Abstract

A photorefractive beam splitter (PRBS) is introduced as an alternative to a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) for coupling optical power into reflective modulators in a free-space optical interconnection system. The PRBS uses a single diffraction grating recorded in a photorefractive material to redirect the incident laser light into the first diffraction order and onto the modulators. Reflected interconnection light not matching the Bragg angle criteria transmits uncoupled through the beam splitter. Experimental results show that the PRBS provides better, more uniform transmission for off-axis beams than the currently used PBS.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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1996 (2)

1995 (1)

R. Müller, M. T. Santos, L. Arizmendi, J. M. Cabrera, “Time evolution of photorefractive fixing processes in LiNbO3,” Opt. Mater. 4(2–3), 290–293 (1995).

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

Arizmendi, L.

R. Müller, M. T. Santos, L. Arizmendi, J. M. Cabrera, “Time evolution of photorefractive fixing processes in LiNbO3,” Opt. Mater. 4(2–3), 290–293 (1995).

Cabrera, J. M.

R. Müller, M. T. Santos, L. Arizmendi, J. M. Cabrera, “Time evolution of photorefractive fixing processes in LiNbO3,” Opt. Mater. 4(2–3), 290–293 (1995).

Cheng, C.-C.

Chipman, R. A.

Çokgör, I.

W. L. Hendrick, P. J. Marchand, F. B. McCormick, I. Çokgör, S. C. Esener, “Optical transpose interconnection system: system design and component development,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of AmericaWashington, D.C., 1995), pp. 283–285.

Efron, U.

P. Marchand, A. Krishnamoorthy, S. Esener, U. Efron, “Optically augmented 3-D computer: technology and architecture,” in Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994), pp. 133–139.
[CrossRef]

Esener, S.

P. Marchand, A. Krishnamoorthy, S. Esener, U. Efron, “Optically augmented 3-D computer: technology and architecture,” in Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994), pp. 133–139.
[CrossRef]

F. Zane, P. Marchand, R. Paturi, S. Esener, “Scalable network architectures using the optical transpose interconnection system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 114–121.
[CrossRef]

Esener, S. C.

G. C. Marsden, P. J. Marchand, P. Harvey, S. C. Esener, “Optical transpose interconnection system architectures,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1083–1085 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Hendrick, P. J. Marchand, F. B. McCormick, I. Çokgör, S. C. Esener, “Optical transpose interconnection system: system design and component development,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of AmericaWashington, D.C., 1995), pp. 283–285.

Fainman, Y.

Ford, J. E.

Ford, J. F.

Harvey, P.

Hendrick, W. L.

W. L. Hendrick, P. J. Marchand, F. B. McCormick, I. Çokgör, S. C. Esener, “Optical transpose interconnection system: system design and component development,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of AmericaWashington, D.C., 1995), pp. 283–285.

Krishnamoorthy, A.

P. Marchand, A. Krishnamoorthy, S. Esener, U. Efron, “Optically augmented 3-D computer: technology and architecture,” in Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994), pp. 133–139.
[CrossRef]

Marchand, P.

P. Marchand, A. Krishnamoorthy, S. Esener, U. Efron, “Optically augmented 3-D computer: technology and architecture,” in Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994), pp. 133–139.
[CrossRef]

F. Zane, P. Marchand, R. Paturi, S. Esener, “Scalable network architectures using the optical transpose interconnection system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 114–121.
[CrossRef]

Marchand, P. J.

G. C. Marsden, P. J. Marchand, P. Harvey, S. C. Esener, “Optical transpose interconnection system architectures,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1083–1085 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Hendrick, P. J. Marchand, F. B. McCormick, I. Çokgör, S. C. Esener, “Optical transpose interconnection system: system design and component development,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of AmericaWashington, D.C., 1995), pp. 283–285.

Marsden, G. C.

McCormick, F. B.

W. L. Hendrick, P. J. Marchand, F. B. McCormick, I. Çokgör, S. C. Esener, “Optical transpose interconnection system: system design and component development,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of AmericaWashington, D.C., 1995), pp. 283–285.

Müller, R.

R. Müller, M. T. Santos, L. Arizmendi, J. M. Cabrera, “Time evolution of photorefractive fixing processes in LiNbO3,” Opt. Mater. 4(2–3), 290–293 (1995).

Paturi, R.

F. Zane, P. Marchand, R. Paturi, S. Esener, “Scalable network architectures using the optical transpose interconnection system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 114–121.
[CrossRef]

Pezzaniti, J. L.

Santos, M. T.

R. Müller, M. T. Santos, L. Arizmendi, J. M. Cabrera, “Time evolution of photorefractive fixing processes in LiNbO3,” Opt. Mater. 4(2–3), 290–293 (1995).

Scherer, A.

Sun, P.-C.

Tyan, R.-C.

Urquhart, K.

Xu, F.

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1993), Chap. 3.

Zane, F.

F. Zane, P. Marchand, R. Paturi, S. Esener, “Scalable network architectures using the optical transpose interconnection system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 114–121.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. (1)

R. Müller, M. T. Santos, L. Arizmendi, J. M. Cabrera, “Time evolution of photorefractive fixing processes in LiNbO3,” Opt. Mater. 4(2–3), 290–293 (1995).

Other (4)

P. Marchand, A. Krishnamoorthy, S. Esener, U. Efron, “Optically augmented 3-D computer: technology and architecture,” in Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994), pp. 133–139.
[CrossRef]

F. Zane, P. Marchand, R. Paturi, S. Esener, “Scalable network architectures using the optical transpose interconnection system,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 114–121.
[CrossRef]

W. L. Hendrick, P. J. Marchand, F. B. McCormick, I. Çokgör, S. C. Esener, “Optical transpose interconnection system: system design and component development,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of AmericaWashington, D.C., 1995), pp. 283–285.

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1993), Chap. 3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System schematic for the FSOI OTIS with reflection-type modulators and birefringent computer-generated holograms (BCGH’s) with a PBS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

System schematic for the FSOI OTIS with reflection-type modulators and BCGH’s with a PRBS.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission efficiency versus the incident angle for the vertical direction. The plots with filled symbols represent the PRBS data, while the open symbols represent the PBS data. The f#’s used are 3.65, 7.3, and 14.6.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission efficiency versus the incident angle for the horizontal direction. The plots with filled symbols represent the PRBS data, while the plots with the open symbols represent the PBS data. The f#’s used are 3.65, 7.3, and 14.6.

Equations (4)

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f # 1 2 M M + 1 + N N + 1   *   1 tan   θ .
d = N + 1 M + 1   *   Δ   *   f # ,
k = k + K ,
η = sin π t θ i - θ b / Λ θ b 2 + π tn / λ   cos θ i 2 1 / 2 2 l + λ 2 cos 2 θ i   *   θ i - θ b 2 / n 2   *   Λ 2 θ b ,

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