Abstract

Films of Ti oxide, Zr oxide, Ce oxide, Ti-Ce oxide, and Zr-Ce oxide were made by means of reactive dc magnetron sputtering in a multitarget arrangement. The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction and electrochemical measurements, both techniques being firmly connected to stoichiometric information. The optical constants n and k were evalued from spectrophotometry and from variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The two analyses gave consistent results. It was found that n for the mixed-oxide films varied smoothly between the values for the pure oxides, whereas k in the band-gap range showed characteristic differences between Ti-Ce oxide and Zr-Ce oxide. It is speculated that this difference is associated with structural effects.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  53. G. Mbise, D. Le Bellac, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Angular selective window coatings: theory and experiments,” J. Phys. D 30, 2103–2122 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Veszelei, L. Kullman, M. Strømme Mattsson, A. Azens, C. G. Granqvist, “Optical and electrochemical properties of Li+ intercalated Zr-Ce oxide and Hf-Ce oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1670–1676 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kharrazi Olsson, K. Macák, U. Helmersson, B. Hjörvarsson, “High rate reactive dc magnetron sputter deposition of Al2O3 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 639–643 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (7)

X.-F. He, “Interband critical-point line shapes in confined semiconductor structures with arbitrary dimensionality: inhomogeneous broadening,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 14, 17–20 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. von Rottkay, M. Rubin, S.-J. Wen, “Optical indices of electrochromic tungsten oxide,” Thin Solid Films 306, 10–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Kharrazi, A. Azens, L. Kullman, C. G. Granqvist, “High-rate dual-target dc magnetron sputter deposition of electrochromic MoO3 oxide,” Thin Solid Films 295, 117–121 (1997); M. Kharrazi Olsson, L. Kullman, C. G. Granqvist, “High-rate dual-target dc magnetron sputtering of blue electrochromic Mo oxide,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

L. Kullman, A. Azens, C. G. Granqvist, “Decreased electrochromism in Li-intercalated Ti oxide films containing La, Ce, and Pr,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 8002–8010 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Veszelei, L. Kullman, A. Azens, C. G. Granqvist, B. Hjörvarsson, “Transparent ion intercalation films of Zr-Ce oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2024–2026 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Strømme Mattsson, A. Azens, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, J. Purans, “Li intercalation in transparent Ti-Ce oxide films: energetics and ion dynamics,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6432–6437 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Mbise, D. Le Bellac, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Angular selective window coatings: theory and experiments,” J. Phys. D 30, 2103–2122 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

D. Rönnow, L. Kullman, C. G. Granqvist, “Spectroscopic light scattering from electrochromic tungsten-oxide-based films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 423–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, “Parametrization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 371–373 (1996); Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2137 (erratum).

A. Azens, L. Kullman, D. D. Ragan, C. G. Granqvist, B. Hjörvarsson, G. Vaivars, “Optical and electrochemical properties of dc magnetron sputtered Ti-Ce oxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3701–3703 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Cho, C. K. Hwangbo, “Optical inhomogeneity and microstructure of ZrO2 thin films prepared by ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5545–5552 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

D. Camino, D. Deroo, J. Salardenne, N. Treuil, “(CeO2)x - (TiO2)1-x: counter electrode materials for lithium electrochromic devices,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 39, 349–366 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Le Bellac, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Angular-selective optical transmittance of anisotropic inhomogeneous Cr-based films made by sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6145–6151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Guo, H. Arwin, S. N. Jacobsen, K. Järrendahl, U. Helmersson, “A spectroscopic ellipsometry study of cerium dioxide thin films grown on sapphire by rf magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5369–5376 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Z. C. Orel, B. Orel, “Optical properties of pure CeO2 and mixed CeO2/SnO2 thin films coatings,” Phys. Status Solidi B 186, K33–K36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (6)

C. C. Kim, J. W. Garland, H. Abad, P. M. Raccah, “Modeling of the optical dielectric function of semiconductors: extension of the critical-point parabolic-band approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 11749–11756 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Swarnalatha, A. F. Stewart, A. H. Guenther, C. K. Carniglia, “Optical and structural properties of thin films deposited from laser fused zirconia, hafnia, and yttria,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 533–537 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Suhail, G. Mohan Rao, S. Mohan, “Effect of substrate temperature on the properties of ZrO2 films prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B12, 247–252 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghanashyam Krishna, K. Narasimha Rao, S. Mohan, “Optical properties of ion assisted deposited zirconia thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 3451–3455 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghanashyam Krishna, K. Narasimha Rao, S. Mohan, “A comparative study of the optical properties of zirconia thin films prepared by ion-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 207, 248–251 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Al-Robaee, K. Narasimha Rao, S. Mohan, “Influence of substrate temperature on the properties of oxygen-ion-assisted deposited CeO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2380–2386 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

M. H. Suhail, G. Mohan Rao, S. Mohan, “Studies on the properties of zirconia films prepared by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2675–2677 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Al-Robaee, M. Ghanashyam Krishna, K. Narasimha Rao, S. Mohan, “Optical properties of ion assisted deposited CeO2 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 3048–3053 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. B. Sundaram, P. Wahid, “Optical absorption in cerium dioxide thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi B 161, K63–K66 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

1988 (1)

Z. T. Al-Dhhan, C. A. Hogarth, N. Riddleston, “The optical absorption edge in thin amorphous oxide films based on cerium dioxide,” Phys. Status Solidi B 145, 145–149 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

I. Hamberg, C. G. Granqvist, “Evaporated Sn-doped In2O3 films: basic optical properties and applications to energy-efficient windows,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, R123–R159 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Hogarth, Z. T. Al-Dhhan, “Optical absorption in thin films of cerium dioxide and cerium dioxide containing silicon monoxide,” Phys. Status Solidi B 137, K157–K160 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

D. D. Koelling, A. M. Boring, J. H. Wood, “The electronic structure of CeO2 and PrO2 ,” Solid State Commun. 47, 227–232 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

C. Misiano, E. Simonetti, “Co-sputtered optical films,” Vaccum 27, 403–406 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Thornton, “High rate thick film growth,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 239–260 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

H. K. Pulker, G. Paesold, E. Ritter, “Refractive indices of TiO2 films produced by reactive evaporation of various titanium-oxygen phases,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2986–2991 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Shannon, “Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 32, 751–767 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Abad, H.

C. C. Kim, J. W. Garland, H. Abad, P. M. Raccah, “Modeling of the optical dielectric function of semiconductors: extension of the critical-point parabolic-band approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 11749–11756 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Albrand, G.

Al-Dhhan, Z. T.

Z. T. Al-Dhhan, C. A. Hogarth, N. Riddleston, “The optical absorption edge in thin amorphous oxide films based on cerium dioxide,” Phys. Status Solidi B 145, 145–149 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Hogarth, Z. T. Al-Dhhan, “Optical absorption in thin films of cerium dioxide and cerium dioxide containing silicon monoxide,” Phys. Status Solidi B 137, K157–K160 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Allen, T. H.

Al-Robaee, M. S.

M. S. Al-Robaee, K. Narasimha Rao, S. Mohan, “Influence of substrate temperature on the properties of oxygen-ion-assisted deposited CeO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2380–2386 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Al-Robaee, M. Ghanashyam Krishna, K. Narasimha Rao, S. Mohan, “Optical properties of ion assisted deposited CeO2 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 3048–3053 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, O.

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, A. M.

Arndt, D. P.

Arwin, H.

S. Guo, H. Arwin, S. N. Jacobsen, K. Järrendahl, U. Helmersson, “A spectroscopic ellipsometry study of cerium dioxide thin films grown on sapphire by rf magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5369–5376 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Azens, A.

M. Veszelei, L. Kullman, M. Strømme Mattsson, A. Azens, C. G. Granqvist, “Optical and electrochemical properties of Li+ intercalated Zr-Ce oxide and Hf-Ce oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1670–1676 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kharrazi, A. Azens, L. Kullman, C. G. Granqvist, “High-rate dual-target dc magnetron sputter deposition of electrochromic MoO3 oxide,” Thin Solid Films 295, 117–121 (1997); M. Kharrazi Olsson, L. Kullman, C. G. Granqvist, “High-rate dual-target dc magnetron sputtering of blue electrochromic Mo oxide,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

L. Kullman, A. Azens, C. G. Granqvist, “Decreased electrochromism in Li-intercalated Ti oxide films containing La, Ce, and Pr,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 8002–8010 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Veszelei, L. Kullman, A. Azens, C. G. Granqvist, B. Hjörvarsson, “Transparent ion intercalation films of Zr-Ce oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2024–2026 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Strømme Mattsson, A. Azens, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, J. Purans, “Li intercalation in transparent Ti-Ce oxide films: energetics and ion dynamics,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6432–6437 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Azens, L. Kullman, D. D. Ragan, C. G. Granqvist, B. Hjörvarsson, G. Vaivars, “Optical and electrochemical properties of dc magnetron sputtered Ti-Ce oxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3701–3703 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Kullman, M. Veszelei, D. D. Ragan, J. Isidorsson, G. Vaivars, U. Kanders, A. Azens, S. Schelle, B. Hjörvarsson, C. G. Granqvist, “Cerium-containing counter electrodes for transparent electrochromic devices,” in Optical Organic and Semiconductor Inorganic Materials, E. A. Silinsh, A. Medvid, A. R. Lusis, A. O. Ozols, eds., Proc. SPIE2968, 219–224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Azens, L. Kullman, D. D. Ragan, M. Strømme Mattsson, C. G. Granqvist, “Electrochromic properties of Ti-Ce oxides: the effect of varying stoichiometry,” in Electrochromic Materials III, K.-C. Ho, C. B. Greenberg, D. M. MacArthur, eds., Electrochem. Soc. Proc.96-24, 218–228 (1997).

Azzam, R. M. A.

Bange, K.

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Baur, G.

P. Schlotter, G. Baur, R. Schmidt, U. Weinberg, “Laminated electrochromic device for smart windows,” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion XIII, V. Wittwer, C. G. Granqvist, C. M. Lampert, eds., Proc. SPIE2255, 351–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

Bloomer, I.

A. R. Forouhi, I. Bloomer, “Calculation of optical constants, n and k, in the interband region,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, New York, 1991), Chap. 7, pp. 151–175.

Borgogno, J. P.

Boring, A. M.

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L. Kullman, A. Azens, C. G. Granqvist, “Decreased electrochromism in Li-intercalated Ti oxide films containing La, Ce, and Pr,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 8002–8010 (1997).
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A. Azens, L. Kullman, D. D. Ragan, M. Strømme Mattsson, C. G. Granqvist, “Electrochromic properties of Ti-Ce oxides: the effect of varying stoichiometry,” in Electrochromic Materials III, K.-C. Ho, C. B. Greenberg, D. M. MacArthur, eds., Electrochem. Soc. Proc.96-24, 218–228 (1997).

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D. Le Bellac, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Angular-selective optical transmittance of anisotropic inhomogeneous Cr-based films made by sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6145–6151 (1995).
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M. Kharrazi Olsson, K. Macák, U. Helmersson, B. Hjörvarsson, “High rate reactive dc magnetron sputter deposition of Al2O3 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 639–643 (1998).
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M. S. Al-Robaee, K. Narasimha Rao, S. Mohan, “Influence of substrate temperature on the properties of oxygen-ion-assisted deposited CeO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2380–2386 (1992).
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M. Kharrazi Olsson, K. Macák, U. Helmersson, B. Hjörvarsson, “High rate reactive dc magnetron sputter deposition of Al2O3 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 639–643 (1998).
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M. Strømme Mattsson, A. Azens, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, J. Purans, “Li intercalation in transparent Ti-Ce oxide films: energetics and ion dynamics,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6432–6437 (1997).
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A. Azens, L. Kullman, D. D. Ragan, C. G. Granqvist, B. Hjörvarsson, G. Vaivars, “Optical and electrochemical properties of dc magnetron sputtered Ti-Ce oxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3701–3703 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Kullman, M. Veszelei, D. D. Ragan, J. Isidorsson, G. Vaivars, U. Kanders, A. Azens, S. Schelle, B. Hjörvarsson, C. G. Granqvist, “Cerium-containing counter electrodes for transparent electrochromic devices,” in Optical Organic and Semiconductor Inorganic Materials, E. A. Silinsh, A. Medvid, A. R. Lusis, A. O. Ozols, eds., Proc. SPIE2968, 219–224 (1997).
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A. Azens, L. Kullman, D. D. Ragan, M. Strømme Mattsson, C. G. Granqvist, “Electrochromic properties of Ti-Ce oxides: the effect of varying stoichiometry,” in Electrochromic Materials III, K.-C. Ho, C. B. Greenberg, D. M. MacArthur, eds., Electrochem. Soc. Proc.96-24, 218–228 (1997).

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M. H. Suhail, G. Mohan Rao, S. Mohan, “Studies on the properties of zirconia films prepared by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2675–2677 (1991).
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M. Ghanashyam Krishna, K. Narasimha Rao, S. Mohan, “A comparative study of the optical properties of zirconia thin films prepared by ion-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 207, 248–251 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghanashyam Krishna, K. Narasimha Rao, S. Mohan, “Optical properties of ion assisted deposited zirconia thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 3451–3455 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

M. S. Al-Robaee, M. Ghanashyam Krishna, K. Narasimha Rao, S. Mohan, “Optical properties of ion assisted deposited CeO2 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 3048–3053 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, T.

K. von Rottkay, T. Richardson, M. Rubin, J. Slack, E. Masetti, “Effective medium approximation of the optical properties of electrochromic cerium-titanium oxide compounds,” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion XV, C. M. Lampert, C. G. Granqvist, M. Grätzel, S. K. Deb, eds., Proc. SPIE3138, 9–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Riddleston, N.

Z. T. Al-Dhhan, C. A. Hogarth, N. Riddleston, “The optical absorption edge in thin amorphous oxide films based on cerium dioxide,” Phys. Status Solidi B 145, 145–149 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, E.

Rönnow, D.

D. Rönnow, L. Kullman, C. G. Granqvist, “Spectroscopic light scattering from electrochromic tungsten-oxide-based films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 423–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, M.

K. von Rottkay, M. Rubin, S.-J. Wen, “Optical indices of electrochromic tungsten oxide,” Thin Solid Films 306, 10–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. von Rottkay, T. Richardson, M. Rubin, J. Slack, E. Masetti, “Effective medium approximation of the optical properties of electrochromic cerium-titanium oxide compounds,” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion XV, C. M. Lampert, C. G. Granqvist, M. Grätzel, S. K. Deb, eds., Proc. SPIE3138, 9–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sainty, W. G.

Salardenne, J.

D. Camino, D. Deroo, J. Salardenne, N. Treuil, “(CeO2)x - (TiO2)1-x: counter electrode materials for lithium electrochromic devices,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 39, 349–366 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sazer, A.

Schelle, S.

L. Kullman, M. Veszelei, D. D. Ragan, J. Isidorsson, G. Vaivars, U. Kanders, A. Azens, S. Schelle, B. Hjörvarsson, C. G. Granqvist, “Cerium-containing counter electrodes for transparent electrochromic devices,” in Optical Organic and Semiconductor Inorganic Materials, E. A. Silinsh, A. Medvid, A. R. Lusis, A. O. Ozols, eds., Proc. SPIE2968, 219–224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schlotter, P.

P. Schlotter, G. Baur, R. Schmidt, U. Weinberg, “Laminated electrochromic device for smart windows,” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion XIII, V. Wittwer, C. G. Granqvist, C. M. Lampert, eds., Proc. SPIE2255, 351–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schmell, R. A.

Schmidt, R.

P. Schlotter, G. Baur, R. Schmidt, U. Weinberg, “Laminated electrochromic device for smart windows,” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion XIII, V. Wittwer, C. G. Granqvist, C. M. Lampert, eds., Proc. SPIE2255, 351–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, R. D.

R. D. Shannon, “Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 32, 751–767 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sie, S. H.

Simonetti, E.

C. Misiano, E. Simonetti, “Co-sputtered optical films,” Vaccum 27, 403–406 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, R.

Slack, J.

K. von Rottkay, T. Richardson, M. Rubin, J. Slack, E. Masetti, “Effective medium approximation of the optical properties of electrochromic cerium-titanium oxide compounds,” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion XV, C. M. Lampert, C. G. Granqvist, M. Grätzel, S. K. Deb, eds., Proc. SPIE3138, 9–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, A. F.

M. Swarnalatha, A. F. Stewart, A. H. Guenther, C. K. Carniglia, “Optical and structural properties of thin films deposited from laser fused zirconia, hafnia, and yttria,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 533–537 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stjerna, B.

Strome, D. H.

Strømme Mattsson, M.

A. Azens, L. Kullman, D. D. Ragan, M. Strømme Mattsson, C. G. Granqvist, “Electrochromic properties of Ti-Ce oxides: the effect of varying stoichiometry,” in Electrochromic Materials III, K.-C. Ho, C. B. Greenberg, D. M. MacArthur, eds., Electrochem. Soc. Proc.96-24, 218–228 (1997).

Suhail, M. H.

M. H. Suhail, G. Mohan Rao, S. Mohan, “Effect of substrate temperature on the properties of ZrO2 films prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B12, 247–252 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Suhail, G. Mohan Rao, S. Mohan, “Studies on the properties of zirconia films prepared by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2675–2677 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sundaram, K. B.

K. B. Sundaram, P. Wahid, “Optical absorption in cerium dioxide thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi B 161, K63–K66 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Swarnalatha, M.

M. Swarnalatha, A. F. Stewart, A. H. Guenther, C. K. Carniglia, “Optical and structural properties of thin films deposited from laser fused zirconia, hafnia, and yttria,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 533–537 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Swenson, R.

Temple, P. A.

Terezo, A.-J.

S. Oliveira, R. C. Faria, A.-J. Terezo, E. C. Pereira, L. O. S. Bulhões, “The cerium addition effect on the electrochemical properties of niobium pentoxide electrochromic thin films,” in Electrochromic Materials III, K.-C. Ho, C. B. Greenberg, D. M. MacArthur, eds., Electrochem. Soc. Proc.96-24, 106–118 (1997).

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1989).

Thonn, T. F.

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton, “High rate thick film growth,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 239–260 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Treuil, N.

D. Camino, D. Deroo, J. Salardenne, N. Treuil, “(CeO2)x - (TiO2)1-x: counter electrode materials for lithium electrochromic devices,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 39, 349–366 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tuttle-Hart, T.

Vaivars, G.

A. Azens, L. Kullman, D. D. Ragan, C. G. Granqvist, B. Hjörvarsson, G. Vaivars, “Optical and electrochemical properties of dc magnetron sputtered Ti-Ce oxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3701–3703 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Kullman, M. Veszelei, D. D. Ragan, J. Isidorsson, G. Vaivars, U. Kanders, A. Azens, S. Schelle, B. Hjörvarsson, C. G. Granqvist, “Cerium-containing counter electrodes for transparent electrochromic devices,” in Optical Organic and Semiconductor Inorganic Materials, E. A. Silinsh, A. Medvid, A. R. Lusis, A. O. Ozols, eds., Proc. SPIE2968, 219–224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Veszelei, M.

M. Veszelei, L. Kullman, M. Strømme Mattsson, A. Azens, C. G. Granqvist, “Optical and electrochemical properties of Li+ intercalated Zr-Ce oxide and Hf-Ce oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1670–1676 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Veszelei, L. Kullman, A. Azens, C. G. Granqvist, B. Hjörvarsson, “Transparent ion intercalation films of Zr-Ce oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2024–2026 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Kullman, M. Veszelei, D. D. Ragan, J. Isidorsson, G. Vaivars, U. Kanders, A. Azens, S. Schelle, B. Hjörvarsson, C. G. Granqvist, “Cerium-containing counter electrodes for transparent electrochromic devices,” in Optical Organic and Semiconductor Inorganic Materials, E. A. Silinsh, A. Medvid, A. R. Lusis, A. O. Ozols, eds., Proc. SPIE2968, 219–224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1989).

von Rottkay, K.

K. von Rottkay, M. Rubin, S.-J. Wen, “Optical indices of electrochromic tungsten oxide,” Thin Solid Films 306, 10–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. von Rottkay, T. Richardson, M. Rubin, J. Slack, E. Masetti, “Effective medium approximation of the optical properties of electrochromic cerium-titanium oxide compounds,” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion XV, C. M. Lampert, C. G. Granqvist, M. Grätzel, S. K. Deb, eds., Proc. SPIE3138, 9–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wahid, P.

K. B. Sundaram, P. Wahid, “Optical absorption in cerium dioxide thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi B 161, K63–K66 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Waldorf, A. J.

Weinberg, U.

P. Schlotter, G. Baur, R. Schmidt, U. Weinberg, “Laminated electrochromic device for smart windows,” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion XIII, V. Wittwer, C. G. Granqvist, C. M. Lampert, eds., Proc. SPIE2255, 351–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wen, S.-J.

K. von Rottkay, M. Rubin, S.-J. Wen, “Optical indices of electrochromic tungsten oxide,” Thin Solid Films 306, 10–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980).

Wood, J. H.

D. D. Koelling, A. M. Boring, J. H. Wood, “The electronic structure of CeO2 and PrO2 ,” Solid State Commun. 47, 227–232 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, S.-Y.

Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A (1)

R. D. Shannon, “Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 32, 751–767 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

J. A. Thornton, “High rate thick film growth,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 239–260 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

J. A. Dobrowolski, P. D. Grant, R. Simpson, A. J. Waldorf, “Investigation of the evaporation process conditions on the optical constants of zirconia films,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3997–4005 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Cho, C. K. Hwangbo, “Optical inhomogeneity and microstructure of ZrO2 thin films prepared by ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5545–5552 (1996).
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H. K. Pulker, G. Paesold, E. Ritter, “Refractive indices of TiO2 films produced by reactive evaporation of various titanium-oxygen phases,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2986–2991 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bennett, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, C. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, A. Sazer, “Comparison of the properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3303–3317 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
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R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, P. J. Martin, S. H. Sie, “Properties of CeO2 thin films prepared by oxygen-ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2267–2272 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Zheng, A. M. Andersson, B. Stjerna, C. G. Granqvist, “Optical properties of sputter-deposited cerium oxyfluoride thin films,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6303–6309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

M. Swarnalatha, A. F. Stewart, A. H. Guenther, C. K. Carniglia, “Optical and structural properties of thin films deposited from laser fused zirconia, hafnia, and yttria,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 533–537 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Azens, L. Kullman, D. D. Ragan, C. G. Granqvist, B. Hjörvarsson, G. Vaivars, “Optical and electrochemical properties of dc magnetron sputtered Ti-Ce oxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3701–3703 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, “Parametrization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 371–373 (1996); Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2137 (erratum).

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

D.-J. Kim, “Lattice parameters, ionic conductivities, and solubility limits in fluorite-structure MO2 oxide (M = Hf4+, Zr4+, Ce4+, Th4+, U4+),” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 72, 1415–1421 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (9)

D. Rönnow, L. Kullman, C. G. Granqvist, “Spectroscopic light scattering from electrochromic tungsten-oxide-based films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 423–430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Strømme Mattsson, A. Azens, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, J. Purans, “Li intercalation in transparent Ti-Ce oxide films: energetics and ion dynamics,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6432–6437 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Kullman, A. Azens, C. G. Granqvist, “Decreased electrochromism in Li-intercalated Ti oxide films containing La, Ce, and Pr,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 8002–8010 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Veszelei, L. Kullman, A. Azens, C. G. Granqvist, B. Hjörvarsson, “Transparent ion intercalation films of Zr-Ce oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2024–2026 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Veszelei, L. Kullman, M. Strømme Mattsson, A. Azens, C. G. Granqvist, “Optical and electrochemical properties of Li+ intercalated Zr-Ce oxide and Hf-Ce oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1670–1676 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Le Bellac, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Angular-selective optical transmittance of anisotropic inhomogeneous Cr-based films made by sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6145–6151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Hamberg, C. G. Granqvist, “Evaporated Sn-doped In2O3 films: basic optical properties and applications to energy-efficient windows,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, R123–R159 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Guo, H. Arwin, S. N. Jacobsen, K. Järrendahl, U. Helmersson, “A spectroscopic ellipsometry study of cerium dioxide thin films grown on sapphire by rf magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5369–5376 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Al-Robaee, K. Narasimha Rao, S. Mohan, “Influence of substrate temperature on the properties of oxygen-ion-assisted deposited CeO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2380–2386 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

X.-F. He, “Interband critical-point line shapes in confined semiconductor structures with arbitrary dimensionality: inhomogeneous broadening,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 14, 17–20 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

G. Mbise, D. Le Bellac, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Angular selective window coatings: theory and experiments,” J. Phys. D 30, 2103–2122 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (4)

M. H. Suhail, G. Mohan Rao, S. Mohan, “Studies on the properties of zirconia films prepared by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2675–2677 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghanashyam Krishna, K. Narasimha Rao, S. Mohan, “Optical properties of ion assisted deposited zirconia thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 3451–3455 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Al-Robaee, M. Ghanashyam Krishna, K. Narasimha Rao, S. Mohan, “Optical properties of ion assisted deposited CeO2 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 3048–3053 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Kharrazi Olsson, K. Macák, U. Helmersson, B. Hjörvarsson, “High rate reactive dc magnetron sputter deposition of Al2O3 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 639–643 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. (1)

M. H. Suhail, G. Mohan Rao, S. Mohan, “Effect of substrate temperature on the properties of ZrO2 films prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B12, 247–252 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. C. Kim, J. W. Garland, H. Abad, P. M. Raccah, “Modeling of the optical dielectric function of semiconductors: extension of the critical-point parabolic-band approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 11749–11756 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (4)

Z. T. Al-Dhhan, C. A. Hogarth, N. Riddleston, “The optical absorption edge in thin amorphous oxide films based on cerium dioxide,” Phys. Status Solidi B 145, 145–149 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Orel, B. Orel, “Optical properties of pure CeO2 and mixed CeO2/SnO2 thin films coatings,” Phys. Status Solidi B 186, K33–K36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Sundaram, P. Wahid, “Optical absorption in cerium dioxide thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi B 161, K63–K66 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Hogarth, Z. T. Al-Dhhan, “Optical absorption in thin films of cerium dioxide and cerium dioxide containing silicon monoxide,” Phys. Status Solidi B 137, K157–K160 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells (1)

D. Camino, D. Deroo, J. Salardenne, N. Treuil, “(CeO2)x - (TiO2)1-x: counter electrode materials for lithium electrochromic devices,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 39, 349–366 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

D. D. Koelling, A. M. Boring, J. H. Wood, “The electronic structure of CeO2 and PrO2 ,” Solid State Commun. 47, 227–232 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (4)

M. Kharrazi, A. Azens, L. Kullman, C. G. Granqvist, “High-rate dual-target dc magnetron sputter deposition of electrochromic MoO3 oxide,” Thin Solid Films 295, 117–121 (1997); M. Kharrazi Olsson, L. Kullman, C. G. Granqvist, “High-rate dual-target dc magnetron sputtering of blue electrochromic Mo oxide,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

K. von Rottkay, M. Rubin, S.-J. Wen, “Optical indices of electrochromic tungsten oxide,” Thin Solid Films 306, 10–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghanashyam Krishna, K. Narasimha Rao, S. Mohan, “A comparative study of the optical properties of zirconia thin films prepared by ion-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 207, 248–251 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vaccum (1)

C. Misiano, E. Simonetti, “Co-sputtered optical films,” Vaccum 27, 403–406 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

Z. C. Orel, B. Orel, “Electrochemical and optical properties of sol-gel derived CeO2 and mixed CeO2/SnO2 coatings,” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion XIII, V. Wittwer, C. G. Granqvist, C. M. Lampert, eds., Proc. SPIE2255, 285–296 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. I. Khleif, “Dielectric properties of thin films based on CeO2 and TeO2,” Ph.D. dissertation (Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UK, 1989).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980).

A. R. Forouhi, I. Bloomer, “Calculation of optical constants, n and k, in the interband region,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, New York, 1991), Chap. 7, pp. 151–175.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1989).

K. von Rottkay, T. Richardson, M. Rubin, J. Slack, E. Masetti, “Effective medium approximation of the optical properties of electrochromic cerium-titanium oxide compounds,” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion XV, C. M. Lampert, C. G. Granqvist, M. Grätzel, S. K. Deb, eds., Proc. SPIE3138, 9–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Herzinger, B. Johs, “Guide to using WVASE32” (J. A. Woollam Co., Lincoln, Neb., 1996), p. 347.

S. Oliveira, R. C. Faria, A.-J. Terezo, E. C. Pereira, L. O. S. Bulhões, “The cerium addition effect on the electrochemical properties of niobium pentoxide electrochromic thin films,” in Electrochromic Materials III, K.-C. Ho, C. B. Greenberg, D. M. MacArthur, eds., Electrochem. Soc. Proc.96-24, 106–118 (1997).

P. Schlotter, G. Baur, R. Schmidt, U. Weinberg, “Laminated electrochromic device for smart windows,” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion XIII, V. Wittwer, C. G. Granqvist, C. M. Lampert, eds., Proc. SPIE2255, 351–362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Granqvist, Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1995).

L. Kullman, M. Veszelei, D. D. Ragan, J. Isidorsson, G. Vaivars, U. Kanders, A. Azens, S. Schelle, B. Hjörvarsson, C. G. Granqvist, “Cerium-containing counter electrodes for transparent electrochromic devices,” in Optical Organic and Semiconductor Inorganic Materials, E. A. Silinsh, A. Medvid, A. R. Lusis, A. O. Ozols, eds., Proc. SPIE2968, 219–224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Azens, L. Kullman, D. D. Ragan, M. Strømme Mattsson, C. G. Granqvist, “Electrochromic properties of Ti-Ce oxides: the effect of varying stoichiometry,” in Electrochromic Materials III, K.-C. Ho, C. B. Greenberg, D. M. MacArthur, eds., Electrochem. Soc. Proc.96-24, 218–228 (1997).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

X-ray diffractograms for oxide films based on Ce, Zr-Ce, and Zr deposited onto glass. The vertical scale is different for Zr oxide, as indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cyclic voltammograms for films based on (a) oxides of Ti and Ti-Ce and (b) oxides of Zr, Zr-Ce, and Ce. Composition and film thickness d were as shown. The voltage was swept at 50 mV/s in the directions indicated by the arrows.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral transmittance and reflectance measured for a glass substrate with and without a Ti-Ce oxide film having the shown composition and thickness d. Dashed curves pertain to results computed from the optical constants reported in Figs. 4 and 6.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral optical constants n and k for a Ti-Ce oxide film with the shown composition. (a) Data on n obtained from a direct application of the RT method as well as from a Forouhi–Bloomer fit (according to Ref. 22) by use of the data for k represented by the continuous curve in (b). Note that wavelength and energy are used on the horizontal axes in parts (a) and (b), respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral ellipsometric coefficients (a) Ψ and (b) Δ. (c) Spectral transmittance. Measurements are for a glass substrate with a Ti-Ce oxide film having the shown composition and thickness d. The spectroscopic ellipsometry data were taken at four angles θSE. The spectrophotometric transmittance was also recorded for a bare substrate. The dashed curves pertain to results computed from the optical constants reported in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral optical constants n and k for the Ti-Ce oxide film whose spectrophotometric analysis (by the RT method) and ellipsometric analysis were reported in Figs. 3 5. Note that the wavelength scales are different in (a) and (b).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral optical constants n and k for oxides of Ti, Ti-Ce, and Ce. The data are based on ellipsometric recordings. Note that the wavelength scales are different in (a) and (b).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral optical constants n and k for oxides of Zr, Zr-Ce, and Ce. The data are based on ellipsometric recordings. Refractive indices for films with Ce/Zr ≈ 3 and Ce/Zr ≈ 4 are almost overlapping. Note that the wavelength scales are different in (a) and (b).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Refractive index at a wavelength of 550 nm and extinction coefficient at a wavelength of 350 nm versus the Ce content for films of (a) Ti-Ce oxide and (b) Zr-Ce oxide. The symbols denote empirical data, and curves were drawn for convenience.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Sputtering Parameters for Making Oxide Filmsa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Refractive Index n at Various Wavelengths λ as Determined from Spectrophotometric Reflectance and Transmittance (RT Method) and from Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE)

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

a = 0.5414 + 0.0220 m R Zr + R Ce ,
k E = A E - E g 2 E 2 - BE + C ,
Δ n = n av Δ R / 4.4 R sub .
R sub = n sub - 1 n sub + 1 2 ,

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