Abstract

We present a method for automating the creation of complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits that successfully utilizes a large number of area-distributed pads for input–output communication. This method uses Duet Technologies’ epoch computer-aided-design tool for automated placement and routing of CMOS circuitry, given a schematic netlist as an input. The novelty of this approach is that it uses Duet Technologies’ eggo program to place and route area-pad signals. To verify this methodology, it is applied to the design of a digital signal-processing circuit, with 200 optical area-pad input–outputs and 44 perimeter-pad input–outputs, that is being fabricated with Bell Labs 1997 CMOS–multiple-quantum-well foundry. The layout results are as good as or better than the results obtained by manual layout.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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1997 (2)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. G. Rozier, J. E. Ford, F. E. Kiamilev, “CMOS static RAM chip with high-speed optical read and write,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1517–1519 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Kiamilev, R. G. Rozier, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Smart pixel IC layout methodology and its application to photonic page buffers,” Intl. J. Optoelectron. 11, 199–216 (1997).

1996 (2)

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1 Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart pixel receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, A. L. Lentine, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. A. D’Asaro, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Photonic page buffer based on GaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators bonded directly over active silicon complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2439–2448 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

S. R. Forrest, H. S. Hinton, eds., Special issue on smart pixels, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(2), (1993).

1987 (1)

A. Margarino, A. Romano, A. De Gloria, F. Curatelli, P. Antognetti, “A tile expansion router,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Aided Des. CAD-6, 507–517 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. K. Ousterhout, “Corner stitching: a data-structuring technique for VLSI layout tools,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Aided Des. CAD-3, 87–100 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Antognetti, P.

A. Margarino, A. Romano, A. De Gloria, F. Curatelli, P. Antognetti, “A tile expansion router,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Aided Des. CAD-6, 507–517 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Aplin, G. F.

Chau, K. K.

K. K. Chau, M. W. Derstine, S. Wakelin, J. Cloonan, F. E. Kiamilev, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, B. Tseng, S. Hui, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Smart pixel memory buffer array with parallel and serial access,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 28–29.

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, A. L. Lentine, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. A. D’Asaro, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Photonic page buffer based on GaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators bonded directly over active silicon complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2439–2448 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1 Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart pixel receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Chau, M. W. Derstine, S. Wakelin, J. Cloonan, F. E. Kiamilev, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, B. Tseng, S. Hui, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Smart pixel memory buffer array with parallel and serial access,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 28–29.

Cloonan, J.

K. K. Chau, M. W. Derstine, S. Wakelin, J. Cloonan, F. E. Kiamilev, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, B. Tseng, S. Hui, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Smart pixel memory buffer array with parallel and serial access,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 28–29.

Clow, G.

G. Clow, “A global routing algorithm for general cells,” in Proceedings of ACM/IEEE Twenty-First DAC (IEEE, New York, 1984), pp. 45–51.

Cunningham, J. E.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1 Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart pixel receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Chau, M. W. Derstine, S. Wakelin, J. Cloonan, F. E. Kiamilev, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, B. Tseng, S. Hui, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Smart pixel memory buffer array with parallel and serial access,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 28–29.

Curatelli, F.

A. Margarino, A. Romano, A. De Gloria, F. Curatelli, P. Antognetti, “A tile expansion router,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Aided Des. CAD-6, 507–517 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D’Asaro, L. A.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, A. L. Lentine, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. A. D’Asaro, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Photonic page buffer based on GaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators bonded directly over active silicon complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2439–2448 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1 Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart pixel receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dahringer, D.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1 Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart pixel receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, A. L. Lentine, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. A. D’Asaro, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Photonic page buffer based on GaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators bonded directly over active silicon complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2439–2448 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Gloria, A.

A. Margarino, A. Romano, A. De Gloria, F. Curatelli, P. Antognetti, “A tile expansion router,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Aided Des. CAD-6, 507–517 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Derstine, M. W.

K. K. Chau, M. W. Derstine, S. Wakelin, J. Cloonan, F. E. Kiamilev, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, B. Tseng, S. Hui, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Smart pixel memory buffer array with parallel and serial access,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 28–29.

Ekman, J.

J. Ekman, “Hybrid optoelectronic programmable arithmetic unit HP14TB 0.5 μm CMOS-MQW foundry run,” Internal Tech. Rep. (University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, N.C., 1997).

Eshragian, K.

N. Weste, K. Eshragian, Principles of VLSI Design: A Systems Perspective (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1993).

Ford, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. G. Rozier, J. E. Ford, F. E. Kiamilev, “CMOS static RAM chip with high-speed optical read and write,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1517–1519 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, A. L. Lentine, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. A. D’Asaro, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Photonic page buffer based on GaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators bonded directly over active silicon complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2439–2448 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “Fabrication and testing of AMOEBA: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 48–49.

Goosen, K. W.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “Fabrication and testing of AMOEBA: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 48–49.

K. K. Chau, M. W. Derstine, S. Wakelin, J. Cloonan, F. E. Kiamilev, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, B. Tseng, S. Hui, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Smart pixel memory buffer array with parallel and serial access,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 28–29.

Goossen, K. W.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, A. L. Lentine, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. A. D’Asaro, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Photonic page buffer based on GaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators bonded directly over active silicon complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2439–2448 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1 Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart pixel receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hui, S.

K. K. Chau, M. W. Derstine, S. Wakelin, J. Cloonan, F. E. Kiamilev, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, B. Tseng, S. Hui, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Smart pixel memory buffer array with parallel and serial access,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 28–29.

Hui, S. P.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1 Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart pixel receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, A. L. Lentine, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. A. D’Asaro, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Photonic page buffer based on GaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators bonded directly over active silicon complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2439–2448 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jan, W. Y.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1 Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart pixel receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “Fabrication and testing of AMOEBA: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 48–49.

K. K. Chau, M. W. Derstine, S. Wakelin, J. Cloonan, F. E. Kiamilev, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, B. Tseng, S. Hui, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Smart pixel memory buffer array with parallel and serial access,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 28–29.

Kiamilev, F. E.

F. E. Kiamilev, R. G. Rozier, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Smart pixel IC layout methodology and its application to photonic page buffers,” Intl. J. Optoelectron. 11, 199–216 (1997).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. G. Rozier, J. E. Ford, F. E. Kiamilev, “CMOS static RAM chip with high-speed optical read and write,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1517–1519 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, A. L. Lentine, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. A. D’Asaro, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Photonic page buffer based on GaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators bonded directly over active silicon complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2439–2448 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “Fabrication and testing of AMOEBA: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 48–49.

K. K. Chau, M. W. Derstine, S. Wakelin, J. Cloonan, F. E. Kiamilev, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, B. Tseng, S. Hui, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Smart pixel memory buffer array with parallel and serial access,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 28–29.

Kossives, D.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, A. L. Lentine, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. A. D’Asaro, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Photonic page buffer based on GaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators bonded directly over active silicon complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2439–2448 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1 Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart pixel receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. G. Rozier, J. E. Ford, F. E. Kiamilev, “CMOS static RAM chip with high-speed optical read and write,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1517–1519 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Kiamilev, R. G. Rozier, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Smart pixel IC layout methodology and its application to photonic page buffers,” Intl. J. Optoelectron. 11, 199–216 (1997).

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1 Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart pixel receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, A. L. Lentine, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. A. D’Asaro, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Photonic page buffer based on GaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators bonded directly over active silicon complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2439–2448 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “Fabrication and testing of AMOEBA: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 48–49.

K. K. Chau, M. W. Derstine, S. Wakelin, J. Cloonan, F. E. Kiamilev, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, B. Tseng, S. Hui, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Smart pixel memory buffer array with parallel and serial access,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 28–29.

Leibenguth, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, A. L. Lentine, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. A. D’Asaro, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Photonic page buffer based on GaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators bonded directly over active silicon complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2439–2448 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1 Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart pixel receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1 Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart pixel receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, A. L. Lentine, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. A. D’Asaro, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Photonic page buffer based on GaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators bonded directly over active silicon complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2439–2448 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margarino, A.

A. Margarino, A. Romano, A. De Gloria, F. Curatelli, P. Antognetti, “A tile expansion router,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Aided Des. CAD-6, 507–517 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, A. L. Lentine, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. A. D’Asaro, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Photonic page buffer based on GaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators bonded directly over active silicon complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2439–2448 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “Fabrication and testing of AMOEBA: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 48–49.

Ousterhout, J. K.

J. K. Ousterhout, “Corner stitching: a data-structuring technique for VLSI layout tools,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Aided Des. CAD-3, 87–100 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Romano, A.

A. Margarino, A. Romano, A. De Gloria, F. Curatelli, P. Antognetti, “A tile expansion router,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Aided Des. CAD-6, 507–517 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rozier, R. G.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. G. Rozier, J. E. Ford, F. E. Kiamilev, “CMOS static RAM chip with high-speed optical read and write,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1517–1519 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Kiamilev, R. G. Rozier, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Smart pixel IC layout methodology and its application to photonic page buffers,” Intl. J. Optoelectron. 11, 199–216 (1997).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, A. L. Lentine, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. A. D’Asaro, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Photonic page buffer based on GaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators bonded directly over active silicon complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2439–2448 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “Fabrication and testing of AMOEBA: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 48–49.

Samii, K.

M. Upton, K. Samii, S. Sugiyama, “Integrated placement for mixed macro cell and standard cell designs,” in Proceedings of the 27th Design Automation Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 32–35.

Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A.

H. Shin, A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, “MIGHTY: a rip-up and reroute detailed router,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer-Aided-Design (IEEE, New York, 1986), pp. 2–5.

Shin, H.

H. Shin, A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, “MIGHTY: a rip-up and reroute detailed router,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer-Aided-Design (IEEE, New York, 1986), pp. 2–5.

Sugiyama, S.

M. Upton, K. Samii, S. Sugiyama, “Integrated placement for mixed macro cell and standard cell designs,” in Proceedings of the 27th Design Automation Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 32–35.

Tseng, B.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, A. L. Lentine, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. A. D’Asaro, F. E. Kiamilev, G. F. Aplin, R. G. Rozier, D. A. B. Miller, “Photonic page buffer based on GaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators bonded directly over active silicon complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2439–2448 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1 Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart pixel receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “Fabrication and testing of AMOEBA: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 48–49.

K. K. Chau, M. W. Derstine, S. Wakelin, J. Cloonan, F. E. Kiamilev, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, B. Tseng, S. Hui, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Smart pixel memory buffer array with parallel and serial access,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 28–29.

Upton, M.

M. Upton, K. Samii, S. Sugiyama, “Integrated placement for mixed macro cell and standard cell designs,” in Proceedings of the 27th Design Automation Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 32–35.

Wakelin, S.

K. K. Chau, M. W. Derstine, S. Wakelin, J. Cloonan, F. E. Kiamilev, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, B. Tseng, S. Hui, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Smart pixel memory buffer array with parallel and serial access,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 28–29.

Walker, J. A.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1 Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart pixel receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “Fabrication and testing of AMOEBA: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 48–49.

K. K. Chau, M. W. Derstine, S. Wakelin, J. Cloonan, F. E. Kiamilev, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, B. Tseng, S. Hui, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Smart pixel memory buffer array with parallel and serial access,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 28–29.

Weste, N.

N. Weste, K. Eshragian, Principles of VLSI Design: A Systems Perspective (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1993).

Woodward, T. K.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1 Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart pixel receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “Fabrication and testing of AMOEBA: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 48–49.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. R. Forrest, H. S. Hinton, eds., Special issue on smart pixels, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(2), (1993).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. Leibenguth, “1 Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart pixel receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8 μm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. G. Rozier, J. E. Ford, F. E. Kiamilev, “CMOS static RAM chip with high-speed optical read and write,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1517–1519 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput. Aided Des. (2)

A. Margarino, A. Romano, A. De Gloria, F. Curatelli, P. Antognetti, “A tile expansion router,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Aided Des. CAD-6, 507–517 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ousterhout, “Corner stitching: a data-structuring technique for VLSI layout tools,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Aided Des. CAD-3, 87–100 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Intl. J. Optoelectron. (1)

F. E. Kiamilev, R. G. Rozier, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Smart pixel IC layout methodology and its application to photonic page buffers,” Intl. J. Optoelectron. 11, 199–216 (1997).

Other (13)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “Fabrication and testing of AMOEBA: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 48–49.

M. Upton, K. Samii, S. Sugiyama, “Integrated placement for mixed macro cell and standard cell designs,” in Proceedings of the 27th Design Automation Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 32–35.

Epoch User’s Manual, Duet Technologies Corporation, Bellevue, Wash., 1997.

H. Shin, A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, “MIGHTY: a rip-up and reroute detailed router,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer-Aided-Design (IEEE, New York, 1986), pp. 2–5.

K. K. Chau, M. W. Derstine, S. Wakelin, J. Cloonan, F. E. Kiamilev, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, B. Tseng, S. Hui, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Smart pixel memory buffer array with parallel and serial access,” in Digest of IEEE/LEOS 1996 Summer Topical Meetings on Smart Pixels (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 28–29.

N. Weste, K. Eshragian, Principles of VLSI Design: A Systems Perspective (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1993).

F. E. Kiamilev, J. S. Lambirth, R. G. Rozier, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Design of a 64-bit microprocessor core IC for hybrid CMOS-MQW technology,” in Ref. 2, pp. 53–60.

J. Ekman, “Hybrid optoelectronic programmable arithmetic unit HP14TB 0.5 μm CMOS-MQW foundry run,” Internal Tech. Rep. (University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, N.C., 1997).

A. Gottlieb, Y. Li, E. Schenfeld, eds., MPPOI’96, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnects (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, S. P. Hui, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, M. C. Nuss, R. G. Rozier, F. E. Kiamilev, D. A. B. Miller, “The AMOEBA chip: an optoelectronic switch for microprocessor networking using dense-WDM,” in Ref. 2, pp. 94–100.

D. A. Doane, P. D. Franzon, eds., Multichip Modules and Alternatives: The Basics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1992).

G. Clow, “A global routing algorithm for general cells,” in Proceedings of ACM/IEEE Twenty-First DAC (IEEE, New York, 1984), pp. 45–51.

Ref. 16, pp. 5-1–5-113.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Area-pad IC design flow. CIF, Caltech Intermediate Format.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microphotograph of a 2-kbit first-in first-out circuit showing area-distributed I/O pads to which MQW modulators were subsequently flip-chip bonded.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electrical area-pad connections.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

4 × 4 smart-pixel array layout in which a single pixel circuit is replicated in a 2-D array.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Layout of a 1-kbit SRAM circuit.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Distribution of I/O buffers.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Design with area pads.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Design after floorplanning.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Finding a route window.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Multiply–accumulate circuit.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

IC photograph.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Multiply–accumulate layout (metal 3 only).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Layout close-up showing area pad and underlying circuitry.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Layout close-up showing pads and associated buffers.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Layout of a 1-kbit SRAM circuit (metal 3 only).

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Area pads and power routing.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Centering the area-pad array.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Demonstrated IC’s with Area-Distributed I/O Pads

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d = ab + c .

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