Abstract

We report the spectral characterization of proton-exchanged lithium niobate (PE:LiNbO3) waveguides in terms of the variation of the refractive-index difference between the waveguiding layer and the substrate. The dispersion of the extraordinary refractive-index increase (δn e) is measured from 405 to 1319 nm with several light sources. Two types of proton-exchanged waveguide, prepared under different conditions, are studied. These measurements should be of use in the optimization of PE:LiNbO3 waveguides for nonlinear optical applications, particularly in second-harmonic generation in the blue-green wavelength region.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. El Hadi, M. Sundheimer, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, F. Laurell, “Quasi-phase-matched parametric interactions in proton exchanged lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3197–3203 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. J. Lim, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, “Second harmonic generation of green light in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 25, 174–175 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Webjörn, F. Laurell, G. Arvidsson, “Blue light generated by frequency doubling of laser diode light in a lithium niobate waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 316–318 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, “Proton exchange for high index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Minakata, K. Kumagai, S. Kawakami, “Lattice constant changes and electro-optic effects in proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 992–994 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, J. P. Baretty, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, M. Papuchon, “Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 743–745 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Fedorov, M. De Micheli, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, “Relationship between structural and optical properties of proton exchanged waveguides on Z-cut lithium niobate,” Appl. Opt. 35, 7056–7060 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. De Micheli, J. Botineau, S. Neveu, P. Sibillot, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. Papuchon, “Independent control of index and profiles in proton-exchanged lithium niobate guides,” Opt. Lett. 8, 114–115 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Digonnet, M. Fejer, R. Byer, “Characterization of proton-exchanged waveguides in MgO:LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 10, 235–237 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. L. Bortz, M. Fejer, “Annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1844–1846 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. F. Cao, R. V. Ramaswami, R. Srivastava, “Characterization of annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides for nonlinear frequency conversion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1302–1313 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Baldi, P. Aschieri, S. Nouh, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, D. Delacourt, M. Papuchon, “Modelling and experimental observations of parametric fluorescence in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 997–1006 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. G. Suchoski, T. K. Findakly, F. J. Leonberger, “Stable low-loss proton-exchanged waveguide devices with no electro-optic degradation,” Opt. Lett. 13, 1050–1052 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. Papuchon, “High index low loss LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 62, 17–20 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, Y. N. Korkishko, P. Bassi, “Proton exchange waveguides in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3: structural and optical properties,” in Insulating Materials for Optoelectronics: New Developments, F. Agullo-Lopez, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), Chap. 12, pp. 329–366.
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. K. Tien, “Light waves in thin films and integrated optics,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2395–2413 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. V. Hobden, J. Warner, “The temperature dependence of the refractive indices of pure lithium niobate,” Phys. Lett. 22, 243–244 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. M. White, P. F. Heidrich, “Optical waveguide refractive index profiles determined from measurement of mode indices in a simple analysis,” Appl. Opt. 15, 151–155 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. M. Conwell, “Modes in optical waveguides formed by diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 328–329 (1973).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

P. Baldi, P. Aschieri, S. Nouh, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, D. Delacourt, M. Papuchon, “Modelling and experimental observations of parametric fluorescence in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 997–1006 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

X. F. Cao, R. V. Ramaswami, R. Srivastava, “Characterization of annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides for nonlinear frequency conversion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1302–1313 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1989 (2)

E. J. Lim, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, “Second harmonic generation of green light in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 25, 174–175 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Webjörn, F. Laurell, G. Arvidsson, “Blue light generated by frequency doubling of laser diode light in a lithium niobate waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 316–318 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. Papuchon, “High index low loss LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 62, 17–20 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

M. Minakata, K. Kumagai, S. Kawakami, “Lattice constant changes and electro-optic effects in proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 992–994 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, J. P. Baretty, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, M. Papuchon, “Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 743–745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, “Proton exchange for high index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1973 (1)

E. M. Conwell, “Modes in optical waveguides formed by diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 328–329 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1966 (1)

M. V. Hobden, J. Warner, “The temperature dependence of the refractive indices of pure lithium niobate,” Phys. Lett. 22, 243–244 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Arvidsson, G.

J. Webjörn, F. Laurell, G. Arvidsson, “Blue light generated by frequency doubling of laser diode light in a lithium niobate waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 316–318 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Aschieri, P.

K. El Hadi, M. Sundheimer, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, F. Laurell, “Quasi-phase-matched parametric interactions in proton exchanged lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3197–3203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Baldi, P. Aschieri, S. Nouh, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, D. Delacourt, M. Papuchon, “Modelling and experimental observations of parametric fluorescence in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 997–1006 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baldi, P.

Baretty, J. P.

M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, J. P. Baretty, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, M. Papuchon, “Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 743–745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bassi, P.

M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, Y. N. Korkishko, P. Bassi, “Proton exchange waveguides in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3: structural and optical properties,” in Insulating Materials for Optoelectronics: New Developments, F. Agullo-Lopez, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), Chap. 12, pp. 329–366.
[CrossRef]

Bortz, M. L.

Botineau, J.

Byer, R.

Byer, R. L.

E. J. Lim, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, “Second harmonic generation of green light in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 25, 174–175 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Canali, C.

M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, J. P. Baretty, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, M. Papuchon, “Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 743–745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. F.

X. F. Cao, R. V. Ramaswami, R. Srivastava, “Characterization of annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides for nonlinear frequency conversion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1302–1313 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carnera, A.

M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, J. P. Baretty, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, M. Papuchon, “Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 743–745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Conwell, E. M.

E. M. Conwell, “Modes in optical waveguides formed by diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 328–329 (1973).
[CrossRef]

De Micheli, M.

K. El Hadi, M. Sundheimer, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, F. Laurell, “Quasi-phase-matched parametric interactions in proton exchanged lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3197–3203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu. N. Korkishko, V. Fedorov, M. De Micheli, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, “Relationship between structural and optical properties of proton exchanged waveguides on Z-cut lithium niobate,” Appl. Opt. 35, 7056–7060 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Baldi, P. Aschieri, S. Nouh, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, D. Delacourt, M. Papuchon, “Modelling and experimental observations of parametric fluorescence in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 997–1006 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, J. P. Baretty, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, M. Papuchon, “Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 743–745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. De Micheli, J. Botineau, S. Neveu, P. Sibillot, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. Papuchon, “Independent control of index and profiles in proton-exchanged lithium niobate guides,” Opt. Lett. 8, 114–115 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, Y. N. Korkishko, P. Bassi, “Proton exchange waveguides in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3: structural and optical properties,” in Insulating Materials for Optoelectronics: New Developments, F. Agullo-Lopez, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), Chap. 12, pp. 329–366.
[CrossRef]

De Micheli, M. P.

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. Papuchon, “High index low loss LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 62, 17–20 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Delacourt, D.

P. Baldi, P. Aschieri, S. Nouh, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, D. Delacourt, M. Papuchon, “Modelling and experimental observations of parametric fluorescence in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 997–1006 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Digonnet, M.

El Hadi, K.

Fedorov, V.

Fejer, M.

Fejer, M. M.

E. J. Lim, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, “Second harmonic generation of green light in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 25, 174–175 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Findakly, T. K.

Heidrich, P. F.

Hobden, M. V.

M. V. Hobden, J. Warner, “The temperature dependence of the refractive indices of pure lithium niobate,” Phys. Lett. 22, 243–244 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. L.

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, “Proton exchange for high index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

M. Minakata, K. Kumagai, S. Kawakami, “Lattice constant changes and electro-optic effects in proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 992–994 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Korkishko, Y. N.

M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, Y. N. Korkishko, P. Bassi, “Proton exchange waveguides in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3: structural and optical properties,” in Insulating Materials for Optoelectronics: New Developments, F. Agullo-Lopez, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), Chap. 12, pp. 329–366.
[CrossRef]

Korkishko, Yu. N.

Kumagai, K.

M. Minakata, K. Kumagai, S. Kawakami, “Lattice constant changes and electro-optic effects in proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 992–994 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

K. El Hadi, M. Sundheimer, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, F. Laurell, “Quasi-phase-matched parametric interactions in proton exchanged lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3197–3203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Webjörn, F. Laurell, G. Arvidsson, “Blue light generated by frequency doubling of laser diode light in a lithium niobate waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 316–318 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Leonberger, F. J.

Li, M. J.

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. Papuchon, “High index low loss LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 62, 17–20 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lim, E. J.

E. J. Lim, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, “Second harmonic generation of green light in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 25, 174–175 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mazzi, G.

M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, J. P. Baretty, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, M. Papuchon, “Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 743–745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Minakata, M.

M. Minakata, K. Kumagai, S. Kawakami, “Lattice constant changes and electro-optic effects in proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 992–994 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Neveu, S.

Nouh, S.

P. Baldi, P. Aschieri, S. Nouh, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, D. Delacourt, M. Papuchon, “Modelling and experimental observations of parametric fluorescence in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 997–1006 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowsky, D.

K. El Hadi, M. Sundheimer, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, F. Laurell, “Quasi-phase-matched parametric interactions in proton exchanged lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3197–3203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, J. P. Baretty, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, M. Papuchon, “Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 743–745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowsky, D. B.

P. Baldi, P. Aschieri, S. Nouh, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, D. Delacourt, M. Papuchon, “Modelling and experimental observations of parametric fluorescence in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 997–1006 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. Papuchon, “High index low loss LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 62, 17–20 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. De Micheli, J. Botineau, S. Neveu, P. Sibillot, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. Papuchon, “Independent control of index and profiles in proton-exchanged lithium niobate guides,” Opt. Lett. 8, 114–115 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, Y. N. Korkishko, P. Bassi, “Proton exchange waveguides in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3: structural and optical properties,” in Insulating Materials for Optoelectronics: New Developments, F. Agullo-Lopez, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), Chap. 12, pp. 329–366.
[CrossRef]

Papuchon, M.

P. Baldi, P. Aschieri, S. Nouh, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, D. Delacourt, M. Papuchon, “Modelling and experimental observations of parametric fluorescence in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 997–1006 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. Papuchon, “High index low loss LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 62, 17–20 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, J. P. Baretty, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, M. Papuchon, “Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 743–745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. De Micheli, J. Botineau, S. Neveu, P. Sibillot, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. Papuchon, “Independent control of index and profiles in proton-exchanged lithium niobate guides,” Opt. Lett. 8, 114–115 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramaswami, R. V.

X. F. Cao, R. V. Ramaswami, R. Srivastava, “Characterization of annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides for nonlinear frequency conversion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1302–1313 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rice, C. E.

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, “Proton exchange for high index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sibillot, P.

Srivastava, R.

X. F. Cao, R. V. Ramaswami, R. Srivastava, “Characterization of annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides for nonlinear frequency conversion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1302–1313 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Suchoski, P. G.

Sundheimer, M.

Tien, P. K.

Veselka, J. J.

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, “Proton exchange for high index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Warner, J.

M. V. Hobden, J. Warner, “The temperature dependence of the refractive indices of pure lithium niobate,” Phys. Lett. 22, 243–244 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Webjörn, J.

J. Webjörn, F. Laurell, G. Arvidsson, “Blue light generated by frequency doubling of laser diode light in a lithium niobate waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 316–318 (1989).
[CrossRef]

White, J. M.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

E. M. Conwell, “Modes in optical waveguides formed by diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 328–329 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, “Proton exchange for high index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Minakata, K. Kumagai, S. Kawakami, “Lattice constant changes and electro-optic effects in proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 992–994 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

E. J. Lim, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, “Second harmonic generation of green light in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 25, 174–175 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, J. P. Baretty, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, M. Papuchon, “Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 743–745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Baldi, P. Aschieri, S. Nouh, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, D. Delacourt, M. Papuchon, “Modelling and experimental observations of parametric fluorescence in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 997–1006 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Webjörn, F. Laurell, G. Arvidsson, “Blue light generated by frequency doubling of laser diode light in a lithium niobate waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 316–318 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

X. F. Cao, R. V. Ramaswami, R. Srivastava, “Characterization of annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides for nonlinear frequency conversion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1302–1313 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. Papuchon, “High index low loss LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 62, 17–20 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Lett. (1)

M. V. Hobden, J. Warner, “The temperature dependence of the refractive indices of pure lithium niobate,” Phys. Lett. 22, 243–244 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, Y. N. Korkishko, P. Bassi, “Proton exchange waveguides in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3: structural and optical properties,” in Insulating Materials for Optoelectronics: New Developments, F. Agullo-Lopez, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), Chap. 12, pp. 329–366.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Maximum change in the extraordinary refractive index of the proton-exchanged layer achievable by use of the sealed ampoule technique, as a function of percentage dilution of the melt, ρ. PEI, PEII, and PEIII refer to the three types of index profile, described in the text, which correspond to different ranges of ρ. (b) Typical index profiles at 632.8 nm, corresponding to three fabrication conditions. APE means annealed proton exchanged.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dispersion of δn e for the PEI (1%, 300 °C, 30 min) waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the spectral variation δn e of PEI waveguides reported in Ref. 10 and in the present study. The curves represent the Sellmeier-type functional variation determined by the two studies.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dispersion of δn e for the PEIII waveguides. Fabrication parameters for Sample 1: 3%, 300 °C, 27 h 30 min; for Sample 2: 2.65%, 300 °C, 30 h.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Light Sources and Characterization Techniques Used To Measure the Spectral Dependence of the Index Variation in Proton-Exchanged LiNbO3 Waveguides

Tables Icon

Table 2 Estimated Values of δne and Waveguide Depth d from Measured Effective Indices for Sample 1 (3%, 300 °C, and 27 h 30 min) of PEIII Waveguides

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ n e = 0.0847376 + 2862.93 λ 2 + 1.57563 × 10 9 λ 4 .
δ n e = 0.0065036 - 827.123 λ 2 + 1.1944 × 10 9 λ 4 .
δ n e = 0.0162485 - 1845.74 λ 2 + 1.82664 × 10 9 λ 4 .

Metrics