Abstract

For demonstrating that visible-light spectroscopy can be used for ice-front detection within freezing tissue, proton magnetic resonance images were correlated to time-evolving transmittance spectra as an ice front progressed across a tissue sample. The experimental apparatus was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance imaging, to produce one-dimensional freezing, and to allow both reflectance and transillumination emitter–detector configurations about a normally progressing planar ice front in chicken muscle. This demonstration has potentially important medical applications in cryopreservation (freezing of biological materials for preservation) and cryosurgery (destruction of tissue by freezing).

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Mazur, “Cryobiology: the freezing of biological systems,” Science 168, 939–949 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. E. Pegg, A. K. Karow, eds., The Biophysics of Organ Cryopreservation, NATO ASI Series A, 147 (Plenum, New York, 1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Onik, C. Cooper, H. I. Goldenberg, A. A. Moss, B. Rubinsky, M. Christianson, “Ultrasonic characteristics of frozen liver,” Cryobiology 21, 321–328 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Rubinsky, “Cryosurgery imaging with ultrasound,” Mech. Eng. 108, 48–51 (1986).
  5. G. Onik, B. Rubinsky, G. Watson, R. J. Ablin, Percutaneous Prostate Cryoablation (Quality Medical, St. Louis, 1994).
  6. B. Rubinsky, J. C. Gilbert, G. M. Onik, H. S. Roos, S. T. S. Wong, K. M. Brennan, “Monitoring cryosurgery in the brain and in the prostate with proton NMR,” Cryobiology 30, 191–199 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight and absorbance imaging of biologic media,” Science 259, 1463–1466 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. A. Benaron, W-F. Cheong, D. K. Stevenson, “Tissue optics,” Science 276, 2002–2003 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. F. Jöbsis, “Noninvasive infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198, 1264–1266 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, G. Lewis, M. Dujovny, J. I. Ausman, “Intracerebral penetration of infrared light,” J. Neurosurg. 76, 315–318 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. O. Svaasand, R. Ellingsen, “Optical properties of human brain,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabol. 3, 293–299 (1983).
  12. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, B. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, “Transillumination imaging performance: a time-of-flight imaging system,” Med. Phys. 17, 351–356 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. D. Edwards, “Cotside measurement of cerebral blood flow in ill preterm infants by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet 2, 770–771 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. S. Smith, W. J. Levy, S. Carter, N. Wang, M. Haida, B. Chance, “Time resolved spectroscopy and the determination of photon scattering, pathlength, and brain vascular hemoglobin saturation in a population of normal volunteers,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE1988, 511–516 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. A. De Blasi, S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini-Fantini, B. F. Barbieri, M. Ferrari, E. Gratton, “Cerebral and muscle oxygen saturation measurement by a frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopic technique,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 868–874 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. P. van Houten, D. A. Benaron, S. Spilman, D. K. Stevenson, “Imaging brain injury using time-resolved near infrared light scanning,” Pediatr. Res. 39, 470–476 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. P. Gopinath, S. C. Roverson, R. G. Grossman, B. Chance, “Near infrared spectroscopic localization of intracranial hematomas,” J. Neurosurg. 79, 43–47 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

D. A. Benaron, W-F. Cheong, D. K. Stevenson, “Tissue optics,” Science 276, 2002–2003 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, B. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. P. van Houten, D. A. Benaron, S. Spilman, D. K. Stevenson, “Imaging brain injury using time-resolved near infrared light scanning,” Pediatr. Res. 39, 470–476 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

S. P. Gopinath, S. C. Roverson, R. G. Grossman, B. Chance, “Near infrared spectroscopic localization of intracranial hematomas,” J. Neurosurg. 79, 43–47 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rubinsky, J. C. Gilbert, G. M. Onik, H. S. Roos, S. T. S. Wong, K. M. Brennan, “Monitoring cryosurgery in the brain and in the prostate with proton NMR,” Cryobiology 30, 191–199 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight and absorbance imaging of biologic media,” Science 259, 1463–1466 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, G. Lewis, M. Dujovny, J. I. Ausman, “Intracerebral penetration of infrared light,” J. Neurosurg. 76, 315–318 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, “Transillumination imaging performance: a time-of-flight imaging system,” Med. Phys. 17, 351–356 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

A. D. Edwards, “Cotside measurement of cerebral blood flow in ill preterm infants by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet 2, 770–771 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

B. Rubinsky, “Cryosurgery imaging with ultrasound,” Mech. Eng. 108, 48–51 (1986).

1984 (1)

G. Onik, C. Cooper, H. I. Goldenberg, A. A. Moss, B. Rubinsky, M. Christianson, “Ultrasonic characteristics of frozen liver,” Cryobiology 21, 321–328 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

L. O. Svaasand, R. Ellingsen, “Optical properties of human brain,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabol. 3, 293–299 (1983).

1977 (1)

F. F. Jöbsis, “Noninvasive infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198, 1264–1266 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

P. Mazur, “Cryobiology: the freezing of biological systems,” Science 168, 939–949 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ablin, R. J.

G. Onik, B. Rubinsky, G. Watson, R. J. Ablin, Percutaneous Prostate Cryoablation (Quality Medical, St. Louis, 1994).

Ausman, J. I.

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, G. Lewis, M. Dujovny, J. I. Ausman, “Intracerebral penetration of infrared light,” J. Neurosurg. 76, 315–318 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbieri, B. F.

R. A. De Blasi, S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini-Fantini, B. F. Barbieri, M. Ferrari, E. Gratton, “Cerebral and muscle oxygen saturation measurement by a frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopic technique,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 868–874 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Benaron, D. A.

D. A. Benaron, W-F. Cheong, D. K. Stevenson, “Tissue optics,” Science 276, 2002–2003 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. van Houten, D. A. Benaron, S. Spilman, D. K. Stevenson, “Imaging brain injury using time-resolved near infrared light scanning,” Pediatr. Res. 39, 470–476 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight and absorbance imaging of biologic media,” Science 259, 1463–1466 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, B. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, B. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, B. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brennan, K. M.

B. Rubinsky, J. C. Gilbert, G. M. Onik, H. S. Roos, S. T. S. Wong, K. M. Brennan, “Monitoring cryosurgery in the brain and in the prostate with proton NMR,” Cryobiology 30, 191–199 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, B. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carter, S.

D. S. Smith, W. J. Levy, S. Carter, N. Wang, M. Haida, B. Chance, “Time resolved spectroscopy and the determination of photon scattering, pathlength, and brain vascular hemoglobin saturation in a population of normal volunteers,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE1988, 511–516 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

S. P. Gopinath, S. C. Roverson, R. G. Grossman, B. Chance, “Near infrared spectroscopic localization of intracranial hematomas,” J. Neurosurg. 79, 43–47 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Smith, W. J. Levy, S. Carter, N. Wang, M. Haida, B. Chance, “Time resolved spectroscopy and the determination of photon scattering, pathlength, and brain vascular hemoglobin saturation in a population of normal volunteers,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE1988, 511–516 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W-F.

D. A. Benaron, W-F. Cheong, D. K. Stevenson, “Tissue optics,” Science 276, 2002–2003 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christianson, M.

G. Onik, C. Cooper, H. I. Goldenberg, A. A. Moss, B. Rubinsky, M. Christianson, “Ultrasonic characteristics of frozen liver,” Cryobiology 21, 321–328 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, C.

G. Onik, C. Cooper, H. I. Goldenberg, A. A. Moss, B. Rubinsky, M. Christianson, “Ultrasonic characteristics of frozen liver,” Cryobiology 21, 321–328 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Blasi, R. A.

R. A. De Blasi, S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini-Fantini, B. F. Barbieri, M. Ferrari, E. Gratton, “Cerebral and muscle oxygen saturation measurement by a frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopic technique,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 868–874 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dujovny, M.

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, G. Lewis, M. Dujovny, J. I. Ausman, “Intracerebral penetration of infrared light,” J. Neurosurg. 76, 315–318 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, A. D.

A. D. Edwards, “Cotside measurement of cerebral blood flow in ill preterm infants by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet 2, 770–771 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellingsen, R.

L. O. Svaasand, R. Ellingsen, “Optical properties of human brain,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabol. 3, 293–299 (1983).

Fantini, S.

R. A. De Blasi, S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini-Fantini, B. F. Barbieri, M. Ferrari, E. Gratton, “Cerebral and muscle oxygen saturation measurement by a frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopic technique,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 868–874 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

R. A. De Blasi, S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini-Fantini, B. F. Barbieri, M. Ferrari, E. Gratton, “Cerebral and muscle oxygen saturation measurement by a frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopic technique,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 868–874 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Franceschini-Fantini, M. A.

R. A. De Blasi, S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini-Fantini, B. F. Barbieri, M. Ferrari, E. Gratton, “Cerebral and muscle oxygen saturation measurement by a frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopic technique,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 868–874 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, B. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, J. C.

B. Rubinsky, J. C. Gilbert, G. M. Onik, H. S. Roos, S. T. S. Wong, K. M. Brennan, “Monitoring cryosurgery in the brain and in the prostate with proton NMR,” Cryobiology 30, 191–199 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldenberg, H. I.

G. Onik, C. Cooper, H. I. Goldenberg, A. A. Moss, B. Rubinsky, M. Christianson, “Ultrasonic characteristics of frozen liver,” Cryobiology 21, 321–328 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopinath, S. P.

S. P. Gopinath, S. C. Roverson, R. G. Grossman, B. Chance, “Near infrared spectroscopic localization of intracranial hematomas,” J. Neurosurg. 79, 43–47 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

R. A. De Blasi, S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini-Fantini, B. F. Barbieri, M. Ferrari, E. Gratton, “Cerebral and muscle oxygen saturation measurement by a frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopic technique,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 868–874 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grossman, R. G.

S. P. Gopinath, S. C. Roverson, R. G. Grossman, B. Chance, “Near infrared spectroscopic localization of intracranial hematomas,” J. Neurosurg. 79, 43–47 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haida, M.

D. S. Smith, W. J. Levy, S. Carter, N. Wang, M. Haida, B. Chance, “Time resolved spectroscopy and the determination of photon scattering, pathlength, and brain vascular hemoglobin saturation in a population of normal volunteers,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE1988, 511–516 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J. C.

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, “Transillumination imaging performance: a time-of-flight imaging system,” Med. Phys. 17, 351–356 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jöbsis, F. F.

F. F. Jöbsis, “Noninvasive infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198, 1264–1266 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruger, R. A.

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, “Transillumination imaging performance: a time-of-flight imaging system,” Med. Phys. 17, 351–356 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, W. J.

D. S. Smith, W. J. Levy, S. Carter, N. Wang, M. Haida, B. Chance, “Time resolved spectroscopy and the determination of photon scattering, pathlength, and brain vascular hemoglobin saturation in a population of normal volunteers,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE1988, 511–516 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, G.

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, G. Lewis, M. Dujovny, J. I. Ausman, “Intracerebral penetration of infrared light,” J. Neurosurg. 76, 315–318 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, P.

P. Mazur, “Cryobiology: the freezing of biological systems,” Science 168, 939–949 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCormick, P. W.

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, G. Lewis, M. Dujovny, J. I. Ausman, “Intracerebral penetration of infrared light,” J. Neurosurg. 76, 315–318 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moss, A. A.

G. Onik, C. Cooper, H. I. Goldenberg, A. A. Moss, B. Rubinsky, M. Christianson, “Ultrasonic characteristics of frozen liver,” Cryobiology 21, 321–328 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Onik, G.

G. Onik, C. Cooper, H. I. Goldenberg, A. A. Moss, B. Rubinsky, M. Christianson, “Ultrasonic characteristics of frozen liver,” Cryobiology 21, 321–328 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Onik, B. Rubinsky, G. Watson, R. J. Ablin, Percutaneous Prostate Cryoablation (Quality Medical, St. Louis, 1994).

Onik, G. M.

B. Rubinsky, J. C. Gilbert, G. M. Onik, H. S. Roos, S. T. S. Wong, K. M. Brennan, “Monitoring cryosurgery in the brain and in the prostate with proton NMR,” Cryobiology 30, 191–199 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, B. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roos, H. S.

B. Rubinsky, J. C. Gilbert, G. M. Onik, H. S. Roos, S. T. S. Wong, K. M. Brennan, “Monitoring cryosurgery in the brain and in the prostate with proton NMR,” Cryobiology 30, 191–199 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roverson, S. C.

S. P. Gopinath, S. C. Roverson, R. G. Grossman, B. Chance, “Near infrared spectroscopic localization of intracranial hematomas,” J. Neurosurg. 79, 43–47 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubinsky, B.

B. Rubinsky, J. C. Gilbert, G. M. Onik, H. S. Roos, S. T. S. Wong, K. M. Brennan, “Monitoring cryosurgery in the brain and in the prostate with proton NMR,” Cryobiology 30, 191–199 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rubinsky, “Cryosurgery imaging with ultrasound,” Mech. Eng. 108, 48–51 (1986).

G. Onik, C. Cooper, H. I. Goldenberg, A. A. Moss, B. Rubinsky, M. Christianson, “Ultrasonic characteristics of frozen liver,” Cryobiology 21, 321–328 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Onik, B. Rubinsky, G. Watson, R. J. Ablin, Percutaneous Prostate Cryoablation (Quality Medical, St. Louis, 1994).

Smith, D. S.

D. S. Smith, W. J. Levy, S. Carter, N. Wang, M. Haida, B. Chance, “Time resolved spectroscopy and the determination of photon scattering, pathlength, and brain vascular hemoglobin saturation in a population of normal volunteers,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE1988, 511–516 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, B. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spilman, S.

J. P. van Houten, D. A. Benaron, S. Spilman, D. K. Stevenson, “Imaging brain injury using time-resolved near infrared light scanning,” Pediatr. Res. 39, 470–476 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevenson, D. K.

D. A. Benaron, W-F. Cheong, D. K. Stevenson, “Tissue optics,” Science 276, 2002–2003 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. van Houten, D. A. Benaron, S. Spilman, D. K. Stevenson, “Imaging brain injury using time-resolved near infrared light scanning,” Pediatr. Res. 39, 470–476 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight and absorbance imaging of biologic media,” Science 259, 1463–1466 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, M.

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, G. Lewis, M. Dujovny, J. I. Ausman, “Intracerebral penetration of infrared light,” J. Neurosurg. 76, 315–318 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svaasand, L. O.

L. O. Svaasand, R. Ellingsen, “Optical properties of human brain,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabol. 3, 293–299 (1983).

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, B. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van Houten, J. P.

J. P. van Houten, D. A. Benaron, S. Spilman, D. K. Stevenson, “Imaging brain injury using time-resolved near infrared light scanning,” Pediatr. Res. 39, 470–476 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, N.

D. S. Smith, W. J. Levy, S. Carter, N. Wang, M. Haida, B. Chance, “Time resolved spectroscopy and the determination of photon scattering, pathlength, and brain vascular hemoglobin saturation in a population of normal volunteers,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE1988, 511–516 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Watson, G.

G. Onik, B. Rubinsky, G. Watson, R. J. Ablin, Percutaneous Prostate Cryoablation (Quality Medical, St. Louis, 1994).

Wong, S. T. S.

B. Rubinsky, J. C. Gilbert, G. M. Onik, H. S. Roos, S. T. S. Wong, K. M. Brennan, “Monitoring cryosurgery in the brain and in the prostate with proton NMR,” Cryobiology 30, 191–199 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cryobiology (2)

G. Onik, C. Cooper, H. I. Goldenberg, A. A. Moss, B. Rubinsky, M. Christianson, “Ultrasonic characteristics of frozen liver,” Cryobiology 21, 321–328 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rubinsky, J. C. Gilbert, G. M. Onik, H. S. Roos, S. T. S. Wong, K. M. Brennan, “Monitoring cryosurgery in the brain and in the prostate with proton NMR,” Cryobiology 30, 191–199 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabol. (1)

L. O. Svaasand, R. Ellingsen, “Optical properties of human brain,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metabol. 3, 293–299 (1983).

J. Neurosurg. (2)

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, G. Lewis, M. Dujovny, J. I. Ausman, “Intracerebral penetration of infrared light,” J. Neurosurg. 76, 315–318 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Gopinath, S. C. Roverson, R. G. Grossman, B. Chance, “Near infrared spectroscopic localization of intracranial hematomas,” J. Neurosurg. 79, 43–47 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancet (1)

A. D. Edwards, “Cotside measurement of cerebral blood flow in ill preterm infants by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet 2, 770–771 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mech. Eng. (1)

B. Rubinsky, “Cryosurgery imaging with ultrasound,” Mech. Eng. 108, 48–51 (1986).

Med. Phys. (1)

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, “Transillumination imaging performance: a time-of-flight imaging system,” Med. Phys. 17, 351–356 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pediatr. Res. (1)

J. P. van Houten, D. A. Benaron, S. Spilman, D. K. Stevenson, “Imaging brain injury using time-resolved near infrared light scanning,” Pediatr. Res. 39, 470–476 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (5)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, B. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Mazur, “Cryobiology: the freezing of biological systems,” Science 168, 939–949 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight and absorbance imaging of biologic media,” Science 259, 1463–1466 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Benaron, W-F. Cheong, D. K. Stevenson, “Tissue optics,” Science 276, 2002–2003 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. F. Jöbsis, “Noninvasive infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198, 1264–1266 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

D. E. Pegg, A. K. Karow, eds., The Biophysics of Organ Cryopreservation, NATO ASI Series A, 147 (Plenum, New York, 1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Onik, B. Rubinsky, G. Watson, R. J. Ablin, Percutaneous Prostate Cryoablation (Quality Medical, St. Louis, 1994).

D. S. Smith, W. J. Levy, S. Carter, N. Wang, M. Haida, B. Chance, “Time resolved spectroscopy and the determination of photon scattering, pathlength, and brain vascular hemoglobin saturation in a population of normal volunteers,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE1988, 511–516 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. A. De Blasi, S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini-Fantini, B. F. Barbieri, M. Ferrari, E. Gratton, “Cerebral and muscle oxygen saturation measurement by a frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopic technique,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 868–874 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

One-dimensional freezing chamber with fiber positions and numbered light paths for each transmission mode (see text). Not drawn to scale (see Fig. 2 for scaled drawing).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Selected magnetic resonance images of chicken muscle undergoing freezing. The light regions represent unfrozen tissue. The to-scale apparatus outline and fiber positions have been superimposed over the raw images. Times and ice-front distances from bottom (x) are given as follows: (a) T a = 11.2 min, x a = 4.7 mm; (b) T b = 12.8 min, x b = 8.8 mm; (c) T c = 18.6 min, x c = 15.2 mm; (d) T d = 22.7 min, x d = 18.2 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of time-evolving spectral data. This specific data set was taken from transmission mode 3 (see Fig. 1 for mode definitions) for trial 2. The upper emitter–detector fiber pair was positioned 15 mm from the chamber bottom. The ice-front position uncertainty measured from the chamber bottom is ±1.0 mm. Accuracy was limited by MRI resolution and slightly nonplanar ice-front progression (see Fig. 2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized intensity for each emitter–detector fiber transmission mode (see Fig. 1 for mode definitions): (a) 2-mm adjacent reflectance fiber modes 1 and 3, (b) 4-mm adjacent reflectance fiber modes 2 and 4, (c) axial transillumination fiber modes 5 and 6. Each data point represents one spectrum integrated over all wavelengths. Squares, diamonds, and circles represent trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For (a) and (b), filled and unfilled symbols represent intra-ice and extra-ice trials, respectively. For (c), filled and unfilled symbols represent ice-to-tissue and tissue-to-ice trials, respectively. Dotted and dotted–dashed lines indicate upper and lower emitter–detector fiber positions, respectively. Ice-front position was measured from the bottom of the chamber with ±1.0 mm uncertainty. The normalized intensity error is approximately ±2% for (a), ±5% for (b), and ±5% for (c).

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Transmission λ = VC λ sample - VC λ sample   dark VC λ reference - VC λ reference dark ,

Metrics