Abstract

Chatoyant is a tool for the simulation and the analysis of heterogeneous free-space optoelectronic architectures. It is capable of modeling digital and analog electronic and optical signal propagation with mechanical tolerancing at the system level. We present models for a variety of optoelectronic devices and results that demonstrate the system’s ability to predict the effects of various component parameters, such as detector geometry, and system parameters, such as alignment tolerances, on system-performance measures, such as the bit-error rate.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

1996 (2)

D. Zaleta, S. Patra, V. Ozguz, J. Ma, S. H. Lee, “Tolerancing of board-level free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1317–1327 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 764–766 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

M. A. Neifeld, W.-C. Chou, “Electrical packaging impact on source components in optical interconnects,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part B 18, 578–595 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Fan, B. Mansoorian, D. A. Van Blerkom, M. W. Hansen, V. H. Ozguz, S. C. Esener, G. C. Marsden, “Digital free-space optical interconnections: a comparison of transmitter technologies,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3103–3115 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (5)

J. Buck, S. Ha, E. A. Lee, D. Messerschmitt, “Ptolemy: a framework for simulating and prototyping heterogeneous systems,” Int. J. Comput. Simulation 4, 155–182 (1994).

J. J. Morikuni, A. Dharchoudhury, Y. Leblebici, S. M. Kang, “Improvements to the standard theory for photoreceiver noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1174–1184 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Jeruchim, “Techniques for estimating the bit error rate in the simulation of digital communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 2, 153–170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Louri, J. Na, “Modeling and simulation methodology for digital optical computing systems,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1549–1558 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fan, B. Catanzaro, F. E. Kiamilev, S. C. Esener, S. H. Lee, “Architecture of an integrated computer-aided design system for optoelectronics,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1571–1580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. Bergstrom, J. Palais, “Digital fiber optic network synthesis,” IEEE Lightwave Telecommun. Syst. 3, 27–33 (1992).

1982 (1)

1952 (1)

W. Shockley, “A unipolar field effect transistor,” Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. 40, 1365–1376 (1952).

Arrathoon, R.

R. Arrathoon, Optical Computing, Digital and Symbolic (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1985).

Belland, P.

Bergstrom, C.

C. Bergstrom, J. Palais, “Digital fiber optic network synthesis,” IEEE Lightwave Telecommun. Syst. 3, 27–33 (1992).

Buck, J.

J. Buck, S. Ha, E. A. Lee, D. Messerschmitt, “Ptolemy: a framework for simulating and prototyping heterogeneous systems,” Int. J. Comput. Simulation 4, 155–182 (1994).

Catanzaro, B.

J. Fan, B. Catanzaro, F. E. Kiamilev, S. C. Esener, S. H. Lee, “Architecture of an integrated computer-aided design system for optoelectronics,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1571–1580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chiarulli, D. M.

S. P. Levitan, P. J. Marchand, M. Rempel, D. M. Chiarulli, F. B. McCormick, “Computer-aided design of free-space optoelectronic interconnection (FSOI) systems,” in Second International IEEE Workshop on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 239–245.
[CrossRef]

S. P. Levitan, P. J. Marchand, T. P. Kurzweg, M. A. Rempel, D. M. Chiarulli, C. Fan, F. B. McCormick, “Computer-aided design of free-space opto-electronic systems,” in Proceedings of the 1997 Design Automation Conference (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1997), pp. 768–773.
[CrossRef]

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 764–766 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chou, W.-C.

M. A. Neifeld, W.-C. Chou, “Electrical packaging impact on source components in optical interconnects,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part B 18, 578–595 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Microbeam optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 90–96.

Crenn, J. P.

Cunningham, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 764–766 (1996).
[CrossRef]

De, V. K.

J. C. Eble, V. K. De, J. D. Meindl, “A first generation generic system simulator (GENESYS) and its relation to NTRS,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Eleventh Biennial University/Government/Industry Microelectronics (UGIM) Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 147–154.
[CrossRef]

Dharchoudhury, A.

J. J. Morikuni, A. Dharchoudhury, Y. Leblebici, S. M. Kang, “Improvements to the standard theory for photoreceiver noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1174–1184 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eble, J. C.

J. C. Eble, V. K. De, J. D. Meindl, “A first generation generic system simulator (GENESYS) and its relation to NTRS,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Eleventh Biennial University/Government/Industry Microelectronics (UGIM) Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 147–154.
[CrossRef]

Ellis, D. S.

J. M. Xu, D. S. Ellis, “OEUT-Spice: A CAD tool for design and simulation of OEIC,” in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits, Y-S. Park, ed., Proc. SPIE3006, 406–417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Esener, S. C.

C. Fan, B. Mansoorian, D. A. Van Blerkom, M. W. Hansen, V. H. Ozguz, S. C. Esener, G. C. Marsden, “Digital free-space optical interconnections: a comparison of transmitter technologies,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3103–3115 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fan, B. Catanzaro, F. E. Kiamilev, S. C. Esener, S. H. Lee, “Architecture of an integrated computer-aided design system for optoelectronics,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1571–1580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Kibar, D. A. Van Blerkom, C. Fan, S. C. Esener, “Power minimization and technology comparisons for digital free-space optoelectronic interconnections,” presented at OSA Topical Meeting on Spatial Light Modulators, Lake Tahoe, Nev., March 1997.

Eshraghian, K.

N. H. E. Weste, K. Eshraghian, Principles of CMOS VLSI Design, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1993), Chap. 2.

Fan, C.

C. Fan, B. Mansoorian, D. A. Van Blerkom, M. W. Hansen, V. H. Ozguz, S. C. Esener, G. C. Marsden, “Digital free-space optical interconnections: a comparison of transmitter technologies,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3103–3115 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Levitan, P. J. Marchand, T. P. Kurzweg, M. A. Rempel, D. M. Chiarulli, C. Fan, F. B. McCormick, “Computer-aided design of free-space opto-electronic systems,” in Proceedings of the 1997 Design Automation Conference (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1997), pp. 768–773.
[CrossRef]

O. Kibar, D. A. Van Blerkom, C. Fan, S. C. Esener, “Power minimization and technology comparisons for digital free-space optoelectronic interconnections,” presented at OSA Topical Meeting on Spatial Light Modulators, Lake Tahoe, Nev., March 1997.

Fan, J.

J. Fan, B. Catanzaro, F. E. Kiamilev, S. C. Esener, S. H. Lee, “Architecture of an integrated computer-aided design system for optoelectronics,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1571–1580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gao, D. S.

A. T. Yang, D. S. Gao, S. M. Kang, “Computer-aided simulation of optical interconnects for high-speed digital systems,” in Proceedings of the 1988 IEEE International Conference on Computer Design (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1988), pp. 87–90.
[CrossRef]

Goossen, K. W.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 764–766 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gurney, P. C. R.

A. J. Lowery, P. C. R. Gurney, X.-H. Wang, L. V. T. Nguyen, M. Premartane, “Time-domain simulation of photonic devices, circuits and systems,” in Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices IV, W. W. Chow, M. Osinski, eds., Proc. SPIE2693, 624–635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ha, S.

J. Buck, S. Ha, E. A. Lee, D. Messerschmitt, “Ptolemy: a framework for simulating and prototyping heterogeneous systems,” Int. J. Comput. Simulation 4, 155–182 (1994).

Hansen, M. W.

Hinton, H. S.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Microbeam optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 90–96.

H. S. Hinton, An Introduction to Photonic Switching Fabrics (Plenum, New York, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Hui, S. P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 764–766 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W. Y.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 764–766 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jeruchim, M. C.

M. C. Jeruchim, “Techniques for estimating the bit error rate in the simulation of digital communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 2, 153–170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S.

J. J. Morikuni, S. Kang, Computer-Aided Design of Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits and Systems (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1997).

Kang, S. M.

J. J. Morikuni, A. Dharchoudhury, Y. Leblebici, S. M. Kang, “Improvements to the standard theory for photoreceiver noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1174–1184 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Yang, D. S. Gao, S. M. Kang, “Computer-aided simulation of optical interconnects for high-speed digital systems,” in Proceedings of the 1988 IEEE International Conference on Computer Design (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1988), pp. 87–90.
[CrossRef]

Kiamilev, F. E.

J. Fan, B. Catanzaro, F. E. Kiamilev, S. C. Esener, S. H. Lee, “Architecture of an integrated computer-aided design system for optoelectronics,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1571–1580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kibar, O.

O. Kibar, D. A. Van Blerkom, C. Fan, S. C. Esener, “Power minimization and technology comparisons for digital free-space optoelectronic interconnections,” presented at OSA Topical Meeting on Spatial Light Modulators, Lake Tahoe, Nev., March 1997.

Koh, S.

S. Koh, L. Ye, “Modeling and simulation of optoelectronic multichip modules using VHDL,” in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits, Y-S. Park, ed., Proc. SPIE3006, 418–428 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 764–766 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kurzweg, T. P.

T. P. Kurzweg, “A CAD system for modeling free space opto-electronic systems,” M.S. thesis (Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997).

S. P. Levitan, P. J. Marchand, T. P. Kurzweg, M. A. Rempel, D. M. Chiarulli, C. Fan, F. B. McCormick, “Computer-aided design of free-space opto-electronic systems,” in Proceedings of the 1997 Design Automation Conference (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1997), pp. 768–773.
[CrossRef]

Leblebici, Y.

J. J. Morikuni, A. Dharchoudhury, Y. Leblebici, S. M. Kang, “Improvements to the standard theory for photoreceiver noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1174–1184 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E. A.

J. Buck, S. Ha, E. A. Lee, D. Messerschmitt, “Ptolemy: a framework for simulating and prototyping heterogeneous systems,” Int. J. Comput. Simulation 4, 155–182 (1994).

Lee, S. H.

D. Zaleta, S. Patra, V. Ozguz, J. Ma, S. H. Lee, “Tolerancing of board-level free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1317–1327 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fan, B. Catanzaro, F. E. Kiamilev, S. C. Esener, S. H. Lee, “Architecture of an integrated computer-aided design system for optoelectronics,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1571–1580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 764–766 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 764–766 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Levitan, S. P.

S. P. Levitan, P. J. Marchand, M. Rempel, D. M. Chiarulli, F. B. McCormick, “Computer-aided design of free-space optoelectronic interconnection (FSOI) systems,” in Second International IEEE Workshop on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 239–245.
[CrossRef]

S. P. Levitan, P. J. Marchand, T. P. Kurzweg, M. A. Rempel, D. M. Chiarulli, C. Fan, F. B. McCormick, “Computer-aided design of free-space opto-electronic systems,” in Proceedings of the 1997 Design Automation Conference (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1997), pp. 768–773.
[CrossRef]

Louri, A.

Lowery, A. J.

A. J. Lowery, P. C. R. Gurney, X.-H. Wang, L. V. T. Nguyen, M. Premartane, “Time-domain simulation of photonic devices, circuits and systems,” in Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices IV, W. W. Chow, M. Osinski, eds., Proc. SPIE2693, 624–635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

Mansoorian, B.

Marchand, P. J.

S. P. Levitan, P. J. Marchand, T. P. Kurzweg, M. A. Rempel, D. M. Chiarulli, C. Fan, F. B. McCormick, “Computer-aided design of free-space opto-electronic systems,” in Proceedings of the 1997 Design Automation Conference (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1997), pp. 768–773.
[CrossRef]

S. P. Levitan, P. J. Marchand, M. Rempel, D. M. Chiarulli, F. B. McCormick, “Computer-aided design of free-space optoelectronic interconnection (FSOI) systems,” in Second International IEEE Workshop on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 239–245.
[CrossRef]

Marsden, G. C.

McAulay, A. D.

A. D. McAulay, Optical Computer Architectures (Wiley, New York, 1991).

McCormick, F. B.

S. P. Levitan, P. J. Marchand, T. P. Kurzweg, M. A. Rempel, D. M. Chiarulli, C. Fan, F. B. McCormick, “Computer-aided design of free-space opto-electronic systems,” in Proceedings of the 1997 Design Automation Conference (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1997), pp. 768–773.
[CrossRef]

S. P. Levitan, P. J. Marchand, M. Rempel, D. M. Chiarulli, F. B. McCormick, “Computer-aided design of free-space optoelectronic interconnection (FSOI) systems,” in Second International IEEE Workshop on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 239–245.
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Microbeam optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 90–96.

Meindl, J. D.

J. C. Eble, V. K. De, J. D. Meindl, “A first generation generic system simulator (GENESYS) and its relation to NTRS,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Eleventh Biennial University/Government/Industry Microelectronics (UGIM) Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 147–154.
[CrossRef]

Messerschmitt, D.

J. Buck, S. Ha, E. A. Lee, D. Messerschmitt, “Ptolemy: a framework for simulating and prototyping heterogeneous systems,” Int. J. Comput. Simulation 4, 155–182 (1994).

Morikuni, J. J.

J. J. Morikuni, A. Dharchoudhury, Y. Leblebici, S. M. Kang, “Improvements to the standard theory for photoreceiver noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1174–1184 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Morikuni, S. Kang, Computer-Aided Design of Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits and Systems (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1997).

Na, J.

Neifeld, M. A.

M. A. Neifeld, W.-C. Chou, “Electrical packaging impact on source components in optical interconnects,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part B 18, 578–595 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, L. V. T.

A. J. Lowery, P. C. R. Gurney, X.-H. Wang, L. V. T. Nguyen, M. Premartane, “Time-domain simulation of photonic devices, circuits and systems,” in Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices IV, W. W. Chow, M. Osinski, eds., Proc. SPIE2693, 624–635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ozguz, V.

Ozguz, V. H.

Palais, J.

C. Bergstrom, J. Palais, “Digital fiber optic network synthesis,” IEEE Lightwave Telecommun. Syst. 3, 27–33 (1992).

Patra, S.

Premartane, M.

A. J. Lowery, P. C. R. Gurney, X.-H. Wang, L. V. T. Nguyen, M. Premartane, “Time-domain simulation of photonic devices, circuits and systems,” in Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices IV, W. W. Chow, M. Osinski, eds., Proc. SPIE2693, 624–635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rempel, M.

S. P. Levitan, P. J. Marchand, M. Rempel, D. M. Chiarulli, F. B. McCormick, “Computer-aided design of free-space optoelectronic interconnection (FSOI) systems,” in Second International IEEE Workshop on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 239–245.
[CrossRef]

Rempel, M. A.

S. P. Levitan, P. J. Marchand, T. P. Kurzweg, M. A. Rempel, D. M. Chiarulli, C. Fan, F. B. McCormick, “Computer-aided design of free-space opto-electronic systems,” in Proceedings of the 1997 Design Automation Conference (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1997), pp. 768–773.
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chaps. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J. M.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Microbeam optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 90–96.

Shockley, W.

W. Shockley, “A unipolar field effect transistor,” Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. 40, 1365–1376 (1952).

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chaps. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Microbeam optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 90–96.

Tseng, B.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 764–766 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Van Blerkom, D. A.

C. Fan, B. Mansoorian, D. A. Van Blerkom, M. W. Hansen, V. H. Ozguz, S. C. Esener, G. C. Marsden, “Digital free-space optical interconnections: a comparison of transmitter technologies,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3103–3115 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Kibar, D. A. Van Blerkom, C. Fan, S. C. Esener, “Power minimization and technology comparisons for digital free-space optoelectronic interconnections,” presented at OSA Topical Meeting on Spatial Light Modulators, Lake Tahoe, Nev., March 1997.

van Brug, H.

G. Vdovin, H. van Brug, F. van Goor, “LightPipes: software for education in coherent optics,” presented at the Fifth International Topical Meeting on Education and Training in Optics, Delft, The Netherlands, 19–21 August 1997.

van Goor, F.

G. Vdovin, H. van Brug, F. van Goor, “LightPipes: software for education in coherent optics,” presented at the Fifth International Topical Meeting on Education and Training in Optics, Delft, The Netherlands, 19–21 August 1997.

Vdovin, G.

G. Vdovin, H. van Brug, F. van Goor, “LightPipes: software for education in coherent optics,” presented at the Fifth International Topical Meeting on Education and Training in Optics, Delft, The Netherlands, 19–21 August 1997.

Walker, J. A.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 764–766 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.-H.

A. J. Lowery, P. C. R. Gurney, X.-H. Wang, L. V. T. Nguyen, M. Premartane, “Time-domain simulation of photonic devices, circuits and systems,” in Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices IV, W. W. Chow, M. Osinski, eds., Proc. SPIE2693, 624–635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weste, N. H. E.

N. H. E. Weste, K. Eshraghian, Principles of CMOS VLSI Design, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1993), Chap. 2.

Whitlock, B. K.

B. K. Whitlock, “iFrost: a CAD tool for modeling and simulation of optical interconnects,” Ph.D. dissertation (School of Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Ill., 1996).

Woodward, T. K.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 764–766 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. M.

J. M. Xu, D. S. Ellis, “OEUT-Spice: A CAD tool for design and simulation of OEIC,” in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits, Y-S. Park, ed., Proc. SPIE3006, 406–417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, A. T.

A. T. Yang, D. S. Gao, S. M. Kang, “Computer-aided simulation of optical interconnects for high-speed digital systems,” in Proceedings of the 1988 IEEE International Conference on Computer Design (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1988), pp. 87–90.
[CrossRef]

Ye, L.

S. Koh, L. Ye, “Modeling and simulation of optoelectronic multichip modules using VHDL,” in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits, Y-S. Park, ed., Proc. SPIE3006, 418–428 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zaleta, D.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32, 764–766 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

M. C. Jeruchim, “Techniques for estimating the bit error rate in the simulation of digital communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 2, 153–170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Lightwave Telecommun. Syst. (1)

C. Bergstrom, J. Palais, “Digital fiber optic network synthesis,” IEEE Lightwave Telecommun. Syst. 3, 27–33 (1992).

IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part B (1)

M. A. Neifeld, W.-C. Chou, “Electrical packaging impact on source components in optical interconnects,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part B 18, 578–595 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Comput. Simulation (1)

J. Buck, S. Ha, E. A. Lee, D. Messerschmitt, “Ptolemy: a framework for simulating and prototyping heterogeneous systems,” Int. J. Comput. Simulation 4, 155–182 (1994).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. J. Morikuni, A. Dharchoudhury, Y. Leblebici, S. M. Kang, “Improvements to the standard theory for photoreceiver noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1174–1184 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Fan, B. Catanzaro, F. E. Kiamilev, S. C. Esener, S. H. Lee, “Architecture of an integrated computer-aided design system for optoelectronics,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1571–1580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. (1)

W. Shockley, “A unipolar field effect transistor,” Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. 40, 1365–1376 (1952).

Other (22)

N. H. E. Weste, K. Eshraghian, Principles of CMOS VLSI Design, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1993), Chap. 2.

O. Kibar, D. A. Van Blerkom, C. Fan, S. C. Esener, “Power minimization and technology comparisons for digital free-space optoelectronic interconnections,” presented at OSA Topical Meeting on Spatial Light Modulators, Lake Tahoe, Nev., March 1997.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Microbeam optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 90–96.

S. P. Levitan, P. J. Marchand, T. P. Kurzweg, M. A. Rempel, D. M. Chiarulli, C. Fan, F. B. McCormick, “Computer-aided design of free-space opto-electronic systems,” in Proceedings of the 1997 Design Automation Conference (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1997), pp. 768–773.
[CrossRef]

G. Vdovin, H. van Brug, F. van Goor, “LightPipes: software for education in coherent optics,” presented at the Fifth International Topical Meeting on Education and Training in Optics, Delft, The Netherlands, 19–21 August 1997.

T. P. Kurzweg, “A CAD system for modeling free space opto-electronic systems,” M.S. thesis (Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997).

B. K. Whitlock, “iFrost: a CAD tool for modeling and simulation of optical interconnects,” Ph.D. dissertation (School of Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Ill., 1996).

S. Koh, L. Ye, “Modeling and simulation of optoelectronic multichip modules using VHDL,” in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits, Y-S. Park, ed., Proc. SPIE3006, 418–428 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Fey, HADLOP (Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat, Jena, Germany, 1996, http://www2.informatik.unijena.de/pope/HADLOP/hadlop.html) .

R. Arrathoon, Optical Computing, Digital and Symbolic (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1985).

R. A. Athale, ed., Digital Optical Computing, Vol. CR35 of SPIE Critical Reviews Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1990).

H. S. Hinton, An Introduction to Photonic Switching Fabrics (Plenum, New York, 1993).
[CrossRef]

A. D. McAulay, Optical Computer Architectures (Wiley, New York, 1991).

J. M. Xu, D. S. Ellis, “OEUT-Spice: A CAD tool for design and simulation of OEIC,” in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits, Y-S. Park, ed., Proc. SPIE3006, 406–417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Eble, V. K. De, J. D. Meindl, “A first generation generic system simulator (GENESYS) and its relation to NTRS,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Eleventh Biennial University/Government/Industry Microelectronics (UGIM) Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 147–154.
[CrossRef]

A. J. Lowery, P. C. R. Gurney, X.-H. Wang, L. V. T. Nguyen, M. Premartane, “Time-domain simulation of photonic devices, circuits and systems,” in Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices IV, W. W. Chow, M. Osinski, eds., Proc. SPIE2693, 624–635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Morikuni, S. Kang, Computer-Aided Design of Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits and Systems (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1997).

A. T. Yang, D. S. Gao, S. M. Kang, “Computer-aided simulation of optical interconnects for high-speed digital systems,” in Proceedings of the 1988 IEEE International Conference on Computer Design (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1988), pp. 87–90.
[CrossRef]

S. P. Levitan, P. J. Marchand, M. Rempel, D. M. Chiarulli, F. B. McCormick, “Computer-aided design of free-space optoelectronic interconnection (FSOI) systems,” in Second International IEEE Workshop on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 239–245.
[CrossRef]

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chaps. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

S. Chenney, Sced: Constraints Based Scene Editing User’s Guide (Basser Department of Computer Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, 1996, http://http.cs.berkeley.edu/~schenney/sced/sced.html) .

D. Wells, C. Young, The Waite Group’s Ray Tracing Creations (Waite Group, Corte Madera, Calif., 1993, http://www.povray.org/) .

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

FS OE system: VCSEL, vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser; SLM, spatial light modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OE system design issues.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lenslet array.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffractive effects on a clipped Gaussian beam.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Power-loss comparison between Chatoyant and lightpipes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Modulator schematic.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorbed versus incident optical intensity (in watts per square centimeter).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

VCSEL schematic.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Receiver schematic.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

CMOS inverter response (C out = 1 fF, 100 MHz) with (a) spice and (b) Chatoyant.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

CMOS inverter response (C out = 1 pF, 100 MHz) with (a) spice and (b) Chatoyant.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Description of a 4f system in Chatoyant.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Static simulations: power (in microwatts) detected at different size detectors.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) System in Chatoyant. (b) Cross section of a Gaussian beam.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Modulator and detector single-pixel dynamic simulations.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

BER simulations: (a) sampling time and (b) photocurrent received.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Insertion loss and cross talk versus the lateral displacement.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Insertion loss and cross talk versus the longitudinal displacement.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

On-chip neighbor processing node interconnect.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

BER versus the speed trade-off example: (a) No mirror offset. (b) Mirror offset by 0.025°.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

W 0 eff = W 0 1 - exp - x 2 / 2 cos px 2 4 π ,
P abs V = P om k V 1 + P om AI s V ,
P out = η LI / V th 1 - η LI / V th P in - I th V th ,
V out s = R 1 + RC A s   P optic s .
V out t + Δ t = XR   RC A exp - y - 1 + Δ t   + P in t R 1 - exp - y + V out t exp - y ,
V out t + Δ t = V out t + g m g ds exp g ds / c Δ t - 1 Δ V in + I t g ds exp g ds / c Δ t - 1 , I out t + Δ t = I out t + g m Δ V in + g ds Δ V out .
BER = 1 2 N i = 1 N erfc V i - V th σ 2 u V i - V th + erfc V th - V i σ 2 u V th - V i ,

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