Abstract

The track pitch of current optical disks is comparable with the wavelength of the laser source. In this domain of the pitch-to-wavelength ratio, the complex-diffraction amplitudes are different for different incident polarization states, and the validity of the scalar diffraction theory is questionable. Furthermore, the use of multilayer coatings and high-numerical-aperture beams in modern optical disk technology inevitably entails the excitation of surface waves, which can disturb the baseball pattern significantly. To describe the interaction of a focused beam with a grooved multilayer system fully, it is necessary to have a rigorous vector theory. We use a rigorous vector theory to model the diffraction of light at the optical disk. We present the simulation and the experimental results and demonstrate the ability of this approach to predict or model accurately all essential features of beam–disk interaction, including the polarization effects and the excitation of surface waves.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Nevière, “The homogenous problem,” in Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings, R. Petit, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), pp. 123–157.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Chandezon, M. T. Dupuis, G. Cornet, D. Maystre, “Multicoated gratings: a differential formalism applicable in the entire optical region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 839–846 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Li, “Multilayer-coated diffraction gratings: differential method of Chandezon et al. revisited,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2816–2828 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Mansuripur, “Certain computational aspects of vector diffraction problem,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 786–805 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Mansuripur, L. Li, W.-H. Yeh, “Scanning optical microscopy (Part I),” Opt. Photon. News 9(5), 56–59 (1998);“Scanning optical microscopy (Part II),” Opt. Photon. News 9(6), 42–45 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998

M. Mansuripur, L. Li, W.-H. Yeh, “Scanning optical microscopy (Part I),” Opt. Photon. News 9(5), 56–59 (1998);“Scanning optical microscopy (Part II),” Opt. Photon. News 9(6), 42–45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

1993

1990

S. M. Mansfield, G. S. Kino, “Solid immersion microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615–2616 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1982

1980

J. Chandezon, D. Maystre, G. Raoult, “A new theoretical method for diffraction gratings and its numerical application,” J. Opt. (Paris) 11(4), 235–241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1973

T. Tamir, “Inhomogeneous wave types at planar interfaces: II—surface waves,” Optik (Stuttgart) 37, 204–228 (1973).

1970

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, “Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1902

R. W. Wood, “On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum,” Philos. Mag. 4, 396–402 (1902).

Chandezon, J.

J. Chandezon, M. T. Dupuis, G. Cornet, D. Maystre, “Multicoated gratings: a differential formalism applicable in the entire optical region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 839–846 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Chandezon, D. Maystre, G. Raoult, “A new theoretical method for diffraction gratings and its numerical application,” J. Opt. (Paris) 11(4), 235–241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cornet, G.

Dakss, M. L.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, “Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, M. T.

Gerber, R.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996), pp. 32–62.

Heidrich, P. F.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, “Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

Kuhn, L.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, “Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Mansfield, S. M.

Mansuripur, M.

Marchant, A. B.

A. B. Marchant, Optical Recording: A Technical Overview (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1990), pp. 172–181.

Maystre, D.

J. Chandezon, M. T. Dupuis, G. Cornet, D. Maystre, “Multicoated gratings: a differential formalism applicable in the entire optical region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 839–846 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Chandezon, D. Maystre, G. Raoult, “A new theoretical method for diffraction gratings and its numerical application,” J. Opt. (Paris) 11(4), 235–241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nevière, M.

M. Nevière, “The homogenous problem,” in Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings, R. Petit, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), pp. 123–157.
[CrossRef]

Osato, K.

Pasman, J.

J. Pasman, “Vector theory of diffraction,” in Principles of Optical Disc Systems, G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, A. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Schouhamer Immink, eds. (Hilger, London, 1985), pp. 88–124.

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

Raoult, G.

J. Chandezon, D. Maystre, G. Raoult, “A new theoretical method for diffraction gratings and its numerical application,” J. Opt. (Paris) 11(4), 235–241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Scott, B. A.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, “Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Studenmund, W. R.

Tamir, T.

T. Tamir, “Inhomogeneous wave types at planar interfaces: II—surface waves,” Optik (Stuttgart) 37, 204–228 (1973).

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, “On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum,” Philos. Mag. 4, 396–402 (1902).

Yeh, W.-H.

M. Mansuripur, L. Li, W.-H. Yeh, “Scanning optical microscopy (Part I),” Opt. Photon. News 9(5), 56–59 (1998);“Scanning optical microscopy (Part II),” Opt. Photon. News 9(6), 42–45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. M. Mansfield, G. S. Kino, “Solid immersion microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615–2616 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, “Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (Paris)

J. Chandezon, D. Maystre, G. Raoult, “A new theoretical method for diffraction gratings and its numerical application,” J. Opt. (Paris) 11(4), 235–241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Photon. News

M. Mansuripur, L. Li, W.-H. Yeh, “Scanning optical microscopy (Part I),” Opt. Photon. News 9(5), 56–59 (1998);“Scanning optical microscopy (Part II),” Opt. Photon. News 9(6), 42–45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Optik (Stuttgart)

T. Tamir, “Inhomogeneous wave types at planar interfaces: II—surface waves,” Optik (Stuttgart) 37, 204–228 (1973).

Philos. Mag.

R. W. Wood, “On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum,” Philos. Mag. 4, 396–402 (1902).

Other

R. Petit, ed., Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), pp. 1–122.
[CrossRef]

J. Pasman, “Vector theory of diffraction,” in Principles of Optical Disc Systems, G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, A. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Schouhamer Immink, eds. (Hilger, London, 1985), pp. 88–124.

M. Nevière, “The homogenous problem,” in Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings, R. Petit, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), pp. 123–157.
[CrossRef]

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

A. B. Marchant, Optical Recording: A Technical Overview (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1990), pp. 172–181.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996), pp. 32–62.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Trilayer dielectric grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. The distributions of intensity and phase at the exit pupil of the objective lens for the reflected beam are recorded. The polarizer is used to control the polarization state for the incident beam. A mirror is used to generate the reference beam for phase-shifting interferometry. The translation stage on which the gratings are mounted provides the ability to scan across the grating to generate the disk signals. The CCD camera, which is used to record the images, can simulate arbitrary-shaped detectors in software. The grating samples have a period of 0.6 μm, and the air gap between the SIL and the grating sample is estimated to be approximately 100 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured intensity distributions at the exit pupil of the objective lens for an incident beam with polarizations parallel (top row) and perpendicular (bottom row) to the tracks. The results are for a dielectric grating: (a) and (b) were obtained with a NA = 0.6 objective lens, and (c) and (d) were obtained with a NA = 0.8 objective lens. Different behaviors depending on the polarization state and the absorption bands caused by surface-wave excitation are clearly visible in these images.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured intensity distributions at the exit pupil of the objective lens for an incident beam with polarizations parallel (top row) and perpendicular (bottom row) to the tracks. The results are for a metal grating: (a) and (b) were obtained with a NA = 0.6 objective lens, and (c) and (d) were obtained with a NA = 0.8 objective lens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured intensity distributions at the exit pupil of a NA = 0.6 objective lens for an incident beam with polarizations parallel (top row) and perpendicular (bottom row) to the tracks. A SIL with n ≈ 2 was used to increase the effective NA of the system: (a) and (b) represent the dielectric grating, and (c) and (d) the metal grating. The dark regions in the top and bottom of (a) and (c) and the right- and left-hand sides of (b) and (d) are due to the effect of the Brewster angle.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated results corresponding to the experimental observations shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulated results corresponding to the experimental observations shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulated results corresponding to the experimental observations shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Phase images at the exit pupil of a NA = 0.8 objective lens for an incident beam with polarizations parallel (top row) and perpendicular (bottom row) to the tracks. The results are for a dielectric grating: (a) and (b) represent experimental observations, and (c) and (d) represent simulation results.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Results of vector diffraction calculations of TES’s and SUM’s for a dielectric grating with a NA = 0.6 objective lens and a SIL. The corresponding intensity distributions are shown in Figs. 8(a) and 8(b). The results predict distinct TES’s between parallel (solid curves) and perpendicular (dashed–dotted curves) polarizations.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Results of scalar diffraction calculations of TES’s and SUM’s for a dielectric grating with a NA = 0.6 objective lens and a SIL. The TES’s and the SUM’s do not depend on the polarization state.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Experimental results of TES measurement for a dielectric grating with a NA = 0.6 objective lens and a SIL for parallel (solid curve) and perpendicular (dashed–dotted curve) polarizations. The corresponding intensity distributions are shown in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b). Compared with the simulation plots shown in Figs. 10 and 11, the rigorous vector method provides a much better description of the effects of polarization state on the extracted disk signals.

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