Abstract

For a double-pass-pumped cw Tm:YAG laser, we developed a theoretical model, taking into account reabsorption loss and mode matching between the pumping light and the cavity mode. We also demonstrated that efficient operation can be obtained with a simple cavity configuration by using a dichroic output mirror, highly reflective at the pumping wavelength and partially reflective at the lasing wavelength. Experimental comparisons of this pumping method with single-pass pumping showed that the longitudinally double-pass-pumped Tm:YAG laser performs as well at room temperature as the single-pass-pumped laser performs at -10 °C.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Continuous-wave operation at 2.1 μm of a diode-laser-pumped Tm-sensitized Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser at 300 K,” Opt. Lett. 12, 678–680 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. J. M. Suni, S. W. Henderson, “1-mJ/pulse Tm:YAG laser pumped by a 3-W diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 817–819 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. T. McGuckin, R. T. Menzies, “Efficient cw diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser with tunability near 2.067 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1025–1028 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. P. Barnes, W. J. Rodriguez, B. M. Walsh, “Ho:Tm:YLF laser amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2872–2882 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 605–612 (1987).
  7. W. P. Risk, “Modeling of longitudinally pumped solid-state lasers exhibiting reabsorption losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1412–1423 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Y. Fan, “Optimizing the efficiency and stored energy in quasi-three-level lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2692–2697 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. J. Morris, W. Luthy, H. P. Weber, “Operation of resonantly pumped Tm:Ho:YAG in active mirror mode,” Opt. Commun. 104, 97–101 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, “Ho:YAG laser pumped by 1.9-μm diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603–1605 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Peterson, A. Gavrielides, P. M. Sharma, “CW theory of a laser diode-pumped two-manifold solid state laser,” Opt. Commun. 109, 282–287 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. J. Beach, “CW theory of quasi-three-level end-pumped laser oscillators,” Opt. Commun. 123, 385–393 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Rustad, K. Stenersen, “Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for upconversion and ground-state depletion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1645–1656 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Sato, K. Asai, T. Itabe, “Efficient pumping method for DL end-pumped Tm:YAG laser,” in Technical Digest of the Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, New York, 1997), pp. 24–25.
    [CrossRef]

1996 (2)

N. P. Barnes, W. J. Rodriguez, B. M. Walsh, “Ho:Tm:YLF laser amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2872–2882 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Rustad, K. Stenersen, “Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for upconversion and ground-state depletion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1645–1656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

R. J. Beach, “CW theory of quasi-three-level end-pumped laser oscillators,” Opt. Commun. 123, 385–393 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, “Ho:YAG laser pumped by 1.9-μm diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603–1605 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

P. Peterson, A. Gavrielides, P. M. Sharma, “CW theory of a laser diode-pumped two-manifold solid state laser,” Opt. Commun. 109, 282–287 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. J. Morris, W. Luthy, H. P. Weber, “Operation of resonantly pumped Tm:Ho:YAG in active mirror mode,” Opt. Commun. 104, 97–101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

T. Y. Fan, “Optimizing the efficiency and stored energy in quasi-three-level lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2692–2697 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. T. McGuckin, R. T. Menzies, “Efficient cw diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser with tunability near 2.067 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1025–1028 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1988 (2)

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Risk, “Modeling of longitudinally pumped solid-state lasers exhibiting reabsorption losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1412–1423 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 605–612 (1987).

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Continuous-wave operation at 2.1 μm of a diode-laser-pumped Tm-sensitized Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser at 300 K,” Opt. Lett. 12, 678–680 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asai, K.

A. Sato, K. Asai, T. Itabe, “Efficient pumping method for DL end-pumped Tm:YAG laser,” in Technical Digest of the Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, New York, 1997), pp. 24–25.
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

Beach, R. J.

R. J. Beach, “CW theory of quasi-three-level end-pumped laser oscillators,” Opt. Commun. 123, 385–393 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 605–612 (1987).

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Continuous-wave operation at 2.1 μm of a diode-laser-pumped Tm-sensitized Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser at 300 K,” Opt. Lett. 12, 678–680 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H. K.

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, “Ho:YAG laser pumped by 1.9-μm diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603–1605 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, “Ho:YAG laser pumped by 1.9-μm diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603–1605 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, “Optimizing the efficiency and stored energy in quasi-three-level lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2692–2697 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 605–612 (1987).

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Continuous-wave operation at 2.1 μm of a diode-laser-pumped Tm-sensitized Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser at 300 K,” Opt. Lett. 12, 678–680 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gavrielides, A.

P. Peterson, A. Gavrielides, P. M. Sharma, “CW theory of a laser diode-pumped two-manifold solid state laser,” Opt. Commun. 109, 282–287 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, S. W.

Huber, G.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Continuous-wave operation at 2.1 μm of a diode-laser-pumped Tm-sensitized Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser at 300 K,” Opt. Lett. 12, 678–680 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itabe, T.

A. Sato, K. Asai, T. Itabe, “Efficient pumping method for DL end-pumped Tm:YAG laser,” in Technical Digest of the Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, New York, 1997), pp. 24–25.
[CrossRef]

Luthy, W.

P. J. Morris, W. Luthy, H. P. Weber, “Operation of resonantly pumped Tm:Ho:YAG in active mirror mode,” Opt. Commun. 104, 97–101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McGuckin, B. T.

B. T. McGuckin, R. T. Menzies, “Efficient cw diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser with tunability near 2.067 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1025–1028 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Menzies, R. T.

B. T. McGuckin, R. T. Menzies, “Efficient cw diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser with tunability near 2.067 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1025–1028 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mitzscherlich, P.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Continuous-wave operation at 2.1 μm of a diode-laser-pumped Tm-sensitized Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser at 300 K,” Opt. Lett. 12, 678–680 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morris, P. J.

P. J. Morris, W. Luthy, H. P. Weber, “Operation of resonantly pumped Tm:Ho:YAG in active mirror mode,” Opt. Commun. 104, 97–101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nabors, C. D.

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, “Ho:YAG laser pumped by 1.9-μm diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603–1605 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ochoa, J.

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, “Ho:YAG laser pumped by 1.9-μm diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603–1605 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, P.

P. Peterson, A. Gavrielides, P. M. Sharma, “CW theory of a laser diode-pumped two-manifold solid state laser,” Opt. Commun. 109, 282–287 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Risk, W. P.

Rodriguez, W. J.

Rustad, G.

G. Rustad, K. Stenersen, “Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for upconversion and ground-state depletion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1645–1656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, A.

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, “Ho:YAG laser pumped by 1.9-μm diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603–1605 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sato, A.

A. Sato, K. Asai, T. Itabe, “Efficient pumping method for DL end-pumped Tm:YAG laser,” in Technical Digest of the Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, New York, 1997), pp. 24–25.
[CrossRef]

Sharma, P. M.

P. Peterson, A. Gavrielides, P. M. Sharma, “CW theory of a laser diode-pumped two-manifold solid state laser,” Opt. Commun. 109, 282–287 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stenersen, K.

G. Rustad, K. Stenersen, “Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for upconversion and ground-state depletion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1645–1656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suni, P. J. M.

Turner, G. W.

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, “Ho:YAG laser pumped by 1.9-μm diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603–1605 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, B. M.

Weber, H. P.

P. J. Morris, W. Luthy, H. P. Weber, “Operation of resonantly pumped Tm:Ho:YAG in active mirror mode,” Opt. Commun. 104, 97–101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (6)

B. T. McGuckin, R. T. Menzies, “Efficient cw diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser with tunability near 2.067 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1025–1028 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 605–612 (1987).

T. Y. Fan, “Optimizing the efficiency and stored energy in quasi-three-level lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2692–2697 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Nabors, J. Ochoa, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, “Ho:YAG laser pumped by 1.9-μm diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1603–1605 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Rustad, K. Stenersen, “Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for upconversion and ground-state depletion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1645–1656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (3)

P. J. Morris, W. Luthy, H. P. Weber, “Operation of resonantly pumped Tm:Ho:YAG in active mirror mode,” Opt. Commun. 104, 97–101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Peterson, A. Gavrielides, P. M. Sharma, “CW theory of a laser diode-pumped two-manifold solid state laser,” Opt. Commun. 109, 282–287 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Beach, “CW theory of quasi-three-level end-pumped laser oscillators,” Opt. Commun. 123, 385–393 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

A. Sato, K. Asai, T. Itabe, “Efficient pumping method for DL end-pumped Tm:YAG laser,” in Technical Digest of the Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, New York, 1997), pp. 24–25.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy level diagram for Tm:YAG.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated threshold pump power versus temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated threshold pump power as a function of crystal length.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of simulations of normalized slope efficiency as a function of incident pump power.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the double-pass-pumped Tm:YAG laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Output power at 2 μm versus incident pump power.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of experimental results and simulations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical-to-optical conversion efficiency as a function of temperature.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters Used for Numerical Simulations

Equations (18)

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d Δ N x ,   y ,   z d t = 2 fRr P x ,   y ,   z - Δ N x ,   y ,   z - Δ N 0 τ - fc σ Δ N x ,   y ,   z n   Φ ϕ 0 x ,   y ,   z = 0 ,
R = η a P P h ν P ,
Φ = 2 nlP L ch ν L ,
r P x ,   y ,   z = 2 α π w px w py η a exp - 2 x 2 w px 2 + y 2 w py 2 × 1 + R P   exp - 2 α l + 2 α z exp - α z ,
η a = 1 - exp - α l 1 + R P   exp - α l ,
ϕ 0 x ,   y ,   z = 2 π w L 2 l exp - 2 x 2 + y 2 w L 2 ,
B = 2 σ N 1 0 l L + T ,
S = 4 σ τ P L π w L 2 h ν L ,
F = 4 σ τ η a P P π w L 2 h ν P L + T ,
8 π w L 2 w px w py × 0 0 2 fFw L 2 exp - 2 x 2 w px 2 + y 2 w py 2 - Bw px w py 1 + fS   exp - 2 x 2 + y 2 w L 2 × exp - 2 x 2 + y 2 w L 2 d x d y = 1 ,
r x = 2 x 2 w px 2 ,
r y = 2 y 2 w py 2 ,
a x = w px w L ,
a y = w py w L ,
F = 1 + Ba x a y π 0 0 exp - a x 2 r x - a y 2 r y 1 + fS   exp - a x 2 r x - a y 2 r y 1 r x r y d r x d r y 2 f π 0 0 exp - 1 + a x 2 r x - 1 + a y 2 r y 1 + fS   exp - a x 2 r x - a y 2 r y 1 r x r y d r x d r y .
P th = π h ν P w L 2 + w px 2 w L 2 + w py 2 L + T + 2 σ N 1 0 l 8 σ τ f η a .
η = T L + T ν L ν P   η a d S d F ,
d S d F = 2   0 0 exp - r x - r y r x r y exp a x 2 r x + a y 2 r y + fS d r x d r y 0 0 2 fF   exp - r x - r y - Ba x a y r x r y exp a x 2 r x + a y 2 r y + fS 2 d r x d r y .

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