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 441–442 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lee, R. V. Ramaswamy, V. S. Sundaram, “Highly efficient separate-confinement PpinN GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1865–1867 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Takeuchi, K. Oe, “Very low loss GaAs/AlGaAs miniature bending waveguide with curvature radii less than 1 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 87–89 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

R. J. Deri, E. Kapon, J. P. Harbison, M. Seto, C. P. Yun, L. T. Florez, “Low-loss GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide phase modulator using a W-shaped index profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1803–1805 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Mendoza-Alvarez, L. A. Coldren, A. Alping, R. H. Yan, T. Hausken, K. Lee, K. Pedrotti, “Analysis of depletion edge translation lightwave modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 793–808 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (4)

J. Faist, F.-K. Reinhart, D. Martin, E. Tuncel, “Orientation dependence of the phase modulation in a p-n junction GaAs/AlxGa1–xAs waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 68–70 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F.-K. Reinhart, D. Martin, “Comparison of phase modulation of GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructures,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1391–1392 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Alping, X. S. Wu, L. A. Coldren, “Wavelength dependence of high-performance AlGaAs/GaAs waveguide phase modulators,” Electron. Lett. 23, 93–95 (1987).
[CrossRef]

U. Koren, T. L. Koch, H. Presting, B. I. Miller, “InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well waveguide phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 368–370 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

S. H. Lin, S. Y. Wang, Y. M. Houng, “GaAs PIN electro-optic travelling-wave modulator at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 22, 934–935 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

P. Buchman, H. Kaufmann, H. Melchior, G. Guekos, “Broadband Y-branch electro-optic GaAs waveguide interferometer for 1.3 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 462–464 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. Regner, W. Sohler, “Loss in low finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 143–147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Alping, A.

G. Mendoza-Alvarez, L. A. Coldren, A. Alping, R. H. Yan, T. Hausken, K. Lee, K. Pedrotti, “Analysis of depletion edge translation lightwave modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 793–808 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Alping, X. S. Wu, L. A. Coldren, “Wavelength dependence of high-performance AlGaAs/GaAs waveguide phase modulators,” Electron. Lett. 23, 93–95 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Buchman, P.

P. Buchman, H. Kaufmann, H. Melchior, G. Guekos, “Broadband Y-branch electro-optic GaAs waveguide interferometer for 1.3 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 462–464 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Byun, Y. T.

Y. T. Byun, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, S. S. Choi, T. K. Lim, “Single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs W waveguides with a low propagation loss,” Appl. Opt. 35, 928–933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Byun, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, S. S. Choi, T. K. Lim, “Comparison of propagation losses of single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides in a three- and a five-layer structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1051–L1054 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cavailes, J. A.

J.-F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailes, M. Erman, P. Jarry, M. Renaud, “InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 63–69 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chaterjee, A. K.

P. M. Rodgers, M. J. Robertson, A. K. Chaterjee, S. Y. Wong, “High-performance InGaAsP/InP phase modulators for integrated optics,” in Technical Digest of Meeting on Integrated Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), pp. 22–23.

Choi, S. S.

Y. T. Byun, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, S. S. Choi, T. K. Lim, “Single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs W waveguides with a low propagation loss,” Appl. Opt. 35, 928–933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Byun, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, S. S. Choi, T. K. Lim, “Comparison of propagation losses of single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides in a three- and a five-layer structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1051–L1054 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

G. Mendoza-Alvarez, L. A. Coldren, A. Alping, R. H. Yan, T. Hausken, K. Lee, K. Pedrotti, “Analysis of depletion edge translation lightwave modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 793–808 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Alping, X. S. Wu, L. A. Coldren, “Wavelength dependence of high-performance AlGaAs/GaAs waveguide phase modulators,” Electron. Lett. 23, 93–95 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dagli, N.

J. C. Yi, N. Dagli, “Finite-element analysis of valence band structure and optical properties of quantum-wire arrays on vicinal substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 208–218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deri, R. J.

R. J. Deri, E. Kapon, J. P. Harbison, M. Seto, C. P. Yun, L. T. Florez, “Low-loss GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide phase modulator using a W-shaped index profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1803–1805 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Erman, M.

J.-F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailes, M. Erman, P. Jarry, M. Renaud, “InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 63–69 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

J. Faist, F. K. Reinhart, “Phase modulation in AlGaAs/GaAs double heterostructure. Part I: Theory, Part II: Experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6998–7012 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F.-K. Reinhart, D. Martin, E. Tuncel, “Orientation dependence of the phase modulation in a p-n junction GaAs/AlxGa1–xAs waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 68–70 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F.-K. Reinhart, D. Martin, “Comparison of phase modulation of GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructures,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1391–1392 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Florez, L. T.

R. J. Deri, E. Kapon, J. P. Harbison, M. Seto, C. P. Yun, L. T. Florez, “Low-loss GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide phase modulator using a W-shaped index profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1803–1805 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Guekos, G.

P. Buchman, H. Kaufmann, H. Melchior, G. Guekos, “Broadband Y-branch electro-optic GaAs waveguide interferometer for 1.3 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 462–464 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Harbison, J. P.

R. J. Deri, E. Kapon, J. P. Harbison, M. Seto, C. P. Yun, L. T. Florez, “Low-loss GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide phase modulator using a W-shaped index profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1803–1805 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hausken, T.

G. Mendoza-Alvarez, L. A. Coldren, A. Alping, R. H. Yan, T. Hausken, K. Lee, K. Pedrotti, “Analysis of depletion edge translation lightwave modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 793–808 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Houng, Y. M.

S. H. Lin, S. Y. Wang, Y. M. Houng, “GaAs PIN electro-optic travelling-wave modulator at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 22, 934–935 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jarry, P.

J.-F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailes, M. Erman, P. Jarry, M. Renaud, “InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 63–69 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kapon, E.

R. J. Deri, E. Kapon, J. P. Harbison, M. Seto, C. P. Yun, L. T. Florez, “Low-loss GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide phase modulator using a W-shaped index profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1803–1805 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, H.

P. Buchman, H. Kaufmann, H. Melchior, G. Guekos, “Broadband Y-branch electro-optic GaAs waveguide interferometer for 1.3 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 462–464 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, Y.

K. Wakita, O. Motomi, I. Kotaka, S. Nojima, Y. Kawamura, “High-speed electrooptic phase modulators using InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 441–442 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

Y. T. Byun, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, S. S. Choi, T. K. Lim, “Single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs W waveguides with a low propagation loss,” Appl. Opt. 35, 928–933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Byun, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, S. S. Choi, T. K. Lim, “Comparison of propagation losses of single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides in a three- and a five-layer structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1051–L1054 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

U. Koren, T. L. Koch, H. Presting, B. I. Miller, “InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well waveguide phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 368–370 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Koren, U.

U. Koren, T. L. Koch, H. Presting, B. I. Miller, “InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well waveguide phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 368–370 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kotaka, I.

K. Wakita, O. Motomi, I. Kotaka, S. Nojima, Y. Kawamura, “High-speed electrooptic phase modulators using InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 441–442 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

G. Mendoza-Alvarez, L. A. Coldren, A. Alping, R. H. Yan, T. Hausken, K. Lee, K. Pedrotti, “Analysis of depletion edge translation lightwave modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 793–808 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

S. S. Lee, R. V. Ramaswamy, V. S. Sundaram, “Analysis and design of high-speed high-efficiency GaAs-AlGaAs double-heterostructure waveguide phase modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 726–736 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lee, R. V. Ramaswamy, V. S. Sundaram, “Highly efficient separate-confinement PpinN GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1865–1867 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lim, T. K.

Y. T. Byun, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, S. S. Choi, T. K. Lim, “Single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs W waveguides with a low propagation loss,” Appl. Opt. 35, 928–933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Byun, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, S. S. Choi, T. K. Lim, “Comparison of propagation losses of single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides in a three- and a five-layer structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1051–L1054 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

S. H. Lin, S. Y. Wang, Y. M. Houng, “GaAs PIN electro-optic travelling-wave modulator at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 22, 934–935 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Martin, D.

J. Faist, F.-K. Reinhart, D. Martin, “Comparison of phase modulation of GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructures,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1391–1392 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F.-K. Reinhart, D. Martin, E. Tuncel, “Orientation dependence of the phase modulation in a p-n junction GaAs/AlxGa1–xAs waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 68–70 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, H.

P. Buchman, H. Kaufmann, H. Melchior, G. Guekos, “Broadband Y-branch electro-optic GaAs waveguide interferometer for 1.3 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 462–464 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mendoza-Alvarez, G.

G. Mendoza-Alvarez, L. A. Coldren, A. Alping, R. H. Yan, T. Hausken, K. Lee, K. Pedrotti, “Analysis of depletion edge translation lightwave modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 793–808 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Miller, B. I.

U. Koren, T. L. Koch, H. Presting, B. I. Miller, “InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well waveguide phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 368–370 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Motomi, O.

K. Wakita, O. Motomi, I. Kotaka, S. Nojima, Y. Kawamura, “High-speed electrooptic phase modulators using InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 441–442 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nojima, S.

K. Wakita, O. Motomi, I. Kotaka, S. Nojima, Y. Kawamura, “High-speed electrooptic phase modulators using InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 441–442 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Oe, K.

H. Takeuchi, K. Oe, “Very low loss GaAs/AlGaAs miniature bending waveguide with curvature radii less than 1 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 87–89 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. H.

Y. T. Byun, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, S. S. Choi, T. K. Lim, “Single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs W waveguides with a low propagation loss,” Appl. Opt. 35, 928–933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Byun, K. H. Park, S. H. Kim, S. S. Choi, T. K. Lim, “Comparison of propagation losses of single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides in a three- and a five-layer structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1051–L1054 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pedrotti, K.

G. Mendoza-Alvarez, L. A. Coldren, A. Alping, R. H. Yan, T. Hausken, K. Lee, K. Pedrotti, “Analysis of depletion edge translation lightwave modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 793–808 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Presting, H.

U. Koren, T. L. Koch, H. Presting, B. I. Miller, “InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well waveguide phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 368–370 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, R. V.

S. S. Lee, R. V. Ramaswamy, V. S. Sundaram, “Analysis and design of high-speed high-efficiency GaAs-AlGaAs double-heterostructure waveguide phase modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 726–736 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lee, R. V. Ramaswamy, V. S. Sundaram, “Highly efficient separate-confinement PpinN GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1865–1867 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Regner, R.

R. Regner, W. Sohler, “Loss in low finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 143–147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Reinhart, F. K.

J. Faist, F. K. Reinhart, “Phase modulation in AlGaAs/GaAs double heterostructure. Part I: Theory, Part II: Experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6998–7012 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Reinhart, F.-K.

J. Faist, F.-K. Reinhart, D. Martin, E. Tuncel, “Orientation dependence of the phase modulation in a p-n junction GaAs/AlxGa1–xAs waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 68–70 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F.-K. Reinhart, D. Martin, “Comparison of phase modulation of GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructures,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1391–1392 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Renaud, M.

J.-F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailes, M. Erman, P. Jarry, M. Renaud, “InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 63–69 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, M. J.

P. M. Rodgers, M. J. Robertson, A. K. Chaterjee, S. Y. Wong, “High-performance InGaAsP/InP phase modulators for integrated optics,” in Technical Digest of Meeting on Integrated Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), pp. 22–23.

Rodgers, P. M.

P. M. Rodgers, M. J. Robertson, A. K. Chaterjee, S. Y. Wong, “High-performance InGaAsP/InP phase modulators for integrated optics,” in Technical Digest of Meeting on Integrated Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), pp. 22–23.

Seto, M.

R. J. Deri, E. Kapon, J. P. Harbison, M. Seto, C. P. Yun, L. T. Florez, “Low-loss GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide phase modulator using a W-shaped index profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1803–1805 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

R. Regner, W. Sohler, “Loss in low finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 143–147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sundaram, V. S.

S. S. Lee, R. V. Ramaswamy, V. S. Sundaram, “Analysis and design of high-speed high-efficiency GaAs-AlGaAs double-heterostructure waveguide phase modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 726–736 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lee, R. V. Ramaswamy, V. S. Sundaram, “Highly efficient separate-confinement PpinN GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1865–1867 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, H.

H. Takeuchi, K. Oe, “Very low loss GaAs/AlGaAs miniature bending waveguide with curvature radii less than 1 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 87–89 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tuncel, E.

J. Faist, F.-K. Reinhart, D. Martin, E. Tuncel, “Orientation dependence of the phase modulation in a p-n junction GaAs/AlxGa1–xAs waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 68–70 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vinchant, J.-F.

J.-F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailes, M. Erman, P. Jarry, M. Renaud, “InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 63–69 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wakita, K.

K. Wakita, O. Motomi, I. Kotaka, S. Nojima, Y. Kawamura, “High-speed electrooptic phase modulators using InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 441–442 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. Y.

S. H. Lin, S. Y. Wang, Y. M. Houng, “GaAs PIN electro-optic travelling-wave modulator at 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 22, 934–935 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wong, S. Y.

P. M. Rodgers, M. J. Robertson, A. K. Chaterjee, S. Y. Wong, “High-performance InGaAsP/InP phase modulators for integrated optics,” in Technical Digest of Meeting on Integrated Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), pp. 22–23.

Wu, X. S.

A. Alping, X. S. Wu, L. A. Coldren, “Wavelength dependence of high-performance AlGaAs/GaAs waveguide phase modulators,” Electron. Lett. 23, 93–95 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yan, R. H.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic cross section of a P-P-p-i-n-N-N waveguide phase modulator obtained by use of a GaAs/AlGaAs symmetric five-layer heterostructure with a W-shaped index profile.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Single-mode propagation conditions calculated with the 2-D FEM as functions of the waveguide width and the etch depth at a wavelength of 1.31 μm. The regions under and above the solid curve represent the single-mode and multimode regions, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning electron micrograph showing the cleaved endface of a W waveguide phase modulator in which the widths of the top and bottom of the waveguide are 2.0 and 5.0 μm, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Near-field pattern and optical intensity distribution of a single-mode W waveguide phase modulator at a 1.31-μm wavelength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Oscilloscope display of the modulated light intensity from the FP sample under a 1-Hz triangular voltage waveform applied to the electrodes. The horizontal axis represents time and the vertical axis represents optical intensity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission power measured as a function of temperature for a FP W waveguide resonator. This plot was obtained by thermal tuning for zero bias voltage.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured propagation losses for a W waveguide phase modulator as a function of applied bias voltage at 1.31 μm. The solid curve is a fitting curve of the experimental data (filled circles).

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