Abstract

A formalism describing the influence of multiple scattering on cloud measurements with Raman and high-spectral-resolution lidars is presented. Model calculations including both particulate and molecular scattering processes are performed to describe the general effects of multiple scattering on both particulate and molecular lidar backscatter signals. It is found that, for typical measurement geometries of ground-based lidars, as many as five scattering orders contribute significantly to the backscattered light. The relative intensity of multiple-scattered light is generally larger in signals backscattered from molecules than in signals backscattered from particles. The multiple-scattering formalism is applied to measurements of water and ice clouds taken with a Raman lidar. Multiple-scattering errors of measured extinction coefficients are typically of the order of 50% at the bases of both water and ice clouds and decrease with increasing penetration depth to below 20%. In contrast, the multiple-scattering errors of backscatter coefficients are negligible in ice clouds and below 20% in water clouds.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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