Abstract

We present experimental data on the frequency response of both broadband and tuned signal recycling with a benchtop Michelson interferometer. These data are in excellent agreement with our simple theoretical model. We use in-line modulation to give a control system that provides a high degree of orthogonality between the two servo loops.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. E. Vogt, “The U.S. LIGO project,” Proceedings of the Sixth Marcel Grossmann meeting on General Relativity, H. Sato, T. Nakamura, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), 244–268.
  2. “VIRGO: final conceptual design,” VIRGO project document (VIRGO LAL, Bât 208, UPS, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France).
  3. H. Luckthe GEO600 Team, “The GEO-600 project,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1471–1476 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. E. McClelland, “An overview of recycling in laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Aust. J. Phys. 48, 953–970 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. J. Meers, “Recycling in laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 38, 2317–2326 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Fritschel, D. Shoemaker, R. Weiss, “Demonstration of light recycling in a Michelson interferometer with Fabry–Perot cavities,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1412–1418 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. A. Strain, “Techniques in laser interferometry for the detection of gravitational radiation,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK, 1990).
  8. M. W. Regehr, F. J. Raab, S. E. Whitcomb, “Demonstration of a power-recycled Michelson interferometer with Fabry–Perot arms by frontal modulation,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1507–1509 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Mizuno, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Frequency response of Michelson- and Sagnac-based interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 138, 383–393 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Heinzel, J. Mizuno, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, A. Rüdiger, K. Danzmann, “An experimental demonstration of resonant sideband extraction for laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 217, 305–314 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. A. Strain, B. J. Meers, “Experimental demonstration of dual recycling for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1391–1394 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Maass, “Signal-Recycling mit Schnupp-Modulation,” Diplomarbeit thesis (Universität Hannover, Hannover, Germany, 1995).
  15. K. Strain, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, UK (personal communication, 1997).
  16. L. Schnupp, “Internal modulation schemes,” presented at the European Collaboration Meeting on Interferometric Detection of Gravitational Waves, Sorrent, Italy, 1988.
  17. A. J. Stevenson, M. B. Gray, C. C. Harb, D. E. McClelland, H.-A. Bachor, “Interferometers with internal and external phase modulation: experimental and analytical comparison,” Aust. J. Phys. 48, 971–997 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022–5029 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. J. Meers, K. A. Strain, “Modulation, signal and quantum-noise in interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4693–4703 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. B. Gray, A. J. Stevenson, H.-A. Bachor, D. E. McClelland, “Harmonic demodulation of nonstationary shot noise,” Opt. Lett. 18, 759–761 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).
  22. M. W. Regehr, “Signal extraction and control for an interferometric gravitational wave detector,” Ph.D. thesis (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1995).
  23. J. M. Macciejowski, Multivariable Feedback Design (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1989).
  24. C. N. Man, D. Shoemaker, M. Pham Tu, D. Dewey, “External modulation techniques for sensitive interferometric detection of displacements,” Phys. Lett. A 148, 8–16 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. B. Gray, A. J. Stevenson, C. C. Harb, H.-A. Bachor, D. E. McClelland, “External phase-modulation interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1623–1632 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mizuno, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Frequency response of Michelson- and Sagnac-based interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 138, 383–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Luckthe GEO600 Team, “The GEO-600 project,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1471–1476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

G. Heinzel, J. Mizuno, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, A. Rüdiger, K. Danzmann, “An experimental demonstration of resonant sideband extraction for laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 217, 305–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gray, A. J. Stevenson, C. C. Harb, H.-A. Bachor, D. E. McClelland, “External phase-modulation interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1623–1632 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

M. W. Regehr, F. J. Raab, S. E. Whitcomb, “Demonstration of a power-recycled Michelson interferometer with Fabry–Perot arms by frontal modulation,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1507–1509 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. McClelland, “An overview of recycling in laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Aust. J. Phys. 48, 953–970 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Stevenson, M. B. Gray, C. C. Harb, D. E. McClelland, H.-A. Bachor, “Interferometers with internal and external phase modulation: experimental and analytical comparison,” Aust. J. Phys. 48, 971–997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gray, A. J. Stevenson, H.-A. Bachor, D. E. McClelland, “Harmonic demodulation of nonstationary shot noise,” Opt. Lett. 18, 759–761 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1991 (3)

K. A. Strain, B. J. Meers, “Experimental demonstration of dual recycling for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1391–1394 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022–5029 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Meers, K. A. Strain, “Modulation, signal and quantum-noise in interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4693–4703 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

C. N. Man, D. Shoemaker, M. Pham Tu, D. Dewey, “External modulation techniques for sensitive interferometric detection of displacements,” Phys. Lett. A 148, 8–16 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

B. J. Meers, “Recycling in laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 38, 2317–2326 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bachor, H.-A.

Chen, J. M.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

J. Mizuno, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Frequency response of Michelson- and Sagnac-based interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 138, 383–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, J. Mizuno, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, A. Rüdiger, K. Danzmann, “An experimental demonstration of resonant sideband extraction for laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 217, 305–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022–5029 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dewey, D.

C. N. Man, D. Shoemaker, M. Pham Tu, D. Dewey, “External modulation techniques for sensitive interferometric detection of displacements,” Phys. Lett. A 148, 8–16 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fritschel, P.

Gray, M. B.

Harb, C. C.

M. B. Gray, A. J. Stevenson, C. C. Harb, H.-A. Bachor, D. E. McClelland, “External phase-modulation interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1623–1632 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Stevenson, M. B. Gray, C. C. Harb, D. E. McClelland, H.-A. Bachor, “Interferometers with internal and external phase modulation: experimental and analytical comparison,” Aust. J. Phys. 48, 971–997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heinzel, G.

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, J. Mizuno, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, A. Rüdiger, K. Danzmann, “An experimental demonstration of resonant sideband extraction for laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 217, 305–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Luck, H.

H. Luckthe GEO600 Team, “The GEO-600 project,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1471–1476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lück, H.

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maass, D.

D. Maass, “Signal-Recycling mit Schnupp-Modulation,” Diplomarbeit thesis (Universität Hannover, Hannover, Germany, 1995).

Macciejowski, J. M.

J. M. Macciejowski, Multivariable Feedback Design (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1989).

Man, C. N.

C. N. Man, D. Shoemaker, M. Pham Tu, D. Dewey, “External modulation techniques for sensitive interferometric detection of displacements,” Phys. Lett. A 148, 8–16 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, D. E.

M. B. Gray, A. J. Stevenson, C. C. Harb, H.-A. Bachor, D. E. McClelland, “External phase-modulation interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1623–1632 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Stevenson, M. B. Gray, C. C. Harb, D. E. McClelland, H.-A. Bachor, “Interferometers with internal and external phase modulation: experimental and analytical comparison,” Aust. J. Phys. 48, 971–997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. E. McClelland, “An overview of recycling in laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Aust. J. Phys. 48, 953–970 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gray, A. J. Stevenson, H.-A. Bachor, D. E. McClelland, “Harmonic demodulation of nonstationary shot noise,” Opt. Lett. 18, 759–761 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meers, B. J.

K. A. Strain, B. J. Meers, “Experimental demonstration of dual recycling for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1391–1394 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Meers, K. A. Strain, “Modulation, signal and quantum-noise in interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4693–4703 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Meers, “Recycling in laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 38, 2317–2326 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, J.

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mizuno, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Frequency response of Michelson- and Sagnac-based interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 138, 383–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, J. Mizuno, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, A. Rüdiger, K. Danzmann, “An experimental demonstration of resonant sideband extraction for laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 217, 305–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, P. G.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Niebauer, T. M.

T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022–5029 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raab, F. J.

Regehr, M. W.

M. W. Regehr, F. J. Raab, S. E. Whitcomb, “Demonstration of a power-recycled Michelson interferometer with Fabry–Perot arms by frontal modulation,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1507–1509 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Regehr, “Signal extraction and control for an interferometric gravitational wave detector,” Ph.D. thesis (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1995).

Rüdiger, A.

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mizuno, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Frequency response of Michelson- and Sagnac-based interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 138, 383–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, J. Mizuno, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, A. Rüdiger, K. Danzmann, “An experimental demonstration of resonant sideband extraction for laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 217, 305–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022–5029 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schilling, R.

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mizuno, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Frequency response of Michelson- and Sagnac-based interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 138, 383–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, J. Mizuno, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, A. Rüdiger, K. Danzmann, “An experimental demonstration of resonant sideband extraction for laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 217, 305–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022–5029 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnier, D.

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schnupp, L.

L. Schnupp, “Internal modulation schemes,” presented at the European Collaboration Meeting on Interferometric Detection of Gravitational Waves, Sorrent, Italy, 1988.

Schrempel, M.

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shoemaker, D.

P. Fritschel, D. Shoemaker, R. Weiss, “Demonstration of light recycling in a Michelson interferometer with Fabry–Perot cavities,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1412–1418 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. N. Man, D. Shoemaker, M. Pham Tu, D. Dewey, “External modulation techniques for sensitive interferometric detection of displacements,” Phys. Lett. A 148, 8–16 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

Stevenson, A. J.

Strain, K.

K. Strain, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, UK (personal communication, 1997).

Strain, K. A.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Meers, K. A. Strain, “Modulation, signal and quantum-noise in interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4693–4703 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Strain, B. J. Meers, “Experimental demonstration of dual recycling for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1391–1394 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Strain, “Techniques in laser interferometry for the detection of gravitational radiation,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK, 1990).

Tu, M. Pham

C. N. Man, D. Shoemaker, M. Pham Tu, D. Dewey, “External modulation techniques for sensitive interferometric detection of displacements,” Phys. Lett. A 148, 8–16 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, R. E.

R. E. Vogt, “The U.S. LIGO project,” Proceedings of the Sixth Marcel Grossmann meeting on General Relativity, H. Sato, T. Nakamura, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), 244–268.

Weiss, R.

Whitcomb, S. E.

Winkler, W.

J. Mizuno, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Frequency response of Michelson- and Sagnac-based interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 138, 383–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, J. Mizuno, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, A. Rüdiger, K. Danzmann, “An experimental demonstration of resonant sideband extraction for laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 217, 305–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022–5029 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Aust. J. Phys. (2)

A. J. Stevenson, M. B. Gray, C. C. Harb, D. E. McClelland, H.-A. Bachor, “Interferometers with internal and external phase modulation: experimental and analytical comparison,” Aust. J. Phys. 48, 971–997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. E. McClelland, “An overview of recycling in laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Aust. J. Phys. 48, 953–970 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Class. Quantum Grav. (1)

H. Luckthe GEO600 Team, “The GEO-600 project,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1471–1476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Mizuno, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Frequency response of Michelson- and Sagnac-based interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 138, 383–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Lett. A (4)

G. Heinzel, J. Mizuno, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, A. Rüdiger, K. Danzmann, “An experimental demonstration of resonant sideband extraction for laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 217, 305–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Lück, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Man, D. Shoemaker, M. Pham Tu, D. Dewey, “External modulation techniques for sensitive interferometric detection of displacements,” Phys. Lett. A 148, 8–16 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022–5029 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Meers, K. A. Strain, “Modulation, signal and quantum-noise in interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4693–4703 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. D (1)

B. J. Meers, “Recycling in laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 38, 2317–2326 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. A. Strain, B. J. Meers, “Experimental demonstration of dual recycling for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1391–1394 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (9)

D. Maass, “Signal-Recycling mit Schnupp-Modulation,” Diplomarbeit thesis (Universität Hannover, Hannover, Germany, 1995).

K. Strain, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, UK (personal communication, 1997).

L. Schnupp, “Internal modulation schemes,” presented at the European Collaboration Meeting on Interferometric Detection of Gravitational Waves, Sorrent, Italy, 1988.

R. E. Vogt, “The U.S. LIGO project,” Proceedings of the Sixth Marcel Grossmann meeting on General Relativity, H. Sato, T. Nakamura, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), 244–268.

“VIRGO: final conceptual design,” VIRGO project document (VIRGO LAL, Bât 208, UPS, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

M. W. Regehr, “Signal extraction and control for an interferometric gravitational wave detector,” Ph.D. thesis (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1995).

J. M. Macciejowski, Multivariable Feedback Design (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1989).

K. A. Strain, “Techniques in laser interferometry for the detection of gravitational radiation,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK, 1990).

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Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the signal (dual) recycling Michelson interferometer. The abbreviations prm and srm stand for power recycling mirror and signal recycling mirror, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Frequency response of the signal recycling interferometer as the signal recycling cavity is tuned from broadband (ϕ = 0) to antiresonant (ϕ = π) operation. The parameters used to generate this plot are the measured parameters of our benchtop interferometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the principal components used for signal extraction and control of our signal recycling interferometer. Both the return and the signal output detectors are broadband (8–700 MHz, made in-house), the mixers used are Minicircuits level 7 Mixer ZP10514, and the mirror actuators are high-voltage amplifiers (made in-house, ±100V) driving piezoelectric transducer ceramics. Here pm stands for phase modulator; circ is a Faraday isolator used as an optical circulator; f1 is the modulation frequency (75 MHz).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a: Fringe visibility plot of the simple Michelson interferometer, b: power at the return detector as the signal recycling cavity is scanned through two FSR’s while the Michelson is held at approximately an impedance-matched condition, c: corresponding power at the signal detector; d: power at the signal detector for an undercoupled signal recycling cavity as the signal recycling cavity is scanned through 2 FSR’s, e: return detector power as the signal recycling cavity is scanned with MDF servo operational, f: corresponding power at the signal detector.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A: Frequency response of the signal recycling interferometer (a–h) to a common mode signal as the signal recycling cavity is tuned from broadband to antiresonant; curve i is the simple Michelson frequency response to a common mode signal. B: Corresponding differential frequency response of the signal recycling interferometer (normalized to that of the simple Michelson interferometer response).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a: Simple Michelson interferometer noise floor with signal detector dc voltage (V sd ) = 3.75 V, b: shot-noise floor for V sd = 3.75 V, c: signal recycling noise floor (V sd = 0.32 V), d: shot-noise floor for V sd = 0.32 V, e: electronic noise floor (V sd = 0 V).

Equations (2)

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E sig ω s = Vt sm E inc ϕ s / 2 1 - r v r sm exp - 2 i ω s L t / c cos ω s Δ L / c
E sig   det / E laser = Vt sm sin ω m Δ L / c 1 - r v r sm exp - 2 i ω m L t / c cos ω m Δ L / c ,

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