Abstract

The use of total reflection at the boundary between the guiding region and the substrate (or another guiding region) to implement waveguide achromatic elements is discussed. Two geometries of the boundary, parabolic and elliptical, are proposed and analyzed. The parabolic boundary was fabricated by selective ion exchange, and both its focusing capabilities and the compatibility of its numerical aperture with optical fibers are demonstrated.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Sochacki, “Gradient-index geodesic lenses for integrated optics: a uniform theory. I. Full aperture solutions,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 891–906 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Chen, E. Marom, R. J. Morrison, “Diffraction-limited geodesic lens for integrated optics circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 511–513 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. C. Righini, G. Molesini, “Design of optical-waveguides homogeneous refracting lenses,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4193–4199 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Molesini, G. C. Righini, “Homogeneous refracting lenses for integrated optical circuits,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1029–1048 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. H. Chartier, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Girod, “Masking process for double-ion-exchanged glass optical waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 22, 925–926 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Liñares, G. C. Righini, J. E. Alvarellos, “Modal coupling analysis for integrated optical components in glass and lithium niobate,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5292–5298 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. X. Prieto, C. Montero, J. Liñares, “Three-step diffused surface waveguides for fabricating and designing integrated optical components,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2159–2163 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Saarinen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, J. Hutunen, “Double-ion exchange process in glass for the fabrication of computer-generated waveguide holograms,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3353–3359 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. März, C. Cremer, “On the theory of planar spectrographs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 2017–2220 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. C. Clemens, G. Heise, R. März, H. Michel, A. Reichelt, H. W. Schneider, “8-Channel optical demultiplexer realized as SiO2/Si flat-field spectrograph,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1109–1111 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. K. Tien, “Integrated optics and new phenomena in optical waveguides,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 361–420 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Albert, “Ion exchange from salt melts,” in Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics, S. I. Najafi, ed. (Artech, London, 1992), Chap. 2.
  13. T. Tamir, ed., Guided-Wave Optoelectronics, Vol. 26 of Springer Series in Electronics and Photonics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  14. H. C. Cheng, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Symmetrical directional coupler as a wavelength multiplexer–demultiplexer: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 567–574 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Kishioka, G. L. Yip, “A novel three-wavelength demultiplexer utilising the two- and three-guide couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 234–240 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, “Model for waveguide fabrication in glass by two-step ion exchange with ionic masking,” Opt. Lett. 13, 71–73 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. D. Fantone, “Refractive index and spectral models for gradient-index materials,” Appl. Opt. 22, 432–440 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. N. Miliou, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Modeling of the index change in K+–Na+ ion-exchanged waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 30, 674–681 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. A. Betts, F. Lui, “Broadband polarisation splitting couplers in ion-exchanged glass,” Electron. Lett. 26, 450–452 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

X. Prieto, C. Montero, J. Liñares, “Three-step diffused surface waveguides for fabricating and designing integrated optical components,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2159–2163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

J. Saarinen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, J. Hutunen, “Double-ion exchange process in glass for the fabrication of computer-generated waveguide holograms,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3353–3359 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Clemens, G. Heise, R. März, H. Michel, A. Reichelt, H. W. Schneider, “8-Channel optical demultiplexer realized as SiO2/Si flat-field spectrograph,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1109–1111 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. Kishioka, G. L. Yip, “A novel three-wavelength demultiplexer utilising the two- and three-guide couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 234–240 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1991 (2)

A. N. Miliou, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Modeling of the index change in K+–Na+ ion-exchanged waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 30, 674–681 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Cheng, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Symmetrical directional coupler as a wavelength multiplexer–demultiplexer: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 567–574 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. A. Betts, F. Lui, “Broadband polarisation splitting couplers in ion-exchanged glass,” Electron. Lett. 26, 450–452 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (4)

A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, “Model for waveguide fabrication in glass by two-step ion exchange with ionic masking,” Opt. Lett. 13, 71–73 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Righini, G. Molesini, “Design of optical-waveguides homogeneous refracting lenses,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4193–4199 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sochacki, “Gradient-index geodesic lenses for integrated optics: a uniform theory. I. Full aperture solutions,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 891–906 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Molesini, G. C. Righini, “Homogeneous refracting lenses for integrated optical circuits,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1029–1048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

G. H. Chartier, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Girod, “Masking process for double-ion-exchanged glass optical waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 22, 925–926 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1978 (1)

B. Chen, E. Marom, R. J. Morrison, “Diffraction-limited geodesic lens for integrated optics circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 511–513 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

P. K. Tien, “Integrated optics and new phenomena in optical waveguides,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 361–420 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

J. Albert, “Ion exchange from salt melts,” in Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics, S. I. Najafi, ed. (Artech, London, 1992), Chap. 2.

Alvarellos, J. E.

Betts, R. A.

R. A. Betts, F. Lui, “Broadband polarisation splitting couplers in ion-exchanged glass,” Electron. Lett. 26, 450–452 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, G. H.

G. H. Chartier, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Girod, “Masking process for double-ion-exchanged glass optical waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 22, 925–926 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

B. Chen, E. Marom, R. J. Morrison, “Diffraction-limited geodesic lens for integrated optics circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 511–513 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H. C.

H. C. Cheng, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Symmetrical directional coupler as a wavelength multiplexer–demultiplexer: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 567–574 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Clemens, P. C.

P. C. Clemens, G. Heise, R. März, H. Michel, A. Reichelt, H. W. Schneider, “8-Channel optical demultiplexer realized as SiO2/Si flat-field spectrograph,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1109–1111 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cremer, C.

R. März, C. Cremer, “On the theory of planar spectrographs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 2017–2220 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fantone, S. D.

Girod, A.

G. H. Chartier, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Girod, “Masking process for double-ion-exchanged glass optical waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 22, 925–926 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Heise, G.

P. C. Clemens, G. Heise, R. März, H. Michel, A. Reichelt, H. W. Schneider, “8-Channel optical demultiplexer realized as SiO2/Si flat-field spectrograph,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1109–1111 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

Hutunen, J.

Kishioka, K.

K. Kishioka, G. L. Yip, “A novel three-wavelength demultiplexer utilising the two- and three-guide couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 234–240 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Laybourn, P. J. R.

P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Molesini, G. C. Righini, “Homogeneous refracting lenses for integrated optical circuits,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1029–1048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Chartier, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Girod, “Masking process for double-ion-exchanged glass optical waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 22, 925–926 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Liñares, J.

X. Prieto, C. Montero, J. Liñares, “Three-step diffused surface waveguides for fabricating and designing integrated optical components,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2159–2163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Liñares, G. C. Righini, J. E. Alvarellos, “Modal coupling analysis for integrated optical components in glass and lithium niobate,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5292–5298 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lui, F.

R. A. Betts, F. Lui, “Broadband polarisation splitting couplers in ion-exchanged glass,” Electron. Lett. 26, 450–452 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marom, E.

B. Chen, E. Marom, R. J. Morrison, “Diffraction-limited geodesic lens for integrated optics circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 511–513 (1978).
[CrossRef]

März, R.

P. C. Clemens, G. Heise, R. März, H. Michel, A. Reichelt, H. W. Schneider, “8-Channel optical demultiplexer realized as SiO2/Si flat-field spectrograph,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1109–1111 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. März, C. Cremer, “On the theory of planar spectrographs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 2017–2220 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Michel, H.

P. C. Clemens, G. Heise, R. März, H. Michel, A. Reichelt, H. W. Schneider, “8-Channel optical demultiplexer realized as SiO2/Si flat-field spectrograph,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1109–1111 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miliou, A. N.

Molesini, G.

P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Molesini, G. C. Righini, “Homogeneous refracting lenses for integrated optical circuits,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1029–1048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Righini, G. Molesini, “Design of optical-waveguides homogeneous refracting lenses,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4193–4199 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montero, C.

X. Prieto, C. Montero, J. Liñares, “Three-step diffused surface waveguides for fabricating and designing integrated optical components,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2159–2163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. J.

B. Chen, E. Marom, R. J. Morrison, “Diffraction-limited geodesic lens for integrated optics circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 511–513 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

Prieto, X.

X. Prieto, C. Montero, J. Liñares, “Three-step diffused surface waveguides for fabricating and designing integrated optical components,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2159–2163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, R. V.

H. C. Cheng, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Symmetrical directional coupler as a wavelength multiplexer–demultiplexer: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 567–574 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Miliou, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Modeling of the index change in K+–Na+ ion-exchanged waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 30, 674–681 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichelt, A.

P. C. Clemens, G. Heise, R. März, H. Michel, A. Reichelt, H. W. Schneider, “8-Channel optical demultiplexer realized as SiO2/Si flat-field spectrograph,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1109–1111 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Righini, G. C.

Saarinen, J.

Schneider, H. W.

P. C. Clemens, G. Heise, R. März, H. Michel, A. Reichelt, H. W. Schneider, “8-Channel optical demultiplexer realized as SiO2/Si flat-field spectrograph,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1109–1111 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sochacki, J.

J. Sochacki, “Gradient-index geodesic lenses for integrated optics: a uniform theory. I. Full aperture solutions,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 891–906 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, R.

Tervonen, A.

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien, “Integrated optics and new phenomena in optical waveguides,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 361–420 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Yip, G. L.

K. Kishioka, G. L. Yip, “A novel three-wavelength demultiplexer utilising the two- and three-guide couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 234–240 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Chen, E. Marom, R. J. Morrison, “Diffraction-limited geodesic lens for integrated optics circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 511–513 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

G. H. Chartier, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Girod, “Masking process for double-ion-exchanged glass optical waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 22, 925–926 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Betts, F. Lui, “Broadband polarisation splitting couplers in ion-exchanged glass,” Electron. Lett. 26, 450–452 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. C. Cheng, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Symmetrical directional coupler as a wavelength multiplexer–demultiplexer: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 567–574 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. C. Clemens, G. Heise, R. März, H. Michel, A. Reichelt, H. W. Schneider, “8-Channel optical demultiplexer realized as SiO2/Si flat-field spectrograph,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1109–1111 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

K. Kishioka, G. L. Yip, “A novel three-wavelength demultiplexer utilising the two- and three-guide couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 234–240 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. März, C. Cremer, “On the theory of planar spectrographs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 2017–2220 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (3)

J. Sochacki, “Gradient-index geodesic lenses for integrated optics: a uniform theory. I. Full aperture solutions,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 891–906 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Molesini, G. C. Righini, “Homogeneous refracting lenses for integrated optical circuits,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1029–1048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

X. Prieto, C. Montero, J. Liñares, “Three-step diffused surface waveguides for fabricating and designing integrated optical components,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2159–2163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

P. K. Tien, “Integrated optics and new phenomena in optical waveguides,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 361–420 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Albert, “Ion exchange from salt melts,” in Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics, S. I. Najafi, ed. (Artech, London, 1992), Chap. 2.

T. Tamir, ed., Guided-Wave Optoelectronics, Vol. 26 of Springer Series in Electronics and Photonics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

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