Abstract

A laser Doppler velocimeter employing a compact disc pickup for both fringe projection and signal detection is described. The spectrum of the recorded signal gives the information about the speed of the object. The device takes advantage of the Talbot effect to project the grating contained in the pickup onto a moving target, so that no imaging system is required. The peculiar imaging technique allows for the exploitation of several optical configurations and permits the manipulation of the intensity profile of the projected grating. The instrument was used to measure the velocity of dust particles on a solid substrate in the 1-m/s range but could also find an application to the study of liquid flow.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. E. Drain, The Laser Doppler Technique (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1980), Chap. 1, p. 2.
  2. P. Cielo, Optical Techniques for Industrial Inspection (Academic, San Diego, 1988), Chap. 7, pp. 428–431.
  3. J. Adrian, ed., Selected Papers on Laser Doppler Velocimetry, in Vol. MS78 of SPIE Milestone Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1993), pp. 6–7.
  4. M. Watrasiewicz, M. J. Rudd, Laser Doppler Measurements (Butterworth, London, 1976), Chap. 3, p. 79.
  5. A. Ballik, J. H. C. Chan, “Fringe image technique for the measurement of flow velocities,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2607–2615 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. C. Chan, E. A. Ballik, “Application of Fourier images to the measurement of particle velocities,” Appl. Opt. 13, 234–236 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Cartellier, “Grating anemometer for local velocity measurements of large bubbles and drops: theoretical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2815–2820 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Cartellier, “Local velocity and size measurements of particles in dense suspensions: theory and design of endoscopic grating velocimeter–granulometers,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3493–3505 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. T. Ator, “Image-velocity sensing with parallel-slit reticles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1416–1422 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. T. Ator, “Image velocity sensing by optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1325–1331 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Hayashi, Y. Kitagawa, “Image velocity sensing using an optical fiber array,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1394–1399 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Ushizaka, T. Asakura, “Measurements of flow velocity in a microscopic region using a transmission grating,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1870–1874 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Aizu, T. Ushizaka, T. Asakura, “Measurements of flow velocity in a microscopic region using a transmission grating: a differential type,” Appl. Opt. 24, 627–635 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Aizu, T. Ushizaka, T. Asakura, “Measurements of flow velocity in a microscopic region using a transmission grating: elimination of directional ambiguity,” Appl. Opt. 24, 636–640 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Aizu, T. Ushizaka, T. Asakura, T. Koyama, “Measurements of flow velocity in a microscopic region using a transmission grating: a practical velocimeter,” Appl. Opt. 25, 31–38 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. C. Pohlmann, The Compact Disc: A Handbook of Theory and Use (A-R Editions, Madison, Wisc., 1989), Chap. 4, pp. 90–103.
  17. H. L. Davidson, Troubleshooting and Repairing Compact Disc Players, 2nd ed. (Tab, Blue Ridge Summit, Pa., 1994), Chap. 3, pp. 51–60.
  18. K. Mitsui, M. Sakai, Y. Kizuka, “Development of a high resolution sensor for surface roughness,” Opt. Eng. 27, 498–502 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Benschop, G. van Rosmalen, “Confocal compact scanning optical microscope based on compact disc technology,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1179–1184 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Rodenstock laser profilometer model RM 600 (Munich, Germany).
  21. C. During, S. Andersson, J. Wilkander, “Non-contact absolute position measurement using a compact disc player optical pick-up,” Sens. Actuators A 32, 575–581 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. R. Armstrong, M. P. Fitzgerald, “An autocollimator based on the laser head of a compact disc player,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 1072–1076 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. D. Rowsell, “Remote measurement of small displacements using a CD pickup head,” Med. Eng. Phys. 17, 459–461 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. F. Quercioli, A. Mannoni, B. Tiribilli, “Correlation optical velocimetry with a compact disk pickup,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6372–6375 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996), Chap. 4, pp. 87–90.

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

T. D. Rowsell, “Remote measurement of small displacements using a CD pickup head,” Med. Eng. Phys. 17, 459–461 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

C. During, S. Andersson, J. Wilkander, “Non-contact absolute position measurement using a compact disc player optical pick-up,” Sens. Actuators A 32, 575–581 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Armstrong, M. P. Fitzgerald, “An autocollimator based on the laser head of a compact disc player,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 1072–1076 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Cartellier, “Local velocity and size measurements of particles in dense suspensions: theory and design of endoscopic grating velocimeter–granulometers,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3493–3505 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

K. Mitsui, M. Sakai, Y. Kizuka, “Development of a high resolution sensor for surface roughness,” Opt. Eng. 27, 498–502 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

1985 (2)

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

1974 (1)

1973 (1)

1966 (1)

1963 (1)

Aizu, Y.

Andersson, S.

C. During, S. Andersson, J. Wilkander, “Non-contact absolute position measurement using a compact disc player optical pick-up,” Sens. Actuators A 32, 575–581 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, T. R.

T. R. Armstrong, M. P. Fitzgerald, “An autocollimator based on the laser head of a compact disc player,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 1072–1076 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Asakura, T.

Ator, J. T.

Ballik, A.

Ballik, E. A.

Benschop, J.

Cartellier, A.

Chan, H. C.

Chan, J. H. C.

Cielo, P.

P. Cielo, Optical Techniques for Industrial Inspection (Academic, San Diego, 1988), Chap. 7, pp. 428–431.

Davidson, H. L.

H. L. Davidson, Troubleshooting and Repairing Compact Disc Players, 2nd ed. (Tab, Blue Ridge Summit, Pa., 1994), Chap. 3, pp. 51–60.

Drain, L. E.

L. E. Drain, The Laser Doppler Technique (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1980), Chap. 1, p. 2.

During, C.

C. During, S. Andersson, J. Wilkander, “Non-contact absolute position measurement using a compact disc player optical pick-up,” Sens. Actuators A 32, 575–581 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, M. P.

T. R. Armstrong, M. P. Fitzgerald, “An autocollimator based on the laser head of a compact disc player,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 1072–1076 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996), Chap. 4, pp. 87–90.

Hayashi, A.

Kitagawa, Y.

Kizuka, Y.

K. Mitsui, M. Sakai, Y. Kizuka, “Development of a high resolution sensor for surface roughness,” Opt. Eng. 27, 498–502 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, T.

Mannoni, A.

Mitsui, K.

K. Mitsui, M. Sakai, Y. Kizuka, “Development of a high resolution sensor for surface roughness,” Opt. Eng. 27, 498–502 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pohlmann, K. C.

K. C. Pohlmann, The Compact Disc: A Handbook of Theory and Use (A-R Editions, Madison, Wisc., 1989), Chap. 4, pp. 90–103.

Quercioli, F.

Rowsell, T. D.

T. D. Rowsell, “Remote measurement of small displacements using a CD pickup head,” Med. Eng. Phys. 17, 459–461 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudd, M. J.

M. Watrasiewicz, M. J. Rudd, Laser Doppler Measurements (Butterworth, London, 1976), Chap. 3, p. 79.

Sakai, M.

K. Mitsui, M. Sakai, Y. Kizuka, “Development of a high resolution sensor for surface roughness,” Opt. Eng. 27, 498–502 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tiribilli, B.

Ushizaka, T.

van Rosmalen, G.

Watrasiewicz, M.

M. Watrasiewicz, M. J. Rudd, Laser Doppler Measurements (Butterworth, London, 1976), Chap. 3, p. 79.

Wilkander, J.

C. During, S. Andersson, J. Wilkander, “Non-contact absolute position measurement using a compact disc player optical pick-up,” Sens. Actuators A 32, 575–581 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (12)

J. T. Ator, “Image velocity sensing by optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1325–1331 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ballik, J. H. C. Chan, “Fringe image technique for the measurement of flow velocities,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2607–2615 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hayashi, Y. Kitagawa, “Image velocity sensing using an optical fiber array,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1394–1399 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ushizaka, T. Asakura, “Measurements of flow velocity in a microscopic region using a transmission grating,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1870–1874 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Aizu, T. Ushizaka, T. Asakura, “Measurements of flow velocity in a microscopic region using a transmission grating: a differential type,” Appl. Opt. 24, 627–635 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Aizu, T. Ushizaka, T. Asakura, “Measurements of flow velocity in a microscopic region using a transmission grating: elimination of directional ambiguity,” Appl. Opt. 24, 636–640 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Aizu, T. Ushizaka, T. Asakura, T. Koyama, “Measurements of flow velocity in a microscopic region using a transmission grating: a practical velocimeter,” Appl. Opt. 25, 31–38 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cartellier, “Grating anemometer for local velocity measurements of large bubbles and drops: theoretical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2815–2820 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Benschop, G. van Rosmalen, “Confocal compact scanning optical microscope based on compact disc technology,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1179–1184 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cartellier, “Local velocity and size measurements of particles in dense suspensions: theory and design of endoscopic grating velocimeter–granulometers,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3493–3505 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Quercioli, A. Mannoni, B. Tiribilli, “Correlation optical velocimetry with a compact disk pickup,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6372–6375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Chan, E. A. Ballik, “Application of Fourier images to the measurement of particle velocities,” Appl. Opt. 13, 234–236 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

T. R. Armstrong, M. P. Fitzgerald, “An autocollimator based on the laser head of a compact disc player,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 1072–1076 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Med. Eng. Phys. (1)

T. D. Rowsell, “Remote measurement of small displacements using a CD pickup head,” Med. Eng. Phys. 17, 459–461 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

K. Mitsui, M. Sakai, Y. Kizuka, “Development of a high resolution sensor for surface roughness,” Opt. Eng. 27, 498–502 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

C. During, S. Andersson, J. Wilkander, “Non-contact absolute position measurement using a compact disc player optical pick-up,” Sens. Actuators A 32, 575–581 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

Rodenstock laser profilometer model RM 600 (Munich, Germany).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996), Chap. 4, pp. 87–90.

L. E. Drain, The Laser Doppler Technique (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1980), Chap. 1, p. 2.

P. Cielo, Optical Techniques for Industrial Inspection (Academic, San Diego, 1988), Chap. 7, pp. 428–431.

J. Adrian, ed., Selected Papers on Laser Doppler Velocimetry, in Vol. MS78 of SPIE Milestone Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1993), pp. 6–7.

M. Watrasiewicz, M. J. Rudd, Laser Doppler Measurements (Butterworth, London, 1976), Chap. 3, p. 79.

K. C. Pohlmann, The Compact Disc: A Handbook of Theory and Use (A-R Editions, Madison, Wisc., 1989), Chap. 4, pp. 90–103.

H. L. Davidson, Troubleshooting and Repairing Compact Disc Players, 2nd ed. (Tab, Blue Ridge Summit, Pa., 1994), Chap. 3, pp. 51–60.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of operation of a laser Doppler velocimeter: two laser beams cross in a region of space, giving rise to a localized fringe pattern; a particle, moving across the sampling volume, produces an intensity-modulated scattered signal whose frequency depends on its speed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical layout of a three-beam CD pickup employing astigmatic focus detection. The relative positions of the three photodetectors are shown on the top right. The three black circular spots correspond to the ideal condition of a properly aligned and focused readout beam. A polarizing beam splitter and a λ/4 plate can be inserted to send all the backreflected light toward the detectors, increasing the efficiency of the system and at the same time reducing the amount of light fed back to the laser diode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of our experimental backscattering setup. We modified the CD pickup sketched in Fig. 2 by removing the focusing objective. The fringe pattern is the Talbot image of the diffraction grating enclosed in the pickup assembly.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the electrical connections of the CD pickup. A–F are the anodes of the six photodetectors (the four elements of the four-quadrant detector plus the two lateral photodiodes), and K is the common cathode. LD is the anode of the laser diode, and MD is the sensor that monitors its output power. G is their common cathode, and VR is the voltage regulation pin through which the bias current in the laser can be regulated. The working principles of the focusing and tracking systems are explained in the text. APC stands for automatic power control, BPF stands for bandpass filter, ADC stands for analog-to-digital converter, and PC stands for personal computer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Alternative setup employed for forward-scattering measurements. All diffracted components are filtered out except orders ±1, which are backreflected by the two mirrors. Sinusoidal interference fringes are produced on the side of the target opposite the source. Moving particles embedded in a transparent medium or simply deposited on a glass surface as in our experimental configuration give rise to forward-scattered light that is directly collected and detected by the pickup.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Talbot image of the diffraction grating projected upon the rotating disk. The image repeats itself at evenly spaced planes separated by a distance z 0 = 2d 2/λ, where d is the period of the grating.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temporal behavior of a typical backreflected signal from the moving target. The sampling frequency is 50 kHz, with low- and high-frequency cutoffs of the bandpass filter set at 100 Hz and 25 kHz, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Computed power spectrum of the signal shown in Fig. 7. The fundamental frequency is located at 3.79 kHz, which corresponds to a linear velocity of 631 mm/s.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Fringe pattern intensity profile. (b) Corresponding backscattered power spectrum at a Talbot image plane.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Fringe pattern intensity profile. (b) Corresponding backscattered power spectrum at a plane distant by an odd multiple of one-fourth of the Talbot distance from a Talbot image.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Sinusoidal fringe pattern that is due to the interference of diffracted orders ±1 alone as sketched in Fig. 5. The spatial frequency (12 mm-1) is twice that of the unfiltered grating image.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Forward-scattered power spectrum produced by a particle crossing the fringe pattern of Fig. 11. The 9.24-kHz peak corresponds to a velocity of 770 mm/s. The reason for the presence of the subharmonic at 4.62 kHz is explained in the text.

Equations (4)

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ν D = 2 v S λ sin α 2 ,
d = λ 2   sin α / 2 ,
v S = d / ν D .
z 0 = 2 d 2 λ ,

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