For demonstrating that visible-light spectroscopy can be used for ice-front detection within freezing tissue, proton magnetic resonance images were correlated to time-evolving transmittance spectra as an ice front progressed across a tissue sample. The experimental apparatus was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance imaging, to produce one-dimensional freezing, and to allow both reflectance and transillumination emitter–detector configurations about a normally progressing planar ice front in chicken muscle. This demonstration has potentially important medical applications in cryopreservation (freezing of biological materials for preservation) and cryosurgery (destruction of tissue by freezing).
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