Abstract

We describe a confocal two-photon laser-induced fluorescence scheme for the detection of gaseous NO. Excitation from a simple YAG-pumped Coumarin 450 dye system near 452.6 nm was used to promote the two-photon NO(A 2+, ν′ = 0 ← X 2Π, ν″ = 0) transition in the γ(0, 0) band. Subsequent fluorescence detection in the range 200–300 nm permitted almost total rejection of elastic and geometric scatter of laser radiation for excellent signal/noise ratio characteristics. The goal of the research was to apply NO fluorescence to a relatively realistic limited optical access combustion environment. A confocal optical arrangement was demonstrated for single-point measurements of NO concentration in gas samples and in atmospheric-pressure flames. The technique is suitable for applications that offer only a single direction for optical access and when significant elastic scatter is present.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Kent, UK, 1998), pp. 301–342.
  2. J. D. Bradshaw, M. O. Rodgers, D. D. Davis, “Single photon laser-induced fluorescence detection of NO and SO2 for atmospheric conditions of composition and pressure,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2493–2500 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. P. Lee, B. K. McMillin, R. K. Hanson, “Temperature measurements in gases by use of planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5379–5396 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. U. Westblom, M. Alden, “Simultaneous multiple species detection in a flame using laser-induced fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2592–2599 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. E. Heard, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, “LIF measurements in methane/air flames of radicals important in prompt-NO formation,” Combust. Flame 88, 137–148 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. C. Drake, “High pressure nitric oxide formation: kinetics modeling and laser experiments,” presented at the Combustion Institute Joint Technical Meeting, Central and Eastern Sections, New Orleans, La., 15–17 March 1993.
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    [CrossRef]
  11. J. R. Reisel, N. M. Laurendeau, “Laser-induced fluorescence measurements and modeling of nitric oxide formation in high pressure flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 98, 137–160 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Alatas, J. A. Pinson, T. A. Litzinger, D. A. Santavicca, “A study of NO and soot evolution in a DI diesel engine via planar imaging,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 1–5 March 1993.
  13. H. Nakagawa, H. Endo, Y. Deguchi, M. Noda, H. Oikawa, T. Shimada, “NO measurement in diesel spray flame using laser induced fluorescence,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.
  14. P. Andresen, G. Meijer, H. Schluter, H. Voges, A. Koch, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. Rothe, “Fluorescence imaging inside an internal combustion engine using tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2392–2404 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Arnold, F. Dinkelacker, P. Heitzmann, P. Monkhouse, M. Schafer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K. P. Schindler, “DI diesel engine combustion visualized by combined laser techniques,” in Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 1605–1612.
    [CrossRef]
  16. Th. M. Brugman, R. Klein-Douwel, G. Huigen, E. van Walwijk, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in an n-heptane- and diesel-fuel-driven diesel engine,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 405–410 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Tatsuya, M. Fujimoto, M. Tabata, “Planar measurements of NO in an s.i. engine based on laser induced fluorescence,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.
  18. M. Knapp, A. Luckzak, H. Schluter, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Crank-angle-resolved laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in a spark-ignition engine at 248 nm and correlations to flame front propagation and pressure release,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4009–4017 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Knapp, A. Luckzak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Quantitative in-cylinder NO LIF measurements with a KrF excimer laser applied to a mass-production SI engine fueled with isooctane and regular gasoline,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.
  20. E. W. Rothe, P. Andresen, “Application of tunable excimer lasers to combustion diagnostics: a review,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3971–4033 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. L. McKenzie, K. P. Gross, “Two-photon excitation of nitric oxide fluorescence as a temperature indicator in unsteady gasdynamic processes,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2153–2165 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Bradshaw, D. D. Davis, “Sequential two-photon-laser-induced fluorescence: a new method for detecting atmospheric trace levels of NO,” Opt. Lett. 7, 224–226 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. G. Bray, R. M. Hochstrasse, J. E. Wessesl, “Continuously tunable two-photon excitation of individual rotational levels of the A2∑+ state of nitric oxide,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 27, 167–171 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Asscher, Y. Haas, “Two-photon excitation of nitric oxide to levels near and above the dissociation limit,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 59, 231–236 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Asscher, Y. Haas, “The quenching mechanism of electronically excited Rydberg states of nitric oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2115–2125 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. P. Gross, R. L. McKenzie, “The two-photon absorptivity of rotational transitions in the A2∑+ (v′ = 0) ← X2Π (v″ = 0) gamma band of nitric oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5260–5266 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Alden, H. Edner, S. Wallin, “Simultaneous spatially resolved NO and NO2 measurements using one- and two-photon laser-induced fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 10, 529–531 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. Ostmark, M. Carlson, K. Ekvall, “Concentration and temperature measurements in a laser-induced high explosive ignition zone. I. LIF spectroscopy measurements,” Combust. Flame 105, 381–390 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Alden, M. H. Hans, S. Svanberg, S. Wallin, “Imaging laser-induced fluorescence of oxygen atoms in a flame,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3255–3257 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. E. M. Goldsmith, R. J. M. Anderson, “Imaging of atomic hydrogen in flames with two-step saturated fluorescence detection,” Appl. Opt. 24, 607–609 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Alden, S. Wallin, W. Wendt, “Applications of two-photon absorption for detection of CO in combustion gases,” Appl. Phys. B 33, 205–212 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

C. D. Carter, R. S. Barlow, “Simultaneous measurements of NO, OH, and the major species in turbulent flames,” Opt. Lett. 19, 299–301 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Reisel, N. M. Laurendeau, “Laser-induced fluorescence measurements and modeling of nitric oxide formation in high pressure flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 98, 137–160 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

Th. M. Brugman, R. Klein-Douwel, G. Huigen, E. van Walwijk, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in an n-heptane- and diesel-fuel-driven diesel engine,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 405–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, N. M. Laurendeau, M. C. Drake, “Laser-saturated fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in laminar, flat, C2H6/O2/N2 flames at atmospheric pressure,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 91, 271–295 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Lee, B. K. McMillin, R. K. Hanson, “Temperature measurements in gases by use of planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5379–5396 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

D. E. Heard, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, “LIF measurements in methane/air flames of radicals important in prompt-NO formation,” Combust. Flame 88, 137–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (2)

1985 (1)

1984 (2)

M. Alden, S. Wallin, W. Wendt, “Applications of two-photon absorption for detection of CO in combustion gases,” Appl. Phys. B 33, 205–212 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Alden, M. H. Hans, S. Svanberg, S. Wallin, “Imaging laser-induced fluorescence of oxygen atoms in a flame,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3255–3257 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (4)

J. Bradshaw, D. D. Davis, “Sequential two-photon-laser-induced fluorescence: a new method for detecting atmospheric trace levels of NO,” Opt. Lett. 7, 224–226 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Asscher, Y. Haas, “The quenching mechanism of electronically excited Rydberg states of nitric oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2115–2125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Gross, R. L. McKenzie, “The two-photon absorptivity of rotational transitions in the A2∑+ (v′ = 0) ← X2Π (v″ = 0) gamma band of nitric oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5260–5266 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bradshaw, M. O. Rodgers, D. D. Davis, “Single photon laser-induced fluorescence detection of NO and SO2 for atmospheric conditions of composition and pressure,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2493–2500 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

1978 (1)

M. Asscher, Y. Haas, “Two-photon excitation of nitric oxide to levels near and above the dissociation limit,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 59, 231–236 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

R. G. Bray, R. M. Hochstrasse, J. E. Wessesl, “Continuously tunable two-photon excitation of individual rotational levels of the A2∑+ state of nitric oxide,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 27, 167–171 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Alatas, B.

B. Alatas, J. A. Pinson, T. A. Litzinger, D. A. Santavicca, “A study of NO and soot evolution in a DI diesel engine via planar imaging,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 1–5 March 1993.

Alden, M.

Anderson, R. J. M.

Andresen, P.

Arnold, A.

A. Arnold, F. Dinkelacker, P. Heitzmann, P. Monkhouse, M. Schafer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K. P. Schindler, “DI diesel engine combustion visualized by combined laser techniques,” in Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 1605–1612.
[CrossRef]

Asscher, M.

M. Asscher, Y. Haas, “The quenching mechanism of electronically excited Rydberg states of nitric oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2115–2125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Asscher, Y. Haas, “Two-photon excitation of nitric oxide to levels near and above the dissociation limit,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 59, 231–236 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, R. S.

Beushausen, V.

M. Knapp, A. Luckzak, H. Schluter, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Crank-angle-resolved laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in a spark-ignition engine at 248 nm and correlations to flame front propagation and pressure release,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4009–4017 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Knapp, A. Luckzak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Quantitative in-cylinder NO LIF measurements with a KrF excimer laser applied to a mass-production SI engine fueled with isooctane and regular gasoline,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.

Bradshaw, J.

Bradshaw, J. D.

Bray, R. G.

R. G. Bray, R. M. Hochstrasse, J. E. Wessesl, “Continuously tunable two-photon excitation of individual rotational levels of the A2∑+ state of nitric oxide,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 27, 167–171 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Brugman, Th. M.

Th. M. Brugman, R. Klein-Douwel, G. Huigen, E. van Walwijk, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in an n-heptane- and diesel-fuel-driven diesel engine,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 405–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, M.

H. Ostmark, M. Carlson, K. Ekvall, “Concentration and temperature measurements in a laser-induced high explosive ignition zone. I. LIF spectroscopy measurements,” Combust. Flame 105, 381–390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carter, C. D.

C. D. Carter, R. S. Barlow, “Simultaneous measurements of NO, OH, and the major species in turbulent flames,” Opt. Lett. 19, 299–301 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, N. M. Laurendeau, M. C. Drake, “Laser-saturated fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in laminar, flat, C2H6/O2/N2 flames at atmospheric pressure,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 91, 271–295 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cattolica, R. J.

R. J. Cattolica, J. A. Cavolowski, T. G. Mataga, “Laser-fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in low-pressure H2/O2/NO flames,” in Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 1165–1173.

Cavolowski, J. A.

R. J. Cattolica, J. A. Cavolowski, T. G. Mataga, “Laser-fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in low-pressure H2/O2/NO flames,” in Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 1165–1173.

Crosley, D. R.

D. E. Heard, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, “LIF measurements in methane/air flames of radicals important in prompt-NO formation,” Combust. Flame 88, 137–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Davis, D. D.

Deguchi, Y.

H. Nakagawa, H. Endo, Y. Deguchi, M. Noda, H. Oikawa, T. Shimada, “NO measurement in diesel spray flame using laser induced fluorescence,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.

Dinkelacker, F.

A. Arnold, F. Dinkelacker, P. Heitzmann, P. Monkhouse, M. Schafer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K. P. Schindler, “DI diesel engine combustion visualized by combined laser techniques,” in Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 1605–1612.
[CrossRef]

Drake, M. C.

J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, N. M. Laurendeau, M. C. Drake, “Laser-saturated fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in laminar, flat, C2H6/O2/N2 flames at atmospheric pressure,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 91, 271–295 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Drake, “High pressure nitric oxide formation: kinetics modeling and laser experiments,” presented at the Combustion Institute Joint Technical Meeting, Central and Eastern Sections, New Orleans, La., 15–17 March 1993.

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Kent, UK, 1998), pp. 301–342.

Edner, H.

Ekvall, K.

H. Ostmark, M. Carlson, K. Ekvall, “Concentration and temperature measurements in a laser-induced high explosive ignition zone. I. LIF spectroscopy measurements,” Combust. Flame 105, 381–390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Endo, H.

H. Nakagawa, H. Endo, Y. Deguchi, M. Noda, H. Oikawa, T. Shimada, “NO measurement in diesel spray flame using laser induced fluorescence,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.

Fujimoto, M.

T. Tatsuya, M. Fujimoto, M. Tabata, “Planar measurements of NO in an s.i. engine based on laser induced fluorescence,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

Gross, K. P.

K. P. Gross, R. L. McKenzie, “The two-photon absorptivity of rotational transitions in the A2∑+ (v′ = 0) ← X2Π (v″ = 0) gamma band of nitric oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5260–5266 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. L. McKenzie, K. P. Gross, “Two-photon excitation of nitric oxide fluorescence as a temperature indicator in unsteady gasdynamic processes,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2153–2165 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haas, Y.

M. Asscher, Y. Haas, “The quenching mechanism of electronically excited Rydberg states of nitric oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2115–2125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Asscher, Y. Haas, “Two-photon excitation of nitric oxide to levels near and above the dissociation limit,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 59, 231–236 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hans, M. H.

Hanson, R. K.

Heard, D. E.

D. E. Heard, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, “LIF measurements in methane/air flames of radicals important in prompt-NO formation,” Combust. Flame 88, 137–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Heitzmann, P.

A. Arnold, F. Dinkelacker, P. Heitzmann, P. Monkhouse, M. Schafer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K. P. Schindler, “DI diesel engine combustion visualized by combined laser techniques,” in Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 1605–1612.
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, W.

M. Knapp, A. Luckzak, H. Schluter, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Crank-angle-resolved laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in a spark-ignition engine at 248 nm and correlations to flame front propagation and pressure release,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4009–4017 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Andresen, G. Meijer, H. Schluter, H. Voges, A. Koch, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. Rothe, “Fluorescence imaging inside an internal combustion engine using tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2392–2404 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Arnold, F. Dinkelacker, P. Heitzmann, P. Monkhouse, M. Schafer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K. P. Schindler, “DI diesel engine combustion visualized by combined laser techniques,” in Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 1605–1612.
[CrossRef]

M. Knapp, A. Luckzak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Quantitative in-cylinder NO LIF measurements with a KrF excimer laser applied to a mass-production SI engine fueled with isooctane and regular gasoline,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.

Hochstrasse, R. M.

R. G. Bray, R. M. Hochstrasse, J. E. Wessesl, “Continuously tunable two-photon excitation of individual rotational levels of the A2∑+ state of nitric oxide,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 27, 167–171 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Huigen, G.

Th. M. Brugman, R. Klein-Douwel, G. Huigen, E. van Walwijk, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in an n-heptane- and diesel-fuel-driven diesel engine,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 405–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jeffries, J. B.

D. E. Heard, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, “LIF measurements in methane/air flames of radicals important in prompt-NO formation,” Combust. Flame 88, 137–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Klein-Douwel, R.

Th. M. Brugman, R. Klein-Douwel, G. Huigen, E. van Walwijk, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in an n-heptane- and diesel-fuel-driven diesel engine,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 405–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Knapp, M.

M. Knapp, A. Luckzak, H. Schluter, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Crank-angle-resolved laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in a spark-ignition engine at 248 nm and correlations to flame front propagation and pressure release,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4009–4017 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Knapp, A. Luckzak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Quantitative in-cylinder NO LIF measurements with a KrF excimer laser applied to a mass-production SI engine fueled with isooctane and regular gasoline,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.

Koch, A.

Laurendeau, N. M.

J. R. Reisel, N. M. Laurendeau, “Laser-induced fluorescence measurements and modeling of nitric oxide formation in high pressure flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 98, 137–160 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, N. M. Laurendeau, M. C. Drake, “Laser-saturated fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in laminar, flat, C2H6/O2/N2 flames at atmospheric pressure,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 91, 271–295 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. P.

Litzinger, T. A.

B. Alatas, J. A. Pinson, T. A. Litzinger, D. A. Santavicca, “A study of NO and soot evolution in a DI diesel engine via planar imaging,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 1–5 March 1993.

Luckzak, A.

M. Knapp, A. Luckzak, H. Schluter, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Crank-angle-resolved laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in a spark-ignition engine at 248 nm and correlations to flame front propagation and pressure release,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4009–4017 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Knapp, A. Luckzak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Quantitative in-cylinder NO LIF measurements with a KrF excimer laser applied to a mass-production SI engine fueled with isooctane and regular gasoline,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.

Manz, P.

M. Knapp, A. Luckzak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Quantitative in-cylinder NO LIF measurements with a KrF excimer laser applied to a mass-production SI engine fueled with isooctane and regular gasoline,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.

Mataga, T. G.

R. J. Cattolica, J. A. Cavolowski, T. G. Mataga, “Laser-fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in low-pressure H2/O2/NO flames,” in Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 1165–1173.

McKenzie, R. L.

K. P. Gross, R. L. McKenzie, “The two-photon absorptivity of rotational transitions in the A2∑+ (v′ = 0) ← X2Π (v″ = 0) gamma band of nitric oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5260–5266 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. L. McKenzie, K. P. Gross, “Two-photon excitation of nitric oxide fluorescence as a temperature indicator in unsteady gasdynamic processes,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2153–2165 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMillin, B. K.

Meijer, G.

Monkhouse, P.

A. Arnold, F. Dinkelacker, P. Heitzmann, P. Monkhouse, M. Schafer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K. P. Schindler, “DI diesel engine combustion visualized by combined laser techniques,” in Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 1605–1612.
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, H.

H. Nakagawa, H. Endo, Y. Deguchi, M. Noda, H. Oikawa, T. Shimada, “NO measurement in diesel spray flame using laser induced fluorescence,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.

Noda, M.

H. Nakagawa, H. Endo, Y. Deguchi, M. Noda, H. Oikawa, T. Shimada, “NO measurement in diesel spray flame using laser induced fluorescence,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.

Oikawa, H.

H. Nakagawa, H. Endo, Y. Deguchi, M. Noda, H. Oikawa, T. Shimada, “NO measurement in diesel spray flame using laser induced fluorescence,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.

Oppermann, W.

Ostmark, H.

H. Ostmark, M. Carlson, K. Ekvall, “Concentration and temperature measurements in a laser-induced high explosive ignition zone. I. LIF spectroscopy measurements,” Combust. Flame 105, 381–390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Paul, P. H.

Pinson, J. A.

B. Alatas, J. A. Pinson, T. A. Litzinger, D. A. Santavicca, “A study of NO and soot evolution in a DI diesel engine via planar imaging,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 1–5 March 1993.

Reisel, J. R.

J. R. Reisel, N. M. Laurendeau, “Laser-induced fluorescence measurements and modeling of nitric oxide formation in high pressure flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 98, 137–160 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, N. M. Laurendeau, M. C. Drake, “Laser-saturated fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in laminar, flat, C2H6/O2/N2 flames at atmospheric pressure,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 91, 271–295 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, M. O.

Rothe, E.

Rothe, E. W.

Santavicca, D. A.

B. Alatas, J. A. Pinson, T. A. Litzinger, D. A. Santavicca, “A study of NO and soot evolution in a DI diesel engine via planar imaging,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 1–5 March 1993.

Schafer, M.

A. Arnold, F. Dinkelacker, P. Heitzmann, P. Monkhouse, M. Schafer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K. P. Schindler, “DI diesel engine combustion visualized by combined laser techniques,” in Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 1605–1612.
[CrossRef]

Schindler, K. P.

A. Arnold, F. Dinkelacker, P. Heitzmann, P. Monkhouse, M. Schafer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K. P. Schindler, “DI diesel engine combustion visualized by combined laser techniques,” in Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 1605–1612.
[CrossRef]

Schluter, H.

Shimada, T.

H. Nakagawa, H. Endo, Y. Deguchi, M. Noda, H. Oikawa, T. Shimada, “NO measurement in diesel spray flame using laser induced fluorescence,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.

Sick, V.

A. Arnold, F. Dinkelacker, P. Heitzmann, P. Monkhouse, M. Schafer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K. P. Schindler, “DI diesel engine combustion visualized by combined laser techniques,” in Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 1605–1612.
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. P.

D. E. Heard, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, “LIF measurements in methane/air flames of radicals important in prompt-NO formation,” Combust. Flame 88, 137–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

Tabata, M.

T. Tatsuya, M. Fujimoto, M. Tabata, “Planar measurements of NO in an s.i. engine based on laser induced fluorescence,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.

Tatsuya, T.

T. Tatsuya, M. Fujimoto, M. Tabata, “Planar measurements of NO in an s.i. engine based on laser induced fluorescence,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.

ter Meulen, J. J.

Th. M. Brugman, R. Klein-Douwel, G. Huigen, E. van Walwijk, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in an n-heptane- and diesel-fuel-driven diesel engine,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 405–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

van Walwijk, E.

Th. M. Brugman, R. Klein-Douwel, G. Huigen, E. van Walwijk, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in an n-heptane- and diesel-fuel-driven diesel engine,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 405–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Voges, H.

Wallin, S.

Wendt, W.

M. Alden, S. Wallin, W. Wendt, “Applications of two-photon absorption for detection of CO in combustion gases,” Appl. Phys. B 33, 205–212 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wessesl, J. E.

R. G. Bray, R. M. Hochstrasse, J. E. Wessesl, “Continuously tunable two-photon excitation of individual rotational levels of the A2∑+ state of nitric oxide,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 27, 167–171 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Westblom, U.

Wolfrum, J.

A. Arnold, F. Dinkelacker, P. Heitzmann, P. Monkhouse, M. Schafer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K. P. Schindler, “DI diesel engine combustion visualized by combined laser techniques,” in Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 1605–1612.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (9)

R. L. McKenzie, K. P. Gross, “Two-photon excitation of nitric oxide fluorescence as a temperature indicator in unsteady gasdynamic processes,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2153–2165 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Lee, B. K. McMillin, R. K. Hanson, “Temperature measurements in gases by use of planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5379–5396 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Knapp, A. Luckzak, H. Schluter, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Crank-angle-resolved laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in a spark-ignition engine at 248 nm and correlations to flame front propagation and pressure release,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4009–4017 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Rothe, P. Andresen, “Application of tunable excimer lasers to combustion diagnostics: a review,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3971–4033 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Andresen, G. Meijer, H. Schluter, H. Voges, A. Koch, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. Rothe, “Fluorescence imaging inside an internal combustion engine using tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2392–2404 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Westblom, M. Alden, “Simultaneous multiple species detection in a flame using laser-induced fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2592–2599 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Alden, M. H. Hans, S. Svanberg, S. Wallin, “Imaging laser-induced fluorescence of oxygen atoms in a flame,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3255–3257 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, R. J. M. Anderson, “Imaging of atomic hydrogen in flames with two-step saturated fluorescence detection,” Appl. Opt. 24, 607–609 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

Th. M. Brugman, R. Klein-Douwel, G. Huigen, E. van Walwijk, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in an n-heptane- and diesel-fuel-driven diesel engine,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 405–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Alden, S. Wallin, W. Wendt, “Applications of two-photon absorption for detection of CO in combustion gases,” Appl. Phys. B 33, 205–212 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. G. Bray, R. M. Hochstrasse, J. E. Wessesl, “Continuously tunable two-photon excitation of individual rotational levels of the A2∑+ state of nitric oxide,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 27, 167–171 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. Asscher, Y. Haas, “Two-photon excitation of nitric oxide to levels near and above the dissociation limit,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 59, 231–236 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (2)

D. E. Heard, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, “LIF measurements in methane/air flames of radicals important in prompt-NO formation,” Combust. Flame 88, 137–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Ostmark, M. Carlson, K. Ekvall, “Concentration and temperature measurements in a laser-induced high explosive ignition zone. I. LIF spectroscopy measurements,” Combust. Flame 105, 381–390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (2)

J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, N. M. Laurendeau, M. C. Drake, “Laser-saturated fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in laminar, flat, C2H6/O2/N2 flames at atmospheric pressure,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 91, 271–295 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Reisel, N. M. Laurendeau, “Laser-induced fluorescence measurements and modeling of nitric oxide formation in high pressure flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 98, 137–160 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (8)

T. Tatsuya, M. Fujimoto, M. Tabata, “Planar measurements of NO in an s.i. engine based on laser induced fluorescence,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.

M. Knapp, A. Luckzak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Quantitative in-cylinder NO LIF measurements with a KrF excimer laser applied to a mass-production SI engine fueled with isooctane and regular gasoline,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.

B. Alatas, J. A. Pinson, T. A. Litzinger, D. A. Santavicca, “A study of NO and soot evolution in a DI diesel engine via planar imaging,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 1–5 March 1993.

H. Nakagawa, H. Endo, Y. Deguchi, M. Noda, H. Oikawa, T. Shimada, “NO measurement in diesel spray flame using laser induced fluorescence,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.

A. Arnold, F. Dinkelacker, P. Heitzmann, P. Monkhouse, M. Schafer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K. P. Schindler, “DI diesel engine combustion visualized by combined laser techniques,” in Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 1605–1612.
[CrossRef]

M. C. Drake, “High pressure nitric oxide formation: kinetics modeling and laser experiments,” presented at the Combustion Institute Joint Technical Meeting, Central and Eastern Sections, New Orleans, La., 15–17 March 1993.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Kent, UK, 1998), pp. 301–342.

R. J. Cattolica, J. A. Cavolowski, T. G. Mataga, “Laser-fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in low-pressure H2/O2/NO flames,” in Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 1165–1173.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of two-photon LIF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Confocal optical arrangement for NO detection: HV, high voltage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Excitation scan from the gas cell: upper curve, author’s data, linewidth of 0.5 cm-1; lower curve, excitation spectrum from Bray et al., 23 linewidth of 0.3 cm-1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of fluorescence signal with pulse energy.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Linearity of fluorescence signal with NO concentration.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical fluorescence and noise signals for the confocal detection arrangement.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Propane burner design and measurement locations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Single-shot NO signal from a flame, showing the flame-off background signal.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Average of 50 shots.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Fluorescence signal versus concentration of NO added to the flame. Equivalence ratio, 1.0.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Variation of NO signal with equivalence ratio.

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