Abstract

Several polymers often used as hosts in guest–host organic thin-film systems were investigated for their suitability as overlays for side-polished fiber (SPF) devices. Good optical quality, ∼10-μm-thick films were fabricated by spin coating and applied to SPF’s by use of a decal deposition technique to produce passive devices such as channel-dropping (CD) filters, bandpass filters, and polarizers with good throughput and high contrast ratios. The main CD features can be quantitatively explained by a weak coupled-mode model. SPF structures with doped overlays were also examined. These measurements provided a means of determining several SPF device parameters and also allowed estimates of the nonlinearities required to make all-optical and electro-optic devices.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Johnstone, G. Thursby, D. Moodie, R. Varshney, B. Culshaw, “Fibre-optic wavelength channel selector with high resolution,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1364–1365 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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1997

1996

K. J. Panatov, “Evanescent field coupling between a single-mode fiber and planar waveguide with absorption and gain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2468–2476 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Tian, T. Wada, L. Wang, H. Sasabe, “Synthesis and characterization of binuclear phthalocyanine,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 205–208 (1996).

1995

K. McCallion, S. Creaney, I. Madden, W. Johnstone “A tunable fiber-optic bandpass filter based on polished fiber to waveguide coupling techniques,” Optical Fiber Technol. 1, 271–277 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

K. J. Panatov, “Polarization properties of a fiber-to-asymmetric planar waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 983–988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

G. Khanarian, M. A. Mortazavi, A. J. East, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation from free-standing periodically stacked polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1462–1464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Vallee, G. He, “Polarizing properties of a high index birefringent waveguide on top of a polished fiber coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1196–1203 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Moodie, W. Johnstone, “Wavelength tunability of components based on the evanescent coupling from a side-polished fiber to a high-index-overlay waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1025–1027 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

G. Fawcett, W. Johnstone, I. Androvic, D. J. Bone, T. G. Harvey, N. Carter, T. G. Ryan, “In-line fibre-optic intensity modulator using electro-optic polymer,” Electron. Lett. 28, 985–986 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. Johnstone, G. Thursby, D. Moodie, R. Varshney, B. Culshaw, “Fibre-optic wavelength channel selector with high resolution,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1364–1365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. Wilkinson, J. R. Hill, S. A. Cassidy, “Optical fibre modulator using electro-optic polymer overlay,” Electron. Lett. 27, 979–981 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, T. Hart, B. Culshaw, “Surface plasmon polaritons in thin metal films and their role in fiber optic polarizing devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 538–544 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Thyagarajan, S. Diggavi, A. K. Ghatak, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, B. Culshaw, “Thin-metal-clad waveguide polarizers; analysis and comparison with experiment,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1041–1043 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

1985

A. Hardy, W. Streifer, “Coupled mode theory of parallel waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1135–1146 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

1980

1972

S. Yamamoto, Y. Koyamada, T. Makimoto, “Normal-mode analysis of anisotropic and gyrotropic thin-film waveguides for integrated optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5090–5096 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Androvic, I.

G. Fawcett, W. Johnstone, I. Androvic, D. J. Bone, T. G. Harvey, N. Carter, T. G. Ryan, “In-line fibre-optic intensity modulator using electro-optic polymer,” Electron. Lett. 28, 985–986 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bergh, R. A.

Bone, D. J.

G. Fawcett, W. Johnstone, I. Androvic, D. J. Bone, T. G. Harvey, N. Carter, T. G. Ryan, “In-line fibre-optic intensity modulator using electro-optic polymer,” Electron. Lett. 28, 985–986 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carter, N.

G. Fawcett, W. Johnstone, I. Androvic, D. J. Bone, T. G. Harvey, N. Carter, T. G. Ryan, “In-line fibre-optic intensity modulator using electro-optic polymer,” Electron. Lett. 28, 985–986 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cassidy, S. A.

M. Wilkinson, J. R. Hill, S. A. Cassidy, “Optical fibre modulator using electro-optic polymer overlay,” Electron. Lett. 27, 979–981 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. L.

Creaney, S.

K. McCallion, S. Creaney, I. Madden, W. Johnstone “A tunable fiber-optic bandpass filter based on polished fiber to waveguide coupling techniques,” Optical Fiber Technol. 1, 271–277 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

W. Johnstone, G. Thursby, D. Moodie, R. Varshney, B. Culshaw, “Fibre-optic wavelength channel selector with high resolution,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1364–1365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Thyagarajan, S. Diggavi, A. K. Ghatak, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, B. Culshaw, “Thin-metal-clad waveguide polarizers; analysis and comparison with experiment,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1041–1043 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, T. Hart, B. Culshaw, “Surface plasmon polaritons in thin metal films and their role in fiber optic polarizing devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 538–544 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Diggavi, S.

East, A. J.

G. Khanarian, M. A. Mortazavi, A. J. East, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation from free-standing periodically stacked polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1462–1464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Edahiro, T.

Fawcett, G.

G. Fawcett, W. Johnstone, I. Androvic, D. J. Bone, T. G. Harvey, N. Carter, T. G. Ryan, “In-line fibre-optic intensity modulator using electro-optic polymer,” Electron. Lett. 28, 985–986 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Feth, J. R.

Ghatak, A. K.

Hardy, A.

A. Hardy, W. Streifer, “Coupled mode theory of parallel waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1135–1146 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hart, T.

W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, T. Hart, B. Culshaw, “Surface plasmon polaritons in thin metal films and their role in fiber optic polarizing devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 538–544 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, T. G.

G. Fawcett, W. Johnstone, I. Androvic, D. J. Bone, T. G. Harvey, N. Carter, T. G. Ryan, “In-line fibre-optic intensity modulator using electro-optic polymer,” Electron. Lett. 28, 985–986 (1992).
[CrossRef]

He, G.

R. Vallee, G. He, “Polarizing properties of a high index birefringent waveguide on top of a polished fiber coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1196–1203 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hill, J. R.

M. Wilkinson, J. R. Hill, S. A. Cassidy, “Optical fibre modulator using electro-optic polymer overlay,” Electron. Lett. 27, 979–981 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hosaka, T.

Johnstone, W.

K. McCallion, S. Creaney, I. Madden, W. Johnstone “A tunable fiber-optic bandpass filter based on polished fiber to waveguide coupling techniques,” Optical Fiber Technol. 1, 271–277 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Moodie, W. Johnstone, “Wavelength tunability of components based on the evanescent coupling from a side-polished fiber to a high-index-overlay waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1025–1027 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fawcett, W. Johnstone, I. Androvic, D. J. Bone, T. G. Harvey, N. Carter, T. G. Ryan, “In-line fibre-optic intensity modulator using electro-optic polymer,” Electron. Lett. 28, 985–986 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. Johnstone, G. Thursby, D. Moodie, R. Varshney, B. Culshaw, “Fibre-optic wavelength channel selector with high resolution,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1364–1365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Thyagarajan, S. Diggavi, A. K. Ghatak, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, B. Culshaw, “Thin-metal-clad waveguide polarizers; analysis and comparison with experiment,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1041–1043 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, T. Hart, B. Culshaw, “Surface plasmon polaritons in thin metal films and their role in fiber optic polarizing devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 538–544 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Khanarian, G.

G. Khanarian, M. A. Mortazavi, A. J. East, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation from free-standing periodically stacked polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1462–1464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koyamada, Y.

S. Yamamoto, Y. Koyamada, T. Makimoto, “Normal-mode analysis of anisotropic and gyrotropic thin-film waveguides for integrated optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5090–5096 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. G.

Lefevre, H. C.

Liu, K.

Madden, I.

K. McCallion, S. Creaney, I. Madden, W. Johnstone “A tunable fiber-optic bandpass filter based on polished fiber to waveguide coupling techniques,” Optical Fiber Technol. 1, 271–277 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Makimoto, T.

S. Yamamoto, Y. Koyamada, T. Makimoto, “Normal-mode analysis of anisotropic and gyrotropic thin-film waveguides for integrated optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5090–5096 (1972).
[CrossRef]

McCallion, K.

K. McCallion, S. Creaney, I. Madden, W. Johnstone “A tunable fiber-optic bandpass filter based on polished fiber to waveguide coupling techniques,” Optical Fiber Technol. 1, 271–277 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McGinnis, B. P.

Moodie, D.

W. Johnstone, G. Thursby, D. Moodie, R. Varshney, B. Culshaw, “Fibre-optic wavelength channel selector with high resolution,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1364–1365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moodie, D. G.

Mortazavi, M. A.

G. Khanarian, M. A. Mortazavi, A. J. East, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation from free-standing periodically stacked polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1462–1464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

Panatov, K. J.

K. J. Panatov, “Evanescent field coupling between a single-mode fiber and planar waveguide with absorption and gain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2468–2476 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Panatov, “Polarization properties of a fiber-to-asymmetric planar waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 983–988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, T. G.

G. Fawcett, W. Johnstone, I. Androvic, D. J. Bone, T. G. Harvey, N. Carter, T. G. Ryan, “In-line fibre-optic intensity modulator using electro-optic polymer,” Electron. Lett. 28, 985–986 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Sasabe, H.

S. G. Lee, J. P. Sokoloff, B. P. McGinnis, H. Sasabe, “Fabrication of a SPF polarizer using a birefringent polymer overlay,” Opt. Lett. 22, 606–608 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tian, T. Wada, L. Wang, H. Sasabe, “Synthesis and characterization of binuclear phthalocyanine,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 205–208 (1996).

Shaw, H. J.

Sokoloff, J. P.

Sorin, W. V.

Stewart, G.

W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, T. Hart, B. Culshaw, “Surface plasmon polaritons in thin metal films and their role in fiber optic polarizing devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 538–544 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Thyagarajan, S. Diggavi, A. K. Ghatak, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, B. Culshaw, “Thin-metal-clad waveguide polarizers; analysis and comparison with experiment,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1041–1043 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Streifer, W.

A. Hardy, W. Streifer, “Coupled mode theory of parallel waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1135–1146 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Thursby, G.

W. Johnstone, G. Thursby, D. Moodie, R. Varshney, B. Culshaw, “Fibre-optic wavelength channel selector with high resolution,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1364–1365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thyagarajan, K.

Tian, M.

M. Tian, T. Wada, L. Wang, H. Sasabe, “Synthesis and characterization of binuclear phthalocyanine,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 205–208 (1996).

Vallee, R.

R. Vallee, G. He, “Polarizing properties of a high index birefringent waveguide on top of a polished fiber coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1196–1203 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Varshney, R.

W. Johnstone, G. Thursby, D. Moodie, R. Varshney, B. Culshaw, “Fibre-optic wavelength channel selector with high resolution,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1364–1365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wada, T.

M. Tian, T. Wada, L. Wang, H. Sasabe, “Synthesis and characterization of binuclear phthalocyanine,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 205–208 (1996).

Wang, L.

M. Tian, T. Wada, L. Wang, H. Sasabe, “Synthesis and characterization of binuclear phthalocyanine,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 205–208 (1996).

Wilkinson, M.

M. Wilkinson, J. R. Hill, S. A. Cassidy, “Optical fibre modulator using electro-optic polymer overlay,” Electron. Lett. 27, 979–981 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

S. Yamamoto, Y. Koyamada, T. Makimoto, “Normal-mode analysis of anisotropic and gyrotropic thin-film waveguides for integrated optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5090–5096 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Khanarian, M. A. Mortazavi, A. J. East, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation from free-standing periodically stacked polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1462–1464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

W. Johnstone, G. Thursby, D. Moodie, R. Varshney, B. Culshaw, “Fibre-optic wavelength channel selector with high resolution,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1364–1365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Wilkinson, J. R. Hill, S. A. Cassidy, “Optical fibre modulator using electro-optic polymer overlay,” Electron. Lett. 27, 979–981 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Fawcett, W. Johnstone, I. Androvic, D. J. Bone, T. G. Harvey, N. Carter, T. G. Ryan, “In-line fibre-optic intensity modulator using electro-optic polymer,” Electron. Lett. 28, 985–986 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Yamamoto, Y. Koyamada, T. Makimoto, “Normal-mode analysis of anisotropic and gyrotropic thin-film waveguides for integrated optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5090–5096 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

R. Vallee, G. He, “Polarizing properties of a high index birefringent waveguide on top of a polished fiber coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1196–1203 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Hardy, W. Streifer, “Coupled mode theory of parallel waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1135–1146 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, T. Hart, B. Culshaw, “Surface plasmon polaritons in thin metal films and their role in fiber optic polarizing devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 538–544 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Panatov, “Polarization properties of a fiber-to-asymmetric planar waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 983–988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nonlinear Opt.

M. Tian, T. Wada, L. Wang, H. Sasabe, “Synthesis and characterization of binuclear phthalocyanine,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 205–208 (1996).

Opt. Lett.

Optical Fiber Technol.

K. McCallion, S. Creaney, I. Madden, W. Johnstone “A tunable fiber-optic bandpass filter based on polished fiber to waveguide coupling techniques,” Optical Fiber Technol. 1, 271–277 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Bandrop, E. H. Emmergut, eds. Polymer Handbook, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sequence of spectra showing the evolution of a SPF. In the last plot (NM) the dotted curve is the white-light transmission spectrum with no overlay PS film, and the solid curve is the transmission with a PS overlay that is different from the three measurements but made under the same conditions. NM, not measurable.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral response of a CD SPF with polymer overlays of thickness h: (a) 9.33 μm for PMMA, (b) 9.17 μm for PS, (c) 9.02 μm for PCZ, (d) 9.40 μm for PVK. The white-light input spectrum is shown by the dotted curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) CD response of a SPF with a PS film overlay (9.02 μm). (b) Dispersion curves of the asymmetric slab waveguide polystyrene film (TE mode) and the single-mode fiber (LP01 mode). Cross points represent theoretical CD resonance wavelengths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Resonance shift that is due to a superstrate index of refraction. The overlay is an 8.9-μm PVK film. Index-matching fluid, with index value n D , was used as a superstrate. Arrows show the calculated resonance wavelengths with superstrate index n D .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intensity distribution of TE0 fiber layer mode and TE15 PS overlay mode in the equivalent planar waveguide model. Parameters are a = 2.5 μm, b = 2.45 μm, h = 9.49 μm, λ = 806 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission spectra of CD SPF with 8.92-μm-thick PVK overlay: (a) without an analyzer, (b) and (c) TE and TM mode resonance spectra, respectively, as selected through an analyzer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Partial shifts of CD resonances that are due to incomplete superstrate coverage on a PS overlay (6.52-μm thickness). The CD SPF device length is determined at the half-of-complete-shift.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

CD response of SPF with a binuclear hydrogen phthalocyanine-doped PS film (solid curve). The film is 9.4 μm thick with 5.32 × 10-3-mol./l concentration. The dotted curve shows the absorption spectrum of the film.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Partial shifts of BP resonances that are due to an incomplete superstrate coverage. The thick solid curve shows BP resonances with a PS overlay; the dashed curve has a 1.8-mm water drop covering the exposed area; the thin solid curve has a 2.0-mm water drop.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) BP response with a binuclear hydrogen phthalocyanine-doped PS overlay (∼12 μm). The doping concentration of the film was 7.44 × 10-5 mol./l. (b) Absorption spectrum of the binuclear hydrogen phthalocyanine-doped PS (856-μm thickness).

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k t a   J 1 k t a J 0 k t a = γ a   K 1 γ a K 0 γ a ,
κ h = m π + tan - 1 γ / κ + tan - 1 δ / κ ,
n n   κ h = m π + tan - 1 n n n cl 2 γ κ + tan - 1 n n n super 2 δ κ ,
U f y = N f cos ϕ f exp γ f y cos κ f y - ϕ f cos ϕ f exp - γ f y - a     y < 0     0 < y < a     a < y ,
E o y = N o cos ϕ exp γ y - a - b cos κ y - a - b - ϕ cos κ h - ϕ exp - δ y - a - b - h     y < a + b     a + b < y < a + b + h     a + b + h < y ,
K 12 = k 0 2 NA 2 2 β f 0 a   U f E o d y ,
K 21 = k 0 2 n c 2 - n cl 2 2 β m a + b a + b + h   U f E o d y .
T = T SPF   exp - α Γ overlay L D ,
α 830 nm   *   Γ overlay   *   L D = ln T 1045 nm / T 830 nm .

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