Abstract

We experimentally investigate optically amplified time-division-multiplexed polarization-insensitive fiber-optic Michelson interferometric (PIFOMI) sensor systems, using an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and a phase-generated carrier (PGC) demodulation technique. The influence of the EDFA on the extinction ratio (ER) of the light pulse and on the minimum phase-detection sensitivity (MPDS) is examined. We find that the EDFA acting as a preamplifier has limited usefulness because the highly amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise generated by the EDFA degrades the ER and the MPDS. However, both postamplifiers and in-line EDFA’s can work successfully. The MPDS of the unamplified time-division-multiplexed PIFOMI system with an ER of 33 dB was 2.4 × 10-5 rad/(Hz)1/2 at ∼1 kHz. For maintaining a MPDS of better than 3.4 × 10-5 rad/(Hz)1/2 at ∼1 kHz, the worst ER’s for the postamplified and in-line amplified systems were 20 and 17.8 dB, respectively. The corresponding input signal peak power should be larger than -20 and -25 dBm for the postamplifiers and in-line amplifiers, respectively. When two postamplifiers and two in-line amplifiers are used, an allowable sensor system loss of 47 dB and a link length of the input–output lead fiber of 108 km can be realized for this system with a 32-sensor array. Implementation of optically amplified time-division-multiplexed and wavelength-division multiplexed–time-division multiplexed PIFOMI subarray sensor systems are also addressed.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. D. Kersey, J. P. Darkin, eds., Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors III, Proc. SPIE 2071, (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. P. Dakin, “Multiplexed and distributed optical fiber sensors,” in The Distributed Fiber Optic Sensing Handbook, J. P. Dakin, ed. (IFS, Kempston, Bedford, UK, 1990), pp. 3–20.
  3. A. D. Kersey, “Multiplexed interferometric fiber sensors,” presented at the Seventh Optical Fiber Sensors Conference, Sydney, Australia, January 1990.
  4. A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Time-division multiplexing of interferometric fiber sensors using passive phase-generated carrier interrogation,” Opt. Lett. 12, 775–777 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, M. A. Davis, “Polarization-insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 27, 518–520 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, “Fiber optic Michelson array with passive elimination of polarization fading and source feedback isolation,” presented at the Eighth Optical Fiber Sensors Conference, Monterey, Calif., 29–31 January, 1992.
  7. S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, “Time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber-optic Michelson interferometric sensors,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1244–1246 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, S. C. Hung, H. L. Chao, “Crosstalk analysis and system design of time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber-optic Michelson interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1488–1500 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Nash, “Review of interferometric optical fibre hydrophone technology,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 143, 204–209 (1996).
  10. J. Aspell, J. F. Federici, B. M. Nyman, D. L. Wilson, D. S. Shenkl, “Accurate noise figure measurements of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers under saturation conditions,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper ThA4.

1996

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, S. C. Hung, H. L. Chao, “Crosstalk analysis and system design of time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber-optic Michelson interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1488–1500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Nash, “Review of interferometric optical fibre hydrophone technology,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 143, 204–209 (1996).

1995

1993

A. D. Kersey, J. P. Darkin, eds., Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors III, Proc. SPIE 2071, (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, M. A. Davis, “Polarization-insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 27, 518–520 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

Aspell, J.

J. Aspell, J. F. Federici, B. M. Nyman, D. L. Wilson, D. S. Shenkl, “Accurate noise figure measurements of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers under saturation conditions,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper ThA4.

Chao, H. L.

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, S. C. Hung, H. L. Chao, “Crosstalk analysis and system design of time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber-optic Michelson interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1488–1500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. H.

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, S. C. Hung, H. L. Chao, “Crosstalk analysis and system design of time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber-optic Michelson interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1488–1500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, “Time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber-optic Michelson interferometric sensors,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1244–1246 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dakin, J. P.

J. P. Dakin, “Multiplexed and distributed optical fiber sensors,” in The Distributed Fiber Optic Sensing Handbook, J. P. Dakin, ed. (IFS, Kempston, Bedford, UK, 1990), pp. 3–20.

Dandridge, A.

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Time-division multiplexing of interferometric fiber sensors using passive phase-generated carrier interrogation,” Opt. Lett. 12, 775–777 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, “Fiber optic Michelson array with passive elimination of polarization fading and source feedback isolation,” presented at the Eighth Optical Fiber Sensors Conference, Monterey, Calif., 29–31 January, 1992.

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, M. A. Davis, “Polarization-insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 27, 518–520 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J. F.

J. Aspell, J. F. Federici, B. M. Nyman, D. L. Wilson, D. S. Shenkl, “Accurate noise figure measurements of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers under saturation conditions,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper ThA4.

Huang, S. C.

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, S. C. Hung, H. L. Chao, “Crosstalk analysis and system design of time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber-optic Michelson interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1488–1500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, “Time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber-optic Michelson interferometric sensors,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1244–1246 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hung, S. C.

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, S. C. Hung, H. L. Chao, “Crosstalk analysis and system design of time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber-optic Michelson interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1488–1500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, M. A. Davis, “Polarization-insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 27, 518–520 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Time-division multiplexing of interferometric fiber sensors using passive phase-generated carrier interrogation,” Opt. Lett. 12, 775–777 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, “Fiber optic Michelson array with passive elimination of polarization fading and source feedback isolation,” presented at the Eighth Optical Fiber Sensors Conference, Monterey, Calif., 29–31 January, 1992.

A. D. Kersey, “Multiplexed interferometric fiber sensors,” presented at the Seventh Optical Fiber Sensors Conference, Sydney, Australia, January 1990.

Lin, W. W.

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, S. C. Hung, H. L. Chao, “Crosstalk analysis and system design of time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber-optic Michelson interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1488–1500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, “Time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber-optic Michelson interferometric sensors,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1244–1246 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marrone, M. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, M. A. Davis, “Polarization-insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 27, 518–520 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, “Fiber optic Michelson array with passive elimination of polarization fading and source feedback isolation,” presented at the Eighth Optical Fiber Sensors Conference, Monterey, Calif., 29–31 January, 1992.

Nash, P.

P. Nash, “Review of interferometric optical fibre hydrophone technology,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 143, 204–209 (1996).

Nyman, B. M.

J. Aspell, J. F. Federici, B. M. Nyman, D. L. Wilson, D. S. Shenkl, “Accurate noise figure measurements of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers under saturation conditions,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper ThA4.

Shenkl, D. S.

J. Aspell, J. F. Federici, B. M. Nyman, D. L. Wilson, D. S. Shenkl, “Accurate noise figure measurements of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers under saturation conditions,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper ThA4.

Tveten, A. B.

Wilson, D. L.

J. Aspell, J. F. Federici, B. M. Nyman, D. L. Wilson, D. S. Shenkl, “Accurate noise figure measurements of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers under saturation conditions,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper ThA4.

Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors III

A. D. Kersey, J. P. Darkin, eds., Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors III, Proc. SPIE 2071, (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, M. A. Davis, “Polarization-insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 27, 518–520 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, S. C. Hung, H. L. Chao, “Crosstalk analysis and system design of time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber-optic Michelson interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1488–1500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.

P. Nash, “Review of interferometric optical fibre hydrophone technology,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 143, 204–209 (1996).

Other

J. Aspell, J. F. Federici, B. M. Nyman, D. L. Wilson, D. S. Shenkl, “Accurate noise figure measurements of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers under saturation conditions,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper ThA4.

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, “Fiber optic Michelson array with passive elimination of polarization fading and source feedback isolation,” presented at the Eighth Optical Fiber Sensors Conference, Monterey, Calif., 29–31 January, 1992.

J. P. Dakin, “Multiplexed and distributed optical fiber sensors,” in The Distributed Fiber Optic Sensing Handbook, J. P. Dakin, ed. (IFS, Kempston, Bedford, UK, 1990), pp. 3–20.

A. D. Kersey, “Multiplexed interferometric fiber sensors,” presented at the Seventh Optical Fiber Sensors Conference, Sydney, Australia, January 1990.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optically amplified time-division-multiplexed PIFOMI sensor system. See Appendix A for definitions of abbreviations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output power, optical gain, and noise figure (NF) of the homemade EDFA versus the cw input signal power at 1550 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for the EDFA used as a postamplifier.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for the EDFA used as an in-line amplifier.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical waveforms of the 80-ns pulse trains at (top) the transmitter output port, (middle) the sensor SI1 output port, and (bottom) the CI output port.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Waveforms of (top) the 20-kHz carrier signal and (bottom) the instant output waveform of a S&H circuit.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Typical output-sensing signal at 200 Hz after PGC demodulation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Waveforms of (top) the input pulse with an optical peak power of -5 dBm and (bottom) the amplified output pulse of the post-EDFA.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Waveforms of (top) the input pulse with an optical peak power of -10.6 dBm and (bottom) the amplified output pulse of the in-line EDFA.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spectrum at the output of the PGC circuit when no light was incident upon the optical receiver.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Output spectrum of the demodulated signal at 200 Hz when the extinction ratio of the optical pulse was 33 dB and no EDFA’s were used in the TDM PIFOMI sensor system.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Output spectrum of the demodulated signal at 200 Hz when the in-line EDFA was used and the peak power of the input signal was -34.2 dBm.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Output peak power, optical gain, and ER versus the peak power of the input pulse for an EDFA as a postamplifier and an in-line amplifier.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

RPN and THD versus the extinction ratio for an EDFA as a postamplifier and an in-line amplifier.

Equations (2)

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ER   =   10   log H / L     dB .
MPDS   =   3.4   ×   10 - 2   ×   10 RPN / 20   rad / Hz 1 / 2 .

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