Abstract

A new method is introduced to improve the accuracy of sizing large particles in two-phase flows. This method uses a photodetector array to measure directly the spatial frequency of the light intensity scattered from a spherical particle in the measurement volume (or cross-sectional area). The effects of both the reflected and the refracted rays are considered. The phase conversion factors from the refracted and the reflected rays are used to minimize the measurement volume effect (errors) in sizing large particles. Furthermore, optimization results are compared with the results from the simulation based on the generalized Lorenz–Mie theory. A new particle-sizing system that combines the conventional and the new methods is suggested.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. D. Bachalo, M. J. Houser, “Evolutionary behavior of sprays produced by pressure atomizers,” paper 86-0296 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1986).
  2. M. Maeda, K. Kobashi, K. Hishida, “Application of phase-Doppler anemometry to dispersed two-phase jet flows,” presented at the International Conference on Mechanics of Two-Phase Flows, Taipei, Taiwan, 12–15 June 1989.
  3. M. Sommerfeld, H.-H. Qiu, “Detailed measurements in a swirling particulate two-phase flow by a phase-Doppler anemometer,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 12, 20–28 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. V. Sankar, W. D. Bachalo, “Response characteristics of the phase Doppler particle analyzer for sizing spherical particles larger than the light wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1487–1496 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, A. Naqwi, F. Durst, “Evaluation of phase Doppler system using generalized Lorenz-Mie theory,” presented at the International Conference on Multiphase Flows ’91, Tsukuba, Japan, 24–27 September 1991.
  6. H.-H. Qiu, M. Sommerfeld, “The impact of signal processing on the accuracy of phase-Doppler measurements,” presented at the Sixth Workshop on Two Phase Flow Predictions, Erlangen, Germany, 30 March–2 April 1992.
  7. H.-H. Qiu, “Signalverarbeitung bei der Phasen-Doppler-Anemometrie zur Geschwindigkeits-Grössen- und Konzentrationsmessung in zweiphasigen Strömungen,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany, 1994).
  8. H.-H. Qiu, C. T. Hsu, “Optimization of EPDA parameters for accurate material recognition in multiphase flow,” presented at the Second International Conference on Multiphase Flow ’95Kyoto, Japan, 3–7 April 1995.
  9. K. Bauckhage, “The phase-Doppler-difference-method, a new-laser-Doppler technique for simultaneous size and velocity measurements. 1. Description of the method,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 5, 16–22 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Durst, C. Tropea, T.-H. Xu, “The slit effect in phase Doppler anemometry,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fluid Dynamic Measurement and its Applications, X. Shen, X. Sun, eds. (International Academic, Beijing, China, 1994), pp. 38–43.
  11. F. Onofri, T. Girasole, G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, G. Breen, J. Dominick, T.-H. Xu, C. Tropea, “Phase-Doppler anemometry with the dual-burst technique: refractive index and absorption measurements simultaneously with size and velocity,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 13, 112–124 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Aizu, F. Durst, G. Gréhan, F. Onofri, T.-H. Xu, “PDA systems without Gaussian beam defects,” presented at the Third International Conference on Optical Particle Sizing, Yokohama, Japan, 23–26 August 1993.
  13. H.-H. Qiu, M. Sommerfeld, F. Durst, “Two novel Doppler signal detection methods for laser-Doppler and phase-Doppler anemometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 769–778 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. L. Min, A. Gomez, “High-resolution size measurement of single spherical particles with a fast Fourier transform of the angular scattering intensity,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4919–4926 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Maeda, H. Morikita, H. Prassas, A. M. K. P. Taylor, J. H. Whitelaw, “Shadow Doppler velocimetry for simultaneous size and velocity measurements of irregular particles in confined reacting flows,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 14, 79–87 (1997).

1997 (1)

M. Maeda, H. Morikita, H. Prassas, A. M. K. P. Taylor, J. H. Whitelaw, “Shadow Doppler velocimetry for simultaneous size and velocity measurements of irregular particles in confined reacting flows,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 14, 79–87 (1997).

1996 (2)

F. Onofri, T. Girasole, G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, G. Breen, J. Dominick, T.-H. Xu, C. Tropea, “Phase-Doppler anemometry with the dual-burst technique: refractive index and absorption measurements simultaneously with size and velocity,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 13, 112–124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Min, A. Gomez, “High-resolution size measurement of single spherical particles with a fast Fourier transform of the angular scattering intensity,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4919–4926 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

H.-H. Qiu, M. Sommerfeld, F. Durst, “Two novel Doppler signal detection methods for laser-Doppler and phase-Doppler anemometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 769–778 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

M. Sommerfeld, H.-H. Qiu, “Detailed measurements in a swirling particulate two-phase flow by a phase-Doppler anemometer,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 12, 20–28 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Sankar, W. D. Bachalo, “Response characteristics of the phase Doppler particle analyzer for sizing spherical particles larger than the light wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1487–1496 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

K. Bauckhage, “The phase-Doppler-difference-method, a new-laser-Doppler technique for simultaneous size and velocity measurements. 1. Description of the method,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 5, 16–22 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Aizu, Y.

Y. Aizu, F. Durst, G. Gréhan, F. Onofri, T.-H. Xu, “PDA systems without Gaussian beam defects,” presented at the Third International Conference on Optical Particle Sizing, Yokohama, Japan, 23–26 August 1993.

Bachalo, W. D.

S. V. Sankar, W. D. Bachalo, “Response characteristics of the phase Doppler particle analyzer for sizing spherical particles larger than the light wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1487–1496 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. D. Bachalo, M. J. Houser, “Evolutionary behavior of sprays produced by pressure atomizers,” paper 86-0296 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1986).

Bauckhage, K.

K. Bauckhage, “The phase-Doppler-difference-method, a new-laser-Doppler technique for simultaneous size and velocity measurements. 1. Description of the method,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 5, 16–22 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Breen, G.

F. Onofri, T. Girasole, G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, G. Breen, J. Dominick, T.-H. Xu, C. Tropea, “Phase-Doppler anemometry with the dual-burst technique: refractive index and absorption measurements simultaneously with size and velocity,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 13, 112–124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dominick, J.

F. Onofri, T. Girasole, G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, G. Breen, J. Dominick, T.-H. Xu, C. Tropea, “Phase-Doppler anemometry with the dual-burst technique: refractive index and absorption measurements simultaneously with size and velocity,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 13, 112–124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Durst, F.

H.-H. Qiu, M. Sommerfeld, F. Durst, “Two novel Doppler signal detection methods for laser-Doppler and phase-Doppler anemometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 769–778 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Aizu, F. Durst, G. Gréhan, F. Onofri, T.-H. Xu, “PDA systems without Gaussian beam defects,” presented at the Third International Conference on Optical Particle Sizing, Yokohama, Japan, 23–26 August 1993.

G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, A. Naqwi, F. Durst, “Evaluation of phase Doppler system using generalized Lorenz-Mie theory,” presented at the International Conference on Multiphase Flows ’91, Tsukuba, Japan, 24–27 September 1991.

F. Durst, C. Tropea, T.-H. Xu, “The slit effect in phase Doppler anemometry,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fluid Dynamic Measurement and its Applications, X. Shen, X. Sun, eds. (International Academic, Beijing, China, 1994), pp. 38–43.

Girasole, T.

F. Onofri, T. Girasole, G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, G. Breen, J. Dominick, T.-H. Xu, C. Tropea, “Phase-Doppler anemometry with the dual-burst technique: refractive index and absorption measurements simultaneously with size and velocity,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 13, 112–124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, A.

Gouesbet, G.

F. Onofri, T. Girasole, G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, G. Breen, J. Dominick, T.-H. Xu, C. Tropea, “Phase-Doppler anemometry with the dual-burst technique: refractive index and absorption measurements simultaneously with size and velocity,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 13, 112–124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, A. Naqwi, F. Durst, “Evaluation of phase Doppler system using generalized Lorenz-Mie theory,” presented at the International Conference on Multiphase Flows ’91, Tsukuba, Japan, 24–27 September 1991.

Gréhan, G.

F. Onofri, T. Girasole, G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, G. Breen, J. Dominick, T.-H. Xu, C. Tropea, “Phase-Doppler anemometry with the dual-burst technique: refractive index and absorption measurements simultaneously with size and velocity,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 13, 112–124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, A. Naqwi, F. Durst, “Evaluation of phase Doppler system using generalized Lorenz-Mie theory,” presented at the International Conference on Multiphase Flows ’91, Tsukuba, Japan, 24–27 September 1991.

Y. Aizu, F. Durst, G. Gréhan, F. Onofri, T.-H. Xu, “PDA systems without Gaussian beam defects,” presented at the Third International Conference on Optical Particle Sizing, Yokohama, Japan, 23–26 August 1993.

Hishida, K.

M. Maeda, K. Kobashi, K. Hishida, “Application of phase-Doppler anemometry to dispersed two-phase jet flows,” presented at the International Conference on Mechanics of Two-Phase Flows, Taipei, Taiwan, 12–15 June 1989.

Houser, M. J.

W. D. Bachalo, M. J. Houser, “Evolutionary behavior of sprays produced by pressure atomizers,” paper 86-0296 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1986).

Hsu, C. T.

H.-H. Qiu, C. T. Hsu, “Optimization of EPDA parameters for accurate material recognition in multiphase flow,” presented at the Second International Conference on Multiphase Flow ’95Kyoto, Japan, 3–7 April 1995.

Kobashi, K.

M. Maeda, K. Kobashi, K. Hishida, “Application of phase-Doppler anemometry to dispersed two-phase jet flows,” presented at the International Conference on Mechanics of Two-Phase Flows, Taipei, Taiwan, 12–15 June 1989.

Maeda, M.

M. Maeda, H. Morikita, H. Prassas, A. M. K. P. Taylor, J. H. Whitelaw, “Shadow Doppler velocimetry for simultaneous size and velocity measurements of irregular particles in confined reacting flows,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 14, 79–87 (1997).

M. Maeda, K. Kobashi, K. Hishida, “Application of phase-Doppler anemometry to dispersed two-phase jet flows,” presented at the International Conference on Mechanics of Two-Phase Flows, Taipei, Taiwan, 12–15 June 1989.

Min, S. L.

Morikita, H.

M. Maeda, H. Morikita, H. Prassas, A. M. K. P. Taylor, J. H. Whitelaw, “Shadow Doppler velocimetry for simultaneous size and velocity measurements of irregular particles in confined reacting flows,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 14, 79–87 (1997).

Naqwi, A.

G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, A. Naqwi, F. Durst, “Evaluation of phase Doppler system using generalized Lorenz-Mie theory,” presented at the International Conference on Multiphase Flows ’91, Tsukuba, Japan, 24–27 September 1991.

Onofri, F.

F. Onofri, T. Girasole, G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, G. Breen, J. Dominick, T.-H. Xu, C. Tropea, “Phase-Doppler anemometry with the dual-burst technique: refractive index and absorption measurements simultaneously with size and velocity,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 13, 112–124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Aizu, F. Durst, G. Gréhan, F. Onofri, T.-H. Xu, “PDA systems without Gaussian beam defects,” presented at the Third International Conference on Optical Particle Sizing, Yokohama, Japan, 23–26 August 1993.

Prassas, H.

M. Maeda, H. Morikita, H. Prassas, A. M. K. P. Taylor, J. H. Whitelaw, “Shadow Doppler velocimetry for simultaneous size and velocity measurements of irregular particles in confined reacting flows,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 14, 79–87 (1997).

Qiu, H.-H.

H.-H. Qiu, M. Sommerfeld, F. Durst, “Two novel Doppler signal detection methods for laser-Doppler and phase-Doppler anemometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 769–778 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Sommerfeld, H.-H. Qiu, “Detailed measurements in a swirling particulate two-phase flow by a phase-Doppler anemometer,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 12, 20–28 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Qiu, C. T. Hsu, “Optimization of EPDA parameters for accurate material recognition in multiphase flow,” presented at the Second International Conference on Multiphase Flow ’95Kyoto, Japan, 3–7 April 1995.

H.-H. Qiu, M. Sommerfeld, “The impact of signal processing on the accuracy of phase-Doppler measurements,” presented at the Sixth Workshop on Two Phase Flow Predictions, Erlangen, Germany, 30 March–2 April 1992.

H.-H. Qiu, “Signalverarbeitung bei der Phasen-Doppler-Anemometrie zur Geschwindigkeits-Grössen- und Konzentrationsmessung in zweiphasigen Strömungen,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany, 1994).

Sankar, S. V.

Sommerfeld, M.

H.-H. Qiu, M. Sommerfeld, F. Durst, “Two novel Doppler signal detection methods for laser-Doppler and phase-Doppler anemometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 769–778 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Sommerfeld, H.-H. Qiu, “Detailed measurements in a swirling particulate two-phase flow by a phase-Doppler anemometer,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 12, 20–28 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Qiu, M. Sommerfeld, “The impact of signal processing on the accuracy of phase-Doppler measurements,” presented at the Sixth Workshop on Two Phase Flow Predictions, Erlangen, Germany, 30 March–2 April 1992.

Taylor, A. M. K. P.

M. Maeda, H. Morikita, H. Prassas, A. M. K. P. Taylor, J. H. Whitelaw, “Shadow Doppler velocimetry for simultaneous size and velocity measurements of irregular particles in confined reacting flows,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 14, 79–87 (1997).

Tropea, C.

F. Onofri, T. Girasole, G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, G. Breen, J. Dominick, T.-H. Xu, C. Tropea, “Phase-Doppler anemometry with the dual-burst technique: refractive index and absorption measurements simultaneously with size and velocity,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 13, 112–124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Durst, C. Tropea, T.-H. Xu, “The slit effect in phase Doppler anemometry,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fluid Dynamic Measurement and its Applications, X. Shen, X. Sun, eds. (International Academic, Beijing, China, 1994), pp. 38–43.

Whitelaw, J. H.

M. Maeda, H. Morikita, H. Prassas, A. M. K. P. Taylor, J. H. Whitelaw, “Shadow Doppler velocimetry for simultaneous size and velocity measurements of irregular particles in confined reacting flows,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 14, 79–87 (1997).

Xu, T.-H.

F. Onofri, T. Girasole, G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, G. Breen, J. Dominick, T.-H. Xu, C. Tropea, “Phase-Doppler anemometry with the dual-burst technique: refractive index and absorption measurements simultaneously with size and velocity,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 13, 112–124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Durst, C. Tropea, T.-H. Xu, “The slit effect in phase Doppler anemometry,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fluid Dynamic Measurement and its Applications, X. Shen, X. Sun, eds. (International Academic, Beijing, China, 1994), pp. 38–43.

Y. Aizu, F. Durst, G. Gréhan, F. Onofri, T.-H. Xu, “PDA systems without Gaussian beam defects,” presented at the Third International Conference on Optical Particle Sizing, Yokohama, Japan, 23–26 August 1993.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow (1)

M. Sommerfeld, H.-H. Qiu, “Detailed measurements in a swirling particulate two-phase flow by a phase-Doppler anemometer,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 12, 20–28 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

H.-H. Qiu, M. Sommerfeld, F. Durst, “Two novel Doppler signal detection methods for laser-Doppler and phase-Doppler anemometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 769–778 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Part. Part. Syst. Charact. (3)

M. Maeda, H. Morikita, H. Prassas, A. M. K. P. Taylor, J. H. Whitelaw, “Shadow Doppler velocimetry for simultaneous size and velocity measurements of irregular particles in confined reacting flows,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 14, 79–87 (1997).

K. Bauckhage, “The phase-Doppler-difference-method, a new-laser-Doppler technique for simultaneous size and velocity measurements. 1. Description of the method,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 5, 16–22 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. Onofri, T. Girasole, G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, G. Breen, J. Dominick, T.-H. Xu, C. Tropea, “Phase-Doppler anemometry with the dual-burst technique: refractive index and absorption measurements simultaneously with size and velocity,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 13, 112–124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

Y. Aizu, F. Durst, G. Gréhan, F. Onofri, T.-H. Xu, “PDA systems without Gaussian beam defects,” presented at the Third International Conference on Optical Particle Sizing, Yokohama, Japan, 23–26 August 1993.

F. Durst, C. Tropea, T.-H. Xu, “The slit effect in phase Doppler anemometry,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fluid Dynamic Measurement and its Applications, X. Shen, X. Sun, eds. (International Academic, Beijing, China, 1994), pp. 38–43.

G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, A. Naqwi, F. Durst, “Evaluation of phase Doppler system using generalized Lorenz-Mie theory,” presented at the International Conference on Multiphase Flows ’91, Tsukuba, Japan, 24–27 September 1991.

H.-H. Qiu, M. Sommerfeld, “The impact of signal processing on the accuracy of phase-Doppler measurements,” presented at the Sixth Workshop on Two Phase Flow Predictions, Erlangen, Germany, 30 March–2 April 1992.

H.-H. Qiu, “Signalverarbeitung bei der Phasen-Doppler-Anemometrie zur Geschwindigkeits-Grössen- und Konzentrationsmessung in zweiphasigen Strömungen,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany, 1994).

H.-H. Qiu, C. T. Hsu, “Optimization of EPDA parameters for accurate material recognition in multiphase flow,” presented at the Second International Conference on Multiphase Flow ’95Kyoto, Japan, 3–7 April 1995.

W. D. Bachalo, M. J. Houser, “Evolutionary behavior of sprays produced by pressure atomizers,” paper 86-0296 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1986).

M. Maeda, K. Kobashi, K. Hishida, “Application of phase-Doppler anemometry to dispersed two-phase jet flows,” presented at the International Conference on Mechanics of Two-Phase Flows, Taipei, Taiwan, 12–15 June 1989.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the phase-Doppler system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Demonstration of the Gaussian beam effect.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Light scattering from a spherical particle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Determination of the |C 0| = |C 1| point.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Geometry of the new particle-sizing technique.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Geometry of the new combined system.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Phase-elevation angle correlation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Light intensity in the 30° direction.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Light intensity in the 45.75° direction.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Simulation of the beating process of both scattering contributions by use of the GLMT.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Size–spatial frequency relation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Parameters

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ 1 = C 1 D .
C 1 = 4 π 1 + m 2 - 2 m × 1 + sin θ 2 sin     ψ + cos θ 2 cos   ψ   cos   φ 1 / 2 1 / 2 - 1 + m 2 - 2 m × 1 - sin θ 2 sin   ψ + cos θ 2 cos   ψ   cos   φ 1 / 2 1 / 2 ,
2 π - ϕ = | C 0 | D ,
C 0 = 2 π 2 1 + sin θ 2 sin   ψ - cos θ 2 cos   ψ   cos   φ 1 / 2 - 1 - sin θ 2 sin   ψ - cos θ 2 cos   ψ   cos   φ 1 / 2 .

Metrics