Abstract

C/Ti multilayers with a period thickness of 2.1–2.7 nm were produced by electron-beam evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum as soft-x-ray mirrors in the water window (λ = 2.3–4.4 nm). For smoothing the individual interfaces and thus enhancing the total reflectance, each layer was ion polished with an Ar+ ion beam after deposition. For a multilayer of 85 bilayers, a reflectance of approximately 11% at an angle of incidence of 59° (with respect to the surface normal) by use of s-polarized radiation at a wavelength of 2.77 nm was achieved.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data Tab. 54, 181–342 (1993); optical constant files are available at http://www.cxro.lbl.gov .
  2. E. Spiller, A. Rosenbluth, “Determination of thickness errors and boundary roughness from the measured performance of a multilayer coating,” Opt. Eng. 25, 954–963 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. J. Puik, M. J. van der Wiel, H. Zeijlemaker, J. Verhoeven, “Ion etching of thin W layers: enhanced reflectivity of W–C multilayer coatings,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 47, 63–76 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R.-P. Haelbich, A. Segmüller, E. Spiller, “Smooth multilayer films suitable for x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 184–186 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. W. Barbee, “Sputtered layered synthetic microstructure (LSM) dispersion elements,” AIP Conf. Proc. 75, 131–145 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Kloidt, “Herstellung von Multischichtsystemen durch Elektronenstrahlverdampfung fuer die Anwendung als Roentgenspiegel,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Bielefeld, Germany, 1993).
  7. J. F. Seely, G. Gutman, J. Wood, G. S. Herman, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Normal-incidence reflectance of W/B4C multilayer mirrors in the 34–50-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3541–3543 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Slaughter, C. Falco, “Extreme ultraviolet reflectance of thin films deposited in situ,” paper presented at the Third International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Breckenridge, Colo., 3–7 March 1996; http://www.cxro.lbl.gov/multilayer/survey.html .
  9. A. Fedorenko, V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, O. Poltseva, E. Zubarev, L. Balakireva, V. Didyk, V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer x-ray mirrors for the long-wave part (3.1–4.4 nm) of a water window,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 8, 1139–1147 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Schaefers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Yark, H. Grimmer, P. Böni, D. Clemens, M. Horrisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Schaefers, H.-C. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. Salashchenko, E. Shamov, “Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 719–728 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Spiller, “Experience with the in situ monitor system for the fabrication of x-ray mirrors,” in Applications of Thin Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G. Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE563, 367–375 (1985).
  13. E. Spiller, A. Segmüller, J. Rife, R.-P. Haelbich, “Controlled fabrication of multilayer soft-x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 1048–1050 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Spiller, “Smoothing of multilayer x-ray mirrors by ion polishing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 2293–2295 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Spiller, “Enhancement of the reflectivity of multilayer x-ray mirrors by ion polishing,” Opt. Eng. 6, 609–613 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Puik, M. van der Wiel, H. Zeijlemaker, J. Verhoeven, “Ion bombardment of x-ray multilayer coatings: comparison of ion etching and ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.251–260 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Schlatmann, C. Lu, J. Verhoeven, E. Puik, M. van der Wiel, “Limits to ion beam etching of Mo/Si multilayer coatings,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 7 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. PD6-1.
  18. D. Fuchs, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, “High-precision soft x-ray reflectometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2248–2250 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. Böwering, T. Döhring, U. Gärner, U. Heinzmann, “Spectral diagnosis of a laser-produced XUV source using a digital camera system with pinhole transmission grating,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 593–601 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1998

1995

D. Fuchs, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, “High-precision soft x-ray reflectometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2248–2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. Fedorenko, V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, O. Poltseva, E. Zubarev, L. Balakireva, V. Didyk, V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer x-ray mirrors for the long-wave part (3.1–4.4 nm) of a water window,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 8, 1139–1147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. F. Seely, G. Gutman, J. Wood, G. S. Herman, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Normal-incidence reflectance of W/B4C multilayer mirrors in the 34–50-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3541–3543 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data Tab. 54, 181–342 (1993); optical constant files are available at http://www.cxro.lbl.gov .

1991

E. J. Puik, M. J. van der Wiel, H. Zeijlemaker, J. Verhoeven, “Ion etching of thin W layers: enhanced reflectivity of W–C multilayer coatings,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 47, 63–76 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Puik, M. van der Wiel, H. Zeijlemaker, J. Verhoeven, “Ion bombardment of x-ray multilayer coatings: comparison of ion etching and ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.251–260 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Böwering, T. Döhring, U. Gärner, U. Heinzmann, “Spectral diagnosis of a laser-produced XUV source using a digital camera system with pinhole transmission grating,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 593–601 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

E. Spiller, “Enhancement of the reflectivity of multilayer x-ray mirrors by ion polishing,” Opt. Eng. 6, 609–613 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

E. Spiller, “Smoothing of multilayer x-ray mirrors by ion polishing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 2293–2295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

E. Spiller, A. Rosenbluth, “Determination of thickness errors and boundary roughness from the measured performance of a multilayer coating,” Opt. Eng. 25, 954–963 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981

T. W. Barbee, “Sputtered layered synthetic microstructure (LSM) dispersion elements,” AIP Conf. Proc. 75, 131–145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

E. Spiller, A. Segmüller, J. Rife, R.-P. Haelbich, “Controlled fabrication of multilayer soft-x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 1048–1050 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

R.-P. Haelbich, A. Segmüller, E. Spiller, “Smooth multilayer films suitable for x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 184–186 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Balakireva, L.

A. Fedorenko, V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, O. Poltseva, E. Zubarev, L. Balakireva, V. Didyk, V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer x-ray mirrors for the long-wave part (3.1–4.4 nm) of a water window,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 8, 1139–1147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

T. W. Barbee, “Sputtered layered synthetic microstructure (LSM) dispersion elements,” AIP Conf. Proc. 75, 131–145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Böni, P.

F. Schaefers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Yark, H. Grimmer, P. Böni, D. Clemens, M. Horrisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Böwering, N.

N. Böwering, T. Döhring, U. Gärner, U. Heinzmann, “Spectral diagnosis of a laser-produced XUV source using a digital camera system with pinhole transmission grating,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 593–601 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Burtsev, V.

A. Fedorenko, V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, O. Poltseva, E. Zubarev, L. Balakireva, V. Didyk, V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer x-ray mirrors for the long-wave part (3.1–4.4 nm) of a water window,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 8, 1139–1147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Clemens, D.

F. Schaefers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Yark, H. Grimmer, P. Böni, D. Clemens, M. Horrisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data Tab. 54, 181–342 (1993); optical constant files are available at http://www.cxro.lbl.gov .

Di Fonzo, S.

F. Schaefers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Yark, H. Grimmer, P. Böni, D. Clemens, M. Horrisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Didyk, V.

A. Fedorenko, V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, O. Poltseva, E. Zubarev, L. Balakireva, V. Didyk, V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer x-ray mirrors for the long-wave part (3.1–4.4 nm) of a water window,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 8, 1139–1147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Döhring, T.

N. Böwering, T. Döhring, U. Gärner, U. Heinzmann, “Spectral diagnosis of a laser-produced XUV source using a digital camera system with pinhole transmission grating,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 593–601 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Falco, C.

J. Slaughter, C. Falco, “Extreme ultraviolet reflectance of thin films deposited in situ,” paper presented at the Third International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Breckenridge, Colo., 3–7 March 1996; http://www.cxro.lbl.gov/multilayer/survey.html .

Fedorenko, A.

A. Fedorenko, V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, O. Poltseva, E. Zubarev, L. Balakireva, V. Didyk, V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer x-ray mirrors for the long-wave part (3.1–4.4 nm) of a water window,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 8, 1139–1147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, D.

D. Fuchs, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, “High-precision soft x-ray reflectometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2248–2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gärner, U.

N. Böwering, T. Döhring, U. Gärner, U. Heinzmann, “Spectral diagnosis of a laser-produced XUV source using a digital camera system with pinhole transmission grating,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 593–601 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grimmer, H.

F. Schaefers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Yark, H. Grimmer, P. Böni, D. Clemens, M. Horrisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data Tab. 54, 181–342 (1993); optical constant files are available at http://www.cxro.lbl.gov .

Gutman, G.

Haelbich, R.-P.

E. Spiller, A. Segmüller, J. Rife, R.-P. Haelbich, “Controlled fabrication of multilayer soft-x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 1048–1050 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R.-P. Haelbich, A. Segmüller, E. Spiller, “Smooth multilayer films suitable for x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 184–186 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

N. Böwering, T. Döhring, U. Gärner, U. Heinzmann, “Spectral diagnosis of a laser-produced XUV source using a digital camera system with pinhole transmission grating,” Laser Part. Beams 9, 593–601 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data Tab. 54, 181–342 (1993); optical constant files are available at http://www.cxro.lbl.gov .

Herman, G. S.

Horrisberger, M.

F. Schaefers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Yark, H. Grimmer, P. Böni, D. Clemens, M. Horrisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. R.

Kloidt, A.

A. Kloidt, “Herstellung von Multischichtsystemen durch Elektronenstrahlverdampfung fuer die Anwendung als Roentgenspiegel,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Bielefeld, Germany, 1993).

Kondratenko, V.

A. Fedorenko, V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, O. Poltseva, E. Zubarev, L. Balakireva, V. Didyk, V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer x-ray mirrors for the long-wave part (3.1–4.4 nm) of a water window,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 8, 1139–1147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, M. P.

Krumrey, M.

D. Fuchs, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, “High-precision soft x-ray reflectometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2248–2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

R. Schlatmann, C. Lu, J. Verhoeven, E. Puik, M. van der Wiel, “Limits to ion beam etching of Mo/Si multilayer coatings,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 7 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. PD6-1.

Mertin, M.

F. Schaefers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Yark, H. Grimmer, P. Böni, D. Clemens, M. Horrisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mertins, H.-C.

Mertins, H.-Ch.

F. Schaefers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Yark, H. Grimmer, P. Böni, D. Clemens, M. Horrisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, P.

D. Fuchs, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, “High-precision soft x-ray reflectometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2248–2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Packe, I.

F. Schaefers, H.-C. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. Salashchenko, E. Shamov, “Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 719–728 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Schaefers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Yark, H. Grimmer, P. Böni, D. Clemens, M. Horrisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pershin, Yu. P.

A. Fedorenko, V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, O. Poltseva, E. Zubarev, L. Balakireva, V. Didyk, V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer x-ray mirrors for the long-wave part (3.1–4.4 nm) of a water window,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 8, 1139–1147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poltseva, O.

A. Fedorenko, V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, O. Poltseva, E. Zubarev, L. Balakireva, V. Didyk, V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer x-ray mirrors for the long-wave part (3.1–4.4 nm) of a water window,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 8, 1139–1147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Puik, E.

E. Puik, M. van der Wiel, H. Zeijlemaker, J. Verhoeven, “Ion bombardment of x-ray multilayer coatings: comparison of ion etching and ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci.251–260 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Schlatmann, C. Lu, J. Verhoeven, E. Puik, M. van der Wiel, “Limits to ion beam etching of Mo/Si multilayer coatings,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 7 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. PD6-1.

Puik, E. J.

E. J. Puik, M. J. van der Wiel, H. Zeijlemaker, J. Verhoeven, “Ion etching of thin W layers: enhanced reflectivity of W–C multilayer coatings,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 47, 63–76 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rife, J.

E. Spiller, A. Segmüller, J. Rife, R.-P. Haelbich, “Controlled fabrication of multilayer soft-x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 1048–1050 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Rife, J. C.

Rosenbluth, A.

E. Spiller, A. Rosenbluth, “Determination of thickness errors and boundary roughness from the measured performance of a multilayer coating,” Opt. Eng. 25, 954–963 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Salashchenko, N.

Salashchenko, N. N.

F. Schaefers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Yark, H. Grimmer, P. Böni, D. Clemens, M. Horrisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schaefers, F.

F. Schaefers, H.-C. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. Salashchenko, E. Shamov, “Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 719–728 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Schaefers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Yark, H. Grimmer, P. Böni, D. Clemens, M. Horrisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schlatmann, R.

R. Schlatmann, C. Lu, J. Verhoeven, E. Puik, M. van der Wiel, “Limits to ion beam etching of Mo/Si multilayer coatings,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 7 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. PD6-1.

Schmolla, F.

F. Schaefers, H.-C. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. Salashchenko, E. Shamov, “Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 719–728 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Schaefers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Yark, H. Grimmer, P. Böni, D. Clemens, M. Horrisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scholze, F.

D. Fuchs, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, “High-precision soft x-ray reflectometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2248–2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J. F.

Segmüller, A.

E. Spiller, A. Segmüller, J. Rife, R.-P. Haelbich, “Controlled fabrication of multilayer soft-x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 1048–1050 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R.-P. Haelbich, A. Segmüller, E. Spiller, “Smooth multilayer films suitable for x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 184–186 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Shamov, E.

Shamov, E. A.

F. Schaefers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Yark, H. Grimmer, P. Böni, D. Clemens, M. Horrisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Slaughter, J.

J. Slaughter, C. Falco, “Extreme ultraviolet reflectance of thin films deposited in situ,” paper presented at the Third International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Breckenridge, Colo., 3–7 March 1996; http://www.cxro.lbl.gov/multilayer/survey.html .

Soullie, G.

F. Schaefers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Yark, H. Grimmer, P. Böni, D. Clemens, M. Horrisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E.

E. Spiller, “Enhancement of the reflectivity of multilayer x-ray mirrors by ion polishing,” Opt. Eng. 6, 609–613 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Spiller, “Smoothing of multilayer x-ray mirrors by ion polishing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 2293–2295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. Spiller, A. Rosenbluth, “Determination of thickness errors and boundary roughness from the measured performance of a multilayer coating,” Opt. Eng. 25, 954–963 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. Spiller, A. Segmüller, J. Rife, R.-P. Haelbich, “Controlled fabrication of multilayer soft-x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 1048–1050 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R.-P. Haelbich, A. Segmüller, E. Spiller, “Smooth multilayer films suitable for x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 184–186 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. Spiller, “Experience with the in situ monitor system for the fabrication of x-ray mirrors,” in Applications of Thin Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G. Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE563, 367–375 (1985).

Ulm, G.

D. Fuchs, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, “High-precision soft x-ray reflectometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2248–2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

van der Wiel, M.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

In situ reflectance measurement with an AlK-line source for a C/Ti multilayer with 85 periods. (a) The reflectance values are evaluated from a simulation. (b) A detailed cutting diagram of the in situ reflectance curve with two periods. The curve presents the evaporation and the ion-polishing processes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance measurement in the water window near the TiL-absorption edge with s-polarized light for a C/Ti multilayer mirror with 85 periods (solid curve) and a simulation for this measurement (dashed curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In situ reflectance measurement with an AlK line source at η = 0.83 nm, Θ = 11°, and d = 2.1 nm for a C/Ti multilayer with 90 periods. (a) The C layers marked with arrows were ion polished. (b) Reflectance measurement in the water window near the TiL-absorption edge with unpolarized light for a C/Ti multilayer mirror with 90 periods.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

High-resolution transmission electron microscope picture of a C/Ti multilayer cross section with 85 periods.

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