Abstract

An apparatus for accurate remote distance sensing based on fiber-optic low-coherence light interferometry has been designed for molten glass level measurement. We demonstrate operation of the meter in an adverse industrial environment with <20-μm resolution (standard deviation) within a 20-mm range with the sensing head placed in an oven at ∼800 °C. In laboratory conditions we were able to measure with 3-μm resolution, which could be improved to submicrometer level by optimization of a reference arm of the interferometer and detection electronics.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. G. Dorsch, G. Hausler, J. M. Herrmann, “Laser triangulation: fundamental uncertainty in distance measurement,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1306–1314 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. S. Massa, A. M. Wallace, G. S. Buller, S. J. Fancey, A. C. Walker, “Laser depth measurement based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Opt. Lett. 22, 543–545 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. G. Fujimoto, S. De Silvestri, E. P. Ippen, C. A. Puliafito, R. Margolis, A. Oseroff, “Femtosecond optical ranging in biological systems,” Opt. Lett. 11, 150–152 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. Yan, J. C. Diels, “Imaging with femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6869–6873 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond transillumination tomography in thick tissues,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1107–1109 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence microscopy in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 590–592 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Takada, I. Yokohama, K. Childa, J. Noda, “New measurement system for fault location in optical waveguide devices based on an interferometric technique,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1603–1606 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. L. Danielson, C. Y. Boisrobert, “Absolute optical ranging using low coherence interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 30, 188–192 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. J. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Gh. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, “Fiberized setup for eye length measurement,” Opt. Commun. 137, 397–405 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, Ch. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter–endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 543–545 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Ballif, R. Gianotti, P. Chavanne, R. Walti, R. P. Salathe, “Rapid and scalable scans at 21 m/s in optical low-coherence reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 22, 757–759 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. G. Fujimoto, “High speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811–1813 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Giniu̅nas, R. Juškaitis, S. V. Shatalin, “Scanning fiber-optic microscope,” Electron. Lett. 27, 724–726 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (4)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, Ch. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (3)

B. L. Danielson, C. Y. Boisrobert, “Absolute optical ranging using low coherence interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 30, 188–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. J. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Giniu̅nas, R. Juškaitis, S. V. Shatalin, “Scanning fiber-optic microscope,” Electron. Lett. 27, 724–726 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

Ballif, J.

Boisrobert, C. Y.

B. L. Danielson, C. Y. Boisrobert, “Absolute optical ranging using low coherence interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 30, 188–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M. E.

Buller, G. S.

Chavanne, P.

Childa, K.

Danielson, B. L.

B. L. Danielson, C. Y. Boisrobert, “Absolute optical ranging using low coherence interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 30, 188–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

Diels, J. C.

Dobre, G. M.

A. Gh. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, “Fiberized setup for eye length measurement,” Opt. Commun. 137, 397–405 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dorsch, R. G.

Fancey, S. J.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. J. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gianotti, R.

Giniu¯nas, L.

L. Giniu̅nas, R. Juškaitis, S. V. Shatalin, “Scanning fiber-optic microscope,” Electron. Lett. 27, 724–726 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hausler, G.

Hee, M. R.

Herrmann, J. M.

Hitzenberger, C.

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. J. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, Ch. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Izatt, J. A.

Jackson, D. A.

A. Gh. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, “Fiberized setup for eye length measurement,” Opt. Commun. 137, 397–405 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Juchem, M. J.

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. J. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Juškaitis, R.

L. Giniu̅nas, R. Juškaitis, S. V. Shatalin, “Scanning fiber-optic microscope,” Electron. Lett. 27, 724–726 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Ch. P.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, Ch. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margolis, R.

Massa, J. S.

Noda, J.

Oseroff, A.

Owen, G. M.

Podoleanu, A. Gh.

A. Gh. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, “Fiberized setup for eye length measurement,” Opt. Commun. 137, 397–405 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, Ch. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. De Silvestri, E. P. Ippen, C. A. Puliafito, R. Margolis, A. Oseroff, “Femtosecond optical ranging in biological systems,” Opt. Lett. 11, 150–152 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salathe, R. P.

Schuman, J. S.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, Ch. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shatalin, S. V.

L. Giniu̅nas, R. Juškaitis, S. V. Shatalin, “Scanning fiber-optic microscope,” Electron. Lett. 27, 724–726 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

Swanson, E. A.

Takada, K.

Tearney, G. J.

Walker, A. C.

Wallace, A. M.

Walti, R.

Webb, D. J.

A. Gh. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, “Fiberized setup for eye length measurement,” Opt. Commun. 137, 397–405 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weissman, N. J.

Yan, C.

Yokohama, I.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, Ch. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Giniu̅nas, R. Juškaitis, S. V. Shatalin, “Scanning fiber-optic microscope,” Electron. Lett. 27, 724–726 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. J. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Gh. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, “Fiberized setup for eye length measurement,” Opt. Commun. 137, 397–405 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the molten glass level meter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Nonlinear error of the meter caused by the nonlinear motion of the rotating retroreflector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Signal amplitude of the meter versus position of a perfect reflector placed near the focal plane of the object arm lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Histogram that we used to estimate the resolution of the meter. Standard deviation, 3.2 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Molten glass level behavior at the oven in the factory. For the first 32 min and from 158 to 176 min the charging machine was controlled by the signal of the electrical contact level meter. From 32 to 158 min the charging machine was controlled by the signal of our optical level meter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Detailed representation of the level behavior shown at Fig. 5. The small squares represent results of the measurement; the curve is the average of the last 14 measurements. The digital curve is a signal for the charging machine formed by the microcomputer.

Metrics