Abstract

A stereoscopic projector with polarized glasses is proposed that consists of spatial light modulators (SLM’s) that control the retardation of projected light, a polarization beam splitter (PBS), and single-projection optics. This display’s features include a three-dimensional (3-D) image display with a single projector and half the size and the power consumption of a conventional 3-D projector. Analysis shows that the cross talk and the extinction ratio of this system depend strongly on the polarized light-separation characteristics of the PBS, the light output, and the extinction ratio of the SLM’s. A double-PBS method that drastically improves 3-D image quality is also discussed.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. M. Haggerty, S. Reinsch, W. P. Bleha, R. D. Stering, “Stereoscopic large screen displays using liquid crystal light valve projectors,” in Large Screen and Projection Displays II, W. P. Bleha, ed., Proc. SPIE1255, 114–122 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Isono, M. Yasuda, D. Takemori, H. Kanayama, C. Yamada, K. Chiba, “50-inch autostereoscopic full-color 3-D TV display system,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications II, S. S. Fisher, J. O. Merritt, eds., Proc. SPIE1669, 176–185 (1992).
  3. H. Isono, M. Yasuda, “Flicker-free field sequential stereoscopic TV system and measurement of human depth perception,” Soc. Motion Pict. Eng. J. 99, 138–141 (1990).
  4. K. Takizawa, T. Fujii, “Stereoscopic projector,” Japanese patent8-331606 applied for (13December1996).
  5. K. E. Jachimowicz, R. S. Gold, “Stereoscopic (3-D) projection display using polarized color multiplexing,” Opt. Eng. 29, 838–842 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Hatori, I. Yuyama, “Progress towards three-dimensional television,” in Technical Digest of the TAO First International Symposium (Telecommunications Advancement Organization of Japan, Tokyo, 1993), pp. S413–S419.
  7. H. Yamanoue, M. Nagayama, T. Motoki, T. Mitsuhashi, M. Hatori, “A study of tolerance for geometrical distortions between L/R images on shooting 3D-HDTV,” Technical Rep. No. HIR-96-71, (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 1996), pp. 105–110 (in Japanese).
  8. R. D. Sterling, R. D. TeKolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C. Borah, W. P. Bleha, “Video-rate liquid-crystal light-valve using an amorphous silicon photoconductor,” in Technical Digest of the Society for Information Display International Symposium 21 (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1990), pp. 327–329.
  9. W. P. Bleha, “Development of ILA projectors for large screen display,” in Technical Digest of the Asia Display ’95 Conference, (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1990), pp. 91–94.
  10. J. Hagerman, M. Yoshimura, Y. Oikawa, H. Ohmae, “Single lens color ILA projector,” in Technical Digest of the Asia Display ’95 Conference (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1990), pp. 923–924.
  11. A. G. Ledebuhr, “Full-color single-projection-lens liquid-crystal light-valve projector,” in Technical Digest of the Society for Information Display International Symposium 17 (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1986), pp. 379–382.
  12. K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, K. Tada, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves for projection display,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1781–1791 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, K. Tada, “Reflection mode polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1346–1351 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, M. Yokozawa, “Spatial light modulators using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal and Bi12SiO20 photoconductive layers for projection display,” in Projection Displays, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2407, 136–148 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Yoshikawa, M. Horie, H. Takahashi, T. Shimura, “A construction of liquid crystal light valve in a reflection mode,” Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J. J59-C, 305–312 (1976) (in Japanese).
  16. I. P. Kaminow, An Introduction to Electrooptic Devices (Academic, New York, 1974), Chap. 1.
  17. A. Hanazato, M. Okui, H. Hoshino, T. Mitsuhashi, “Subjective quality of stereoscopic TV pictures impaired by crosstalk images,” in Technical Digest of the Winter Meeting of the Institute of Television Engineers (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1996), p. 2-1.
  18. E. L. O’Neill, Introduction to Statistical Optics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1963), Chap. 9.

1994

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, K. Tada, “Reflection mode polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1346–1351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, K. Tada, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves for projection display,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1781–1791 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

H. Isono, M. Yasuda, “Flicker-free field sequential stereoscopic TV system and measurement of human depth perception,” Soc. Motion Pict. Eng. J. 99, 138–141 (1990).

K. E. Jachimowicz, R. S. Gold, “Stereoscopic (3-D) projection display using polarized color multiplexing,” Opt. Eng. 29, 838–842 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1976

S. Yoshikawa, M. Horie, H. Takahashi, T. Shimura, “A construction of liquid crystal light valve in a reflection mode,” Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J. J59-C, 305–312 (1976) (in Japanese).

Bleha, W. P.

J. M. Haggerty, S. Reinsch, W. P. Bleha, R. D. Stering, “Stereoscopic large screen displays using liquid crystal light valve projectors,” in Large Screen and Projection Displays II, W. P. Bleha, ed., Proc. SPIE1255, 114–122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Haggerty, S. Reinsch, W. P. Bleha, R. D. Stering, “Stereoscopic large screen displays using liquid crystal light valve projectors,” in Large Screen and Projection Displays II, W. P. Bleha, ed., Proc. SPIE1255, 114–122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Sterling, R. D. TeKolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C. Borah, W. P. Bleha, “Video-rate liquid-crystal light-valve using an amorphous silicon photoconductor,” in Technical Digest of the Society for Information Display International Symposium 21 (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1990), pp. 327–329.

W. P. Bleha, “Development of ILA projectors for large screen display,” in Technical Digest of the Asia Display ’95 Conference, (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1990), pp. 91–94.

Borah, T. C.

R. D. Sterling, R. D. TeKolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C. Borah, W. P. Bleha, “Video-rate liquid-crystal light-valve using an amorphous silicon photoconductor,” in Technical Digest of the Society for Information Display International Symposium 21 (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1990), pp. 327–329.

Chiba, K.

H. Isono, M. Yasuda, D. Takemori, H. Kanayama, C. Yamada, K. Chiba, “50-inch autostereoscopic full-color 3-D TV display system,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications II, S. S. Fisher, J. O. Merritt, eds., Proc. SPIE1669, 176–185 (1992).

Fujii, T.

K. Takizawa, T. Fujii, “Stereoscopic projector,” Japanese patent8-331606 applied for (13December1996).

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, M. Yokozawa, “Spatial light modulators using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal and Bi12SiO20 photoconductive layers for projection display,” in Projection Displays, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2407, 136–148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fujikake, H.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, K. Tada, “Reflection mode polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1346–1351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, K. Tada, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves for projection display,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1781–1791 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, M. Yokozawa, “Spatial light modulators using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal and Bi12SiO20 photoconductive layers for projection display,” in Projection Displays, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2407, 136–148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gold, R. S.

K. E. Jachimowicz, R. S. Gold, “Stereoscopic (3-D) projection display using polarized color multiplexing,” Opt. Eng. 29, 838–842 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hagerman, J.

J. Hagerman, M. Yoshimura, Y. Oikawa, H. Ohmae, “Single lens color ILA projector,” in Technical Digest of the Asia Display ’95 Conference (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1990), pp. 923–924.

Haggerty, J. M.

R. D. Sterling, R. D. TeKolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C. Borah, W. P. Bleha, “Video-rate liquid-crystal light-valve using an amorphous silicon photoconductor,” in Technical Digest of the Society for Information Display International Symposium 21 (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1990), pp. 327–329.

J. M. Haggerty, S. Reinsch, W. P. Bleha, R. D. Stering, “Stereoscopic large screen displays using liquid crystal light valve projectors,” in Large Screen and Projection Displays II, W. P. Bleha, ed., Proc. SPIE1255, 114–122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hanazato, A.

A. Hanazato, M. Okui, H. Hoshino, T. Mitsuhashi, “Subjective quality of stereoscopic TV pictures impaired by crosstalk images,” in Technical Digest of the Winter Meeting of the Institute of Television Engineers (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1996), p. 2-1.

Hatori, M.

M. Hatori, I. Yuyama, “Progress towards three-dimensional television,” in Technical Digest of the TAO First International Symposium (Telecommunications Advancement Organization of Japan, Tokyo, 1993), pp. S413–S419.

H. Yamanoue, M. Nagayama, T. Motoki, T. Mitsuhashi, M. Hatori, “A study of tolerance for geometrical distortions between L/R images on shooting 3D-HDTV,” Technical Rep. No. HIR-96-71, (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 1996), pp. 105–110 (in Japanese).

Horie, M.

S. Yoshikawa, M. Horie, H. Takahashi, T. Shimura, “A construction of liquid crystal light valve in a reflection mode,” Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J. J59-C, 305–312 (1976) (in Japanese).

Hoshino, H.

A. Hanazato, M. Okui, H. Hoshino, T. Mitsuhashi, “Subjective quality of stereoscopic TV pictures impaired by crosstalk images,” in Technical Digest of the Winter Meeting of the Institute of Television Engineers (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1996), p. 2-1.

Isono, H.

H. Isono, M. Yasuda, “Flicker-free field sequential stereoscopic TV system and measurement of human depth perception,” Soc. Motion Pict. Eng. J. 99, 138–141 (1990).

H. Isono, M. Yasuda, D. Takemori, H. Kanayama, C. Yamada, K. Chiba, “50-inch autostereoscopic full-color 3-D TV display system,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications II, S. S. Fisher, J. O. Merritt, eds., Proc. SPIE1669, 176–185 (1992).

Jachimowicz, K. E.

K. E. Jachimowicz, R. S. Gold, “Stereoscopic (3-D) projection display using polarized color multiplexing,” Opt. Eng. 29, 838–842 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, An Introduction to Electrooptic Devices (Academic, New York, 1974), Chap. 1.

Kanayama, H.

H. Isono, M. Yasuda, D. Takemori, H. Kanayama, C. Yamada, K. Chiba, “50-inch autostereoscopic full-color 3-D TV display system,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications II, S. S. Fisher, J. O. Merritt, eds., Proc. SPIE1669, 176–185 (1992).

Kawakita, M.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, M. Yokozawa, “Spatial light modulators using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal and Bi12SiO20 photoconductive layers for projection display,” in Projection Displays, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2407, 136–148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, H.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, K. Tada, “Reflection mode polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1346–1351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, K. Tada, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves for projection display,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1781–1791 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, M. Yokozawa, “Spatial light modulators using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal and Bi12SiO20 photoconductive layers for projection display,” in Projection Displays, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2407, 136–148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ledebuhr, A. G.

A. G. Ledebuhr, “Full-color single-projection-lens liquid-crystal light-valve projector,” in Technical Digest of the Society for Information Display International Symposium 17 (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1986), pp. 379–382.

Mitsuhashi, T.

H. Yamanoue, M. Nagayama, T. Motoki, T. Mitsuhashi, M. Hatori, “A study of tolerance for geometrical distortions between L/R images on shooting 3D-HDTV,” Technical Rep. No. HIR-96-71, (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 1996), pp. 105–110 (in Japanese).

A. Hanazato, M. Okui, H. Hoshino, T. Mitsuhashi, “Subjective quality of stereoscopic TV pictures impaired by crosstalk images,” in Technical Digest of the Winter Meeting of the Institute of Television Engineers (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1996), p. 2-1.

Motoki, T.

H. Yamanoue, M. Nagayama, T. Motoki, T. Mitsuhashi, M. Hatori, “A study of tolerance for geometrical distortions between L/R images on shooting 3D-HDTV,” Technical Rep. No. HIR-96-71, (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 1996), pp. 105–110 (in Japanese).

Nagayama, M.

H. Yamanoue, M. Nagayama, T. Motoki, T. Mitsuhashi, M. Hatori, “A study of tolerance for geometrical distortions between L/R images on shooting 3D-HDTV,” Technical Rep. No. HIR-96-71, (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 1996), pp. 105–110 (in Japanese).

Namikawa, Y.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, K. Tada, “Reflection mode polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1346–1351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, K. Tada, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves for projection display,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1781–1791 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, E. L.

E. L. O’Neill, Introduction to Statistical Optics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1963), Chap. 9.

Ohmae, H.

J. Hagerman, M. Yoshimura, Y. Oikawa, H. Ohmae, “Single lens color ILA projector,” in Technical Digest of the Asia Display ’95 Conference (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1990), pp. 923–924.

Oikawa, Y.

J. Hagerman, M. Yoshimura, Y. Oikawa, H. Ohmae, “Single lens color ILA projector,” in Technical Digest of the Asia Display ’95 Conference (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1990), pp. 923–924.

Okui, M.

A. Hanazato, M. Okui, H. Hoshino, T. Mitsuhashi, “Subjective quality of stereoscopic TV pictures impaired by crosstalk images,” in Technical Digest of the Winter Meeting of the Institute of Television Engineers (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1996), p. 2-1.

Reinsch, S.

J. M. Haggerty, S. Reinsch, W. P. Bleha, R. D. Stering, “Stereoscopic large screen displays using liquid crystal light valve projectors,” in Large Screen and Projection Displays II, W. P. Bleha, ed., Proc. SPIE1255, 114–122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shimura, T.

S. Yoshikawa, M. Horie, H. Takahashi, T. Shimura, “A construction of liquid crystal light valve in a reflection mode,” Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J. J59-C, 305–312 (1976) (in Japanese).

Stering, R. D.

J. M. Haggerty, S. Reinsch, W. P. Bleha, R. D. Stering, “Stereoscopic large screen displays using liquid crystal light valve projectors,” in Large Screen and Projection Displays II, W. P. Bleha, ed., Proc. SPIE1255, 114–122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sterling, R. D.

R. D. Sterling, R. D. TeKolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C. Borah, W. P. Bleha, “Video-rate liquid-crystal light-valve using an amorphous silicon photoconductor,” in Technical Digest of the Society for Information Display International Symposium 21 (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1990), pp. 327–329.

Tada, K.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, K. Tada, “Reflection mode polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1346–1351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, K. Tada, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves for projection display,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1781–1791 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

S. Yoshikawa, M. Horie, H. Takahashi, T. Shimura, “A construction of liquid crystal light valve in a reflection mode,” Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J. J59-C, 305–312 (1976) (in Japanese).

Takemori, D.

H. Isono, M. Yasuda, D. Takemori, H. Kanayama, C. Yamada, K. Chiba, “50-inch autostereoscopic full-color 3-D TV display system,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications II, S. S. Fisher, J. O. Merritt, eds., Proc. SPIE1669, 176–185 (1992).

Takizawa, K.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, K. Tada, “Reflection mode polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1346–1351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, K. Tada, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves for projection display,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1781–1791 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Takizawa, T. Fujii, “Stereoscopic projector,” Japanese patent8-331606 applied for (13December1996).

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, M. Yokozawa, “Spatial light modulators using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal and Bi12SiO20 photoconductive layers for projection display,” in Projection Displays, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2407, 136–148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

TeKolste, R. D.

R. D. Sterling, R. D. TeKolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C. Borah, W. P. Bleha, “Video-rate liquid-crystal light-valve using an amorphous silicon photoconductor,” in Technical Digest of the Society for Information Display International Symposium 21 (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1990), pp. 327–329.

Yamada, C.

H. Isono, M. Yasuda, D. Takemori, H. Kanayama, C. Yamada, K. Chiba, “50-inch autostereoscopic full-color 3-D TV display system,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications II, S. S. Fisher, J. O. Merritt, eds., Proc. SPIE1669, 176–185 (1992).

Yamanoue, H.

H. Yamanoue, M. Nagayama, T. Motoki, T. Mitsuhashi, M. Hatori, “A study of tolerance for geometrical distortions between L/R images on shooting 3D-HDTV,” Technical Rep. No. HIR-96-71, (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 1996), pp. 105–110 (in Japanese).

Yasuda, M.

H. Isono, M. Yasuda, “Flicker-free field sequential stereoscopic TV system and measurement of human depth perception,” Soc. Motion Pict. Eng. J. 99, 138–141 (1990).

H. Isono, M. Yasuda, D. Takemori, H. Kanayama, C. Yamada, K. Chiba, “50-inch autostereoscopic full-color 3-D TV display system,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications II, S. S. Fisher, J. O. Merritt, eds., Proc. SPIE1669, 176–185 (1992).

Yokozawa, M.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, M. Yokozawa, “Spatial light modulators using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal and Bi12SiO20 photoconductive layers for projection display,” in Projection Displays, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2407, 136–148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, S.

S. Yoshikawa, M. Horie, H. Takahashi, T. Shimura, “A construction of liquid crystal light valve in a reflection mode,” Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J. J59-C, 305–312 (1976) (in Japanese).

Yoshimura, M.

J. Hagerman, M. Yoshimura, Y. Oikawa, H. Ohmae, “Single lens color ILA projector,” in Technical Digest of the Asia Display ’95 Conference (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1990), pp. 923–924.

Yuyama, I.

M. Hatori, I. Yuyama, “Progress towards three-dimensional television,” in Technical Digest of the TAO First International Symposium (Telecommunications Advancement Organization of Japan, Tokyo, 1993), pp. S413–S419.

Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J.

S. Yoshikawa, M. Horie, H. Takahashi, T. Shimura, “A construction of liquid crystal light valve in a reflection mode,” Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J. J59-C, 305–312 (1976) (in Japanese).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, K. Tada, “Reflection mode polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1346–1351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, Y. Namikawa, K. Tada, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves for projection display,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1781–1791 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Jachimowicz, R. S. Gold, “Stereoscopic (3-D) projection display using polarized color multiplexing,” Opt. Eng. 29, 838–842 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Soc. Motion Pict. Eng. J.

H. Isono, M. Yasuda, “Flicker-free field sequential stereoscopic TV system and measurement of human depth perception,” Soc. Motion Pict. Eng. J. 99, 138–141 (1990).

Other

K. Takizawa, T. Fujii, “Stereoscopic projector,” Japanese patent8-331606 applied for (13December1996).

J. M. Haggerty, S. Reinsch, W. P. Bleha, R. D. Stering, “Stereoscopic large screen displays using liquid crystal light valve projectors,” in Large Screen and Projection Displays II, W. P. Bleha, ed., Proc. SPIE1255, 114–122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Isono, M. Yasuda, D. Takemori, H. Kanayama, C. Yamada, K. Chiba, “50-inch autostereoscopic full-color 3-D TV display system,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications II, S. S. Fisher, J. O. Merritt, eds., Proc. SPIE1669, 176–185 (1992).

M. Hatori, I. Yuyama, “Progress towards three-dimensional television,” in Technical Digest of the TAO First International Symposium (Telecommunications Advancement Organization of Japan, Tokyo, 1993), pp. S413–S419.

H. Yamanoue, M. Nagayama, T. Motoki, T. Mitsuhashi, M. Hatori, “A study of tolerance for geometrical distortions between L/R images on shooting 3D-HDTV,” Technical Rep. No. HIR-96-71, (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 1996), pp. 105–110 (in Japanese).

R. D. Sterling, R. D. TeKolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C. Borah, W. P. Bleha, “Video-rate liquid-crystal light-valve using an amorphous silicon photoconductor,” in Technical Digest of the Society for Information Display International Symposium 21 (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1990), pp. 327–329.

W. P. Bleha, “Development of ILA projectors for large screen display,” in Technical Digest of the Asia Display ’95 Conference, (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1990), pp. 91–94.

J. Hagerman, M. Yoshimura, Y. Oikawa, H. Ohmae, “Single lens color ILA projector,” in Technical Digest of the Asia Display ’95 Conference (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1990), pp. 923–924.

A. G. Ledebuhr, “Full-color single-projection-lens liquid-crystal light-valve projector,” in Technical Digest of the Society for Information Display International Symposium 17 (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1986), pp. 379–382.

K. Takizawa, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, T. Fujii, M. Kawakita, M. Yokozawa, “Spatial light modulators using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal and Bi12SiO20 photoconductive layers for projection display,” in Projection Displays, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2407, 136–148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, An Introduction to Electrooptic Devices (Academic, New York, 1974), Chap. 1.

A. Hanazato, M. Okui, H. Hoshino, T. Mitsuhashi, “Subjective quality of stereoscopic TV pictures impaired by crosstalk images,” in Technical Digest of the Winter Meeting of the Institute of Television Engineers (Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1996), p. 2-1.

E. L. O’Neill, Introduction to Statistical Optics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1963), Chap. 9.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic structure of a conventional 3-D projection-type display with polarized glasses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the proposed 3-D projection-type display that is based on retardation modulation. PMORGB, light-modulation block for converting p-wave light to s-wave light; SMORGB, light-modulation block for converting s-wave light to p-wave light; DM, dichroic mirror; PBS, polarization beam splitter; LC, condenser lens; LP, projection lens; ILRGB, red, green, and blue electrical signals for the left eye; IRRGB, red, green, and blue electrical signals for the right eye.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the proposed 3-D projection-type display based on light-scattering modulation. Q, quarter-wave plate; L1, projection lens 1; L2, projection lens 2; A, aperture.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagrams of the reflection-mode SLM’s: (a) optical addressing type and (b) electrical addressing type.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross-sectional view of the reflection-mode SLM that uses a DAP-mode LC. a-Si:H, amorphous silicon; sub., substrate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic diagram of a monochromatic 3-D projection system. CRT(L, R), a Brown tube that generates a left-eye or a right-eye image; L, lens.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relation between the transmittance and θ of the DAP-mode nematic LC (thickness of 5 μm). θ, the angle between the longer axis of LC and the normal line of the glass substrate; λ, the wavelength.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transmission-type optical system that corresponds to the area surrounded by a broken line of the reflection-mode projection system shown in Fig. 6. PBS1,2,3, polarization beam splitters in a parallel Nichol’s relation; ML,R, transmission-type light modulator that uses a DAP-mode LC; A,B, output light intensity.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relations between the left-eye cross talk C L and the light output T L of the left-eye SLM in the system shown in Fig. 8 for (a) various values of a and a light output of the right-eye SLM of T R = 0.5, (b) various values of T R where a = 0.01, and (c) various values of a where T L = T R .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic diagram of a 3-D projection-type display that uses Brown tubes with polarized glasses. CRT(L, R), Brown tubes for the left and the right eyes; I L,R , intensities of the light radiated from the Brown tubes for the left and the right eyes.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Relation between the cross talk C c and the left-eye signal intensity I L for the 3-D projection-type display that uses Brown tubes and polarizers with a = 0.005.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Dependence of the extinction ratio E LR of the monochromatic 3-D projection system when R 1 = R 2 = 0.04 for various parameters: (a) Relation between E LR and the polarized light-separation characteristics a of the PBS for several values of the extinction ratio η of the left-eye SLM and a light output of T R = 0.5 of the right-eye SLM. (b) Relation between E LR and η for various values of a when T R = 0.5. (c) Relation between E LR and T R for various values of a when η = 100.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Construction of a monochromatic 3-D projection system with a double PBS.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Relations between the cross talk C L of the monochromatic 3-D projection system with a double PBS and light output T L of the left-eye SLM for (a) various values of a and a light output of the right-eye SLM of T R = 0.5, (b) various values of T R when a = 0.01, and (c) various values of a when T L = T R .

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Dependence of the extinction ratio E LR on various parameters for the monochromatic 3-D projection system, where R 1 = R 2 = 0.04 with a double PBS: (a) Relation between E LR and the polarized light-separation characteristics a of the PBS for various values of the extinction ratio η of the left-eye SLM and a light output of T R = 0.005 of the right-eye SLM. (b) Relation between E LR and η for various values of a when T R = 0.005. (c) Relation between E LR and T R for various values of a when η = 100.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Classification of the Proposed 3-D Projection Display

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Table 2 Wavelength Dependence of the Ordinary no and the Extraordinary ne Refractive Indices of the DAP-Mode Nematic LCa

Equations (41)

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ϕ = 2 π Δ n / λ ,
A = A p 2 + A s 2 A p 2 - A s 2 2 A p A s cos   δ L 2 A p A s sin   δ L ,
P T = 1 / 2 1 / 2 - a 0 0 1 / 2 - a 1 / 2 0 0 0 0 a 1 - a 1 / 2 0 0 0 0 a 1 - a 1 / 2 ,
P R = 1 / 2 a - 1 / 2 0 0 a - 1 / 2 1 / 2 0 0 0 0 a 1 - a 1 / 2 0 0 0 0 a 1 - a 1 / 2 ,
F = 1 0 0 0 0 cos   ϕ L 0 - sin   ϕ L 0 0 1 0 0 sin   ϕ L 0 cos   ϕ L ,
A = A p 2 + A s 2 A p 2 - A s 2 2 A p A s cos   δ L 2 A p A s sin   δ L = P R FP T 1 0 0 0 = 1 / 4 - 1 / 2 - a 2 cos   ϕ L a / 2 - 1 / 4 1 - cos   ϕ L 0 a 1 - a 1 / 2 1 / 2 - a sin   ϕ L .
A p 2 = a 1 + 1 - 2 a cos   ϕ L 4 ,
A s 2 = 1 - a 1 - 1 - 2 a cos   ϕ L 4 .
B = B p 2 + B s 2 B p 2 - B s 2 2 B p B s cos   δ R 2 B p B s sin   δ R = P T FP R 1 0 0 0 = 1 / 4 - a - 1 / 2 2 cos   ϕ R 1 / 4 - a / 2 1 - cos   ϕ R 0 a 1 - a 1 / 2 a - 1 / 2 sin   ϕ R ,
B p 2 = 1 - a 1 - 1 - 2 a cos   ϕ R 4 ,
B s 2 = a 1 + 1 - 2 a cos   ϕ R 4 .
T L = 1 - cos   ϕ L 2 .
A p 2 = a 1 - a - a 1 - 2 a T L 2 ,
A s 2 = a 1 - a + 1 - a 1 - 2 a T L 2 .
B p 2 = a 1 - a + 1 - a 1 - 2 a T R 2 ,
B s 2 = a 1 - a - a 1 - 2 a T R 2 .
C L = B s 2 / A s 2 = a 1 - a - a 1 - 2 a T R a 1 - a + 1 - a 1 - 2 a T L .
T min T L , R T max ,
T min = T max / η ,
T max = 1 - λ i - λ j - 1 λ j λ i cos π λ c / λ d λ 2 .
E L = 2 a 1 - a + 1 - a 1 - 2 a T max - a 1 - 2 a T R 2 a 1 - a + 1 - a 1 - 2 a T min - a 1 - 2 a T R .
PBS R = a 1 - a R 1 1 - R 1 2 .
SLM R = a 1 - a 1 - R 1 4 R 2 .
E LR = R 3 a 1 - a + 1 - a 1 / 2 - a T max - a 1 / 2 - a T R + a 1 - a R 1 1 - R 1 2 + a 1 - a 1 - R 1 4 R 2 R 3 a 1 - a + 1 - a 1 / 2 - a T min - a 1 / 2 - a T R + a 1 - a R 1 1 - R 1 2 + a 1 - a 1 - R 1 4 R 2 .
C L F = 3 a 1 - a - a 1 - 2 a T R R + T R G + T R B 3 a 1 - a + 1 - a 1 - 2 a T L R + T L G + T L B .
T min R T L , R R T max R , T min G T L , R G T max G , T min B T L , R B T max B ,
T max R = 1 - λ i R - λ j R - 1 λ j R λ i R cos π λ c R / λ d λ 2 T max G = 1 - λ i G - λ j G - 1 λ j G λ i G cos π λ c G / λ d λ 2 , T max B = 1 - λ i B - λ j B - 1 λ j B λ i B cos π λ c B / λ d λ 2 ,
T min R = T max R η R , T min G = T max G η G , T min B = T max B η B .
E LR F = R 3 { 3 a 1 - a + 1 - a 1 / 2 - a T max R + T max G + T max B - a 1 / 2 - a T R R + T R G + T R B } + 3 a 1 - a R 1 1 - R 1 2 + 3 a 1 - a 1 - R 1 4 R 2 R 3 { 3 a 1 - a + 1 - a 1 / 2 - a T min R + T min G + T min B - a 1 / 2 - a T R R + T R G + T R B } + 3 a 1 - a R 1 1 - R 1 + 3 a 1 - a 1 - R 1 4 R 2 .
C c = aI R 1 - a I L .
A = A p 2 + A s 2 A p 2 - A s 2 2 A p A s cos   δ L 2 A p A s sin   δ L = P R P R FP T P T 1 0 0 0 .
A p 2 = a 2 1 - a 2 2 - a 2 1 - 2 a T L 2 ,
A s 2 = a 2 1 - a 2 2 + 1 - a 2 1 - 2 a T L 2 .
B p 2 = a 2 1 - a 2 2 + 1 - a 2 1 - 2 a T R 2 ,
B s 2 = a 2 1 - a 2 2 - a 2 1 - 2 a T R 2 .
C L = a 2 1 - a 2 - a 2 1 - 2 a T R a 2 1 - a 2 + 1 - a 2 1 - 2 a T L .
E LR = R 3 a 2 1 - a 2 + 1 - a 2 1 / 2 - a T max - a 2 1 / 2 - a T R + a 2 1 - a 2 R 1 1 - R 1 2 + a 2 1 - a 2 1 - R 1 4 R 2 R 3 a 2 1 - a 2 + 1 - a 2 1 / 2 - a T min - a 2 1 / 2 - a T R + a 2 1 - a 2 R 1 1 - R 1 2 + a 2 1 - a 2 1 - R 1 4 R 2 .
P = 1 2 q p 2 + q s 2 q p 2 - q s 2 0 0 q p 2 - q s 2 q p 2 + q s 2 0 0 0 0 2 q p q s 0 0 0 0 2 q p q s ,
q p 2 = 1 - a , q s 2 = a ,
q p 2 = a , q s 2 = 1 - a ,
F = 1 0 0 0 0 1 - 1 - cos   ϕ L sin 2   2 Θ 1 - cos   ϕ L sin   2 Θ   cos   2 Θ - sin   ϕ L sin   2 Θ 0 1 - cos   ϕ L sin   2 Θ   cos   2 Θ 1 - 1 - cos   ϕ L cos 2   2 Θ sin   ϕ L cos   2 Θ 0 sin   ϕ L sin   2 Θ - sin   ϕ L cos   2 Θ cos   ϕ L .

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