Abstract

Optical scatterometry is a method for the on-line measurement of the geometry of a diffraction grating, which is deduced from diffraction-pattern data. We demonstrate the use of a neural network as a promising method for performing an accurate quantitative characterization of the geometry. As an example, we show the deduction of the geometry of a grating with subwavelength grooves with a rms accuracy of 1.9° for the slope of the groove walls, 0.7 nm for the linewidth, and 1.0 nm for the groove depth.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 1,” Solid State Technol. 36, 29–32 (1993).
  2. J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 2,” Solid State Technol. 36, 53–56 (1993).
  3. I. J. Wilson, L. C. Botten, “Groove depth determination using a laser for sinusoidal groove gratings,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2086–2089 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. S. H. Naqvi, S. Kaspar, K. Hickman, K. Bishop, J. R. McNeil, “Linewidth measurement of gratings on photomasks: a simple technique,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1377–1384 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murmane, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “A scatterometric sensor for lithography,” in Manufacturing Process Control for Microelectronic Devices and Circuits, A. G. Sabnis, ed., Proc. SPIE2336, 37–49 (1994).
  6. B. K. Minhas, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Towards sub-0.1 μm CD measurements using scatterometry,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE2725, 729–739 (1996).
  7. K. P. Giapis, R. A. Gottscho, L. A. Clark, J. B. Kruskal, D. Lambert, A. Kornblit, D. Sinatore, “Use of light scattering in characterizing reactively ion etched profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 664–668 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Krukar, A. Kornblit, L. A. Clark, J. Kruskal, D. Lambert, E. A. Reitman, R. A. Gottscho, “Reactive ion etching profile and depth characterization using statistical and neural analysis of light scattering data,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3698–3706 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. S. H. Naqvi, R. H. Krukar, J. R. McNeil, J. E. Franke, T. M. Niemczyk, D. M. Haaland, R. A. Gottscho, A. Kornblit, “Etch-depth estimation of large-period silicon gratings with multivariate calibration of rigorously simulated diffraction profiles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2485–2493 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Bischoff, J. W. Baumgart, H. Truckenbrodt, J. J. Bauer, “Photoresist metrology based on light scattering,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE2725, 678–689 (1996).
  11. N. George, S.-G. Wang, “Neural networks applied to diffraction-pattern sampling,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3127–3134 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. J. Search, C. A. Hobson, J. T. Atkinson, J. D. Pearson, “Diffraction pattern analysis for automatic defect classification in manufactured electronic assemblies,” in Machine Vision Applications in Industrial Inspection II, B. M. Dawson, S. S. Wilson, F. Y. Wu, eds., Proc. SPIE2183, 170–179 (1994).
  13. R. H. Krukar, S. L. Prins, D. M. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, S. M. Gaspar, J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, D. R. Hush, “Using scattered light modeling for semiconductor critical dimension metrology and calibration,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control VII, M. T. Postek, ed., Proc. SPIE1926, 60–71 (1993).
  14. A. Roger, D. Maystre, “Inverse scattering method in electromagnetic optics: application to diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1483–1495 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Roger, M. Breidne, “Grating profile reconstruction by an inverse scattering method,” Opt. Commun. 35, 299–302 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Haykin, Neural Networks—A Comprehensive Foundation (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994).
  17. K. Hornik, M. Stinchcombe, H. White, “Multilayer feedforward networks are universal approximators,” Neural Networks 2, 359–366 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Hartman, J. D. Keeler, J. M. Kowalski, “Layered neural networks with Gaussian hidden units as universal approximators,” Neural Comput. 2, 210–215 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. Oja, “Neural networks—advantages and applications,” in Pattern Recognition in Practice IV, E. Gelsema, L. Kanal, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1994), pp. 359–365.
  20. C. M. Bishop, Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1995).
  21. T. K. Gaylord, W. E. Baird, M. G. Moharam, “Zero-reflectivity high spatial-frequency rectangular-groove dielectric surface-relief gratings,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4562–4567 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1980), pp. 51–70.
  23. M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of planar-grating diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 811–818 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1993 (3)

J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 1,” Solid State Technol. 36, 29–32 (1993).

J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 2,” Solid State Technol. 36, 53–56 (1993).

R. Krukar, A. Kornblit, L. A. Clark, J. Kruskal, D. Lambert, E. A. Reitman, R. A. Gottscho, “Reactive ion etching profile and depth characterization using statistical and neural analysis of light scattering data,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3698–3706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

K. P. Giapis, R. A. Gottscho, L. A. Clark, J. B. Kruskal, D. Lambert, A. Kornblit, D. Sinatore, “Use of light scattering in characterizing reactively ion etched profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 664–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

E. Hartman, J. D. Keeler, J. M. Kowalski, “Layered neural networks with Gaussian hidden units as universal approximators,” Neural Comput. 2, 210–215 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

K. Hornik, M. Stinchcombe, H. White, “Multilayer feedforward networks are universal approximators,” Neural Networks 2, 359–366 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1981 (1)

1980 (2)

A. Roger, D. Maystre, “Inverse scattering method in electromagnetic optics: application to diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1483–1495 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Roger, M. Breidne, “Grating profile reconstruction by an inverse scattering method,” Opt. Commun. 35, 299–302 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

Atkinson, J. T.

D. J. Search, C. A. Hobson, J. T. Atkinson, J. D. Pearson, “Diffraction pattern analysis for automatic defect classification in manufactured electronic assemblies,” in Machine Vision Applications in Industrial Inspection II, B. M. Dawson, S. S. Wilson, F. Y. Wu, eds., Proc. SPIE2183, 170–179 (1994).

Baird, W. E.

Bauer, J. J.

J. Bischoff, J. W. Baumgart, H. Truckenbrodt, J. J. Bauer, “Photoresist metrology based on light scattering,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE2725, 678–689 (1996).

Baumgart, J. W.

J. Bischoff, J. W. Baumgart, H. Truckenbrodt, J. J. Bauer, “Photoresist metrology based on light scattering,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE2725, 678–689 (1996).

Bischoff, J.

J. Bischoff, J. W. Baumgart, H. Truckenbrodt, J. J. Bauer, “Photoresist metrology based on light scattering,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE2725, 678–689 (1996).

Bishop, C. M.

C. M. Bishop, Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1995).

Bishop, K.

Bishop, K. P.

J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 2,” Solid State Technol. 36, 53–56 (1993).

J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 1,” Solid State Technol. 36, 29–32 (1993).

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1980), pp. 51–70.

Botten, L. C.

Breidne, M.

A. Roger, M. Breidne, “Grating profile reconstruction by an inverse scattering method,” Opt. Commun. 35, 299–302 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Clark, L. A.

R. Krukar, A. Kornblit, L. A. Clark, J. Kruskal, D. Lambert, E. A. Reitman, R. A. Gottscho, “Reactive ion etching profile and depth characterization using statistical and neural analysis of light scattering data,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3698–3706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Giapis, R. A. Gottscho, L. A. Clark, J. B. Kruskal, D. Lambert, A. Kornblit, D. Sinatore, “Use of light scattering in characterizing reactively ion etched profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 664–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Franke, J. E.

Gaspar, S. M.

J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 1,” Solid State Technol. 36, 29–32 (1993).

J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 2,” Solid State Technol. 36, 53–56 (1993).

R. H. Krukar, S. L. Prins, D. M. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, S. M. Gaspar, J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, D. R. Hush, “Using scattered light modeling for semiconductor critical dimension metrology and calibration,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control VII, M. T. Postek, ed., Proc. SPIE1926, 60–71 (1993).

Gaylord, T. K.

George, N.

Giapis, K. P.

K. P. Giapis, R. A. Gottscho, L. A. Clark, J. B. Kruskal, D. Lambert, A. Kornblit, D. Sinatore, “Use of light scattering in characterizing reactively ion etched profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 664–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gottscho, R. A.

S. S. H. Naqvi, R. H. Krukar, J. R. McNeil, J. E. Franke, T. M. Niemczyk, D. M. Haaland, R. A. Gottscho, A. Kornblit, “Etch-depth estimation of large-period silicon gratings with multivariate calibration of rigorously simulated diffraction profiles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2485–2493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Krukar, A. Kornblit, L. A. Clark, J. Kruskal, D. Lambert, E. A. Reitman, R. A. Gottscho, “Reactive ion etching profile and depth characterization using statistical and neural analysis of light scattering data,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3698–3706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Giapis, R. A. Gottscho, L. A. Clark, J. B. Kruskal, D. Lambert, A. Kornblit, D. Sinatore, “Use of light scattering in characterizing reactively ion etched profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 664–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Haaland, D. M.

Hartman, E.

E. Hartman, J. D. Keeler, J. M. Kowalski, “Layered neural networks with Gaussian hidden units as universal approximators,” Neural Comput. 2, 210–215 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Haykin, S.

S. Haykin, Neural Networks—A Comprehensive Foundation (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994).

Hickman, K.

Hickman, K. C.

J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 2,” Solid State Technol. 36, 53–56 (1993).

J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 1,” Solid State Technol. 36, 29–32 (1993).

Hobson, C. A.

D. J. Search, C. A. Hobson, J. T. Atkinson, J. D. Pearson, “Diffraction pattern analysis for automatic defect classification in manufactured electronic assemblies,” in Machine Vision Applications in Industrial Inspection II, B. M. Dawson, S. S. Wilson, F. Y. Wu, eds., Proc. SPIE2183, 170–179 (1994).

Hornik, K.

K. Hornik, M. Stinchcombe, H. White, “Multilayer feedforward networks are universal approximators,” Neural Networks 2, 359–366 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hush, D. R.

R. H. Krukar, S. L. Prins, D. M. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, S. M. Gaspar, J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, D. R. Hush, “Using scattered light modeling for semiconductor critical dimension metrology and calibration,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control VII, M. T. Postek, ed., Proc. SPIE1926, 60–71 (1993).

Kaspar, S.

Keeler, J. D.

E. Hartman, J. D. Keeler, J. M. Kowalski, “Layered neural networks with Gaussian hidden units as universal approximators,” Neural Comput. 2, 210–215 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kornblit, A.

S. S. H. Naqvi, R. H. Krukar, J. R. McNeil, J. E. Franke, T. M. Niemczyk, D. M. Haaland, R. A. Gottscho, A. Kornblit, “Etch-depth estimation of large-period silicon gratings with multivariate calibration of rigorously simulated diffraction profiles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2485–2493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Krukar, A. Kornblit, L. A. Clark, J. Kruskal, D. Lambert, E. A. Reitman, R. A. Gottscho, “Reactive ion etching profile and depth characterization using statistical and neural analysis of light scattering data,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3698–3706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Giapis, R. A. Gottscho, L. A. Clark, J. B. Kruskal, D. Lambert, A. Kornblit, D. Sinatore, “Use of light scattering in characterizing reactively ion etched profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 664–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, J. M.

E. Hartman, J. D. Keeler, J. M. Kowalski, “Layered neural networks with Gaussian hidden units as universal approximators,” Neural Comput. 2, 210–215 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Krukar, D. M.

R. H. Krukar, S. L. Prins, D. M. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, S. M. Gaspar, J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, D. R. Hush, “Using scattered light modeling for semiconductor critical dimension metrology and calibration,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control VII, M. T. Postek, ed., Proc. SPIE1926, 60–71 (1993).

Krukar, R.

R. Krukar, A. Kornblit, L. A. Clark, J. Kruskal, D. Lambert, E. A. Reitman, R. A. Gottscho, “Reactive ion etching profile and depth characterization using statistical and neural analysis of light scattering data,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3698–3706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krukar, R. H.

S. S. H. Naqvi, R. H. Krukar, J. R. McNeil, J. E. Franke, T. M. Niemczyk, D. M. Haaland, R. A. Gottscho, A. Kornblit, “Etch-depth estimation of large-period silicon gratings with multivariate calibration of rigorously simulated diffraction profiles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2485–2493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 1,” Solid State Technol. 36, 29–32 (1993).

J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 2,” Solid State Technol. 36, 53–56 (1993).

R. H. Krukar, S. L. Prins, D. M. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, S. M. Gaspar, J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, D. R. Hush, “Using scattered light modeling for semiconductor critical dimension metrology and calibration,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control VII, M. T. Postek, ed., Proc. SPIE1926, 60–71 (1993).

Kruskal, J.

R. Krukar, A. Kornblit, L. A. Clark, J. Kruskal, D. Lambert, E. A. Reitman, R. A. Gottscho, “Reactive ion etching profile and depth characterization using statistical and neural analysis of light scattering data,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3698–3706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kruskal, J. B.

K. P. Giapis, R. A. Gottscho, L. A. Clark, J. B. Kruskal, D. Lambert, A. Kornblit, D. Sinatore, “Use of light scattering in characterizing reactively ion etched profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 664–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, D.

R. Krukar, A. Kornblit, L. A. Clark, J. Kruskal, D. Lambert, E. A. Reitman, R. A. Gottscho, “Reactive ion etching profile and depth characterization using statistical and neural analysis of light scattering data,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3698–3706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Giapis, R. A. Gottscho, L. A. Clark, J. B. Kruskal, D. Lambert, A. Kornblit, D. Sinatore, “Use of light scattering in characterizing reactively ion etched profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 664–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Maystre, D.

McNeil, J. R.

S. S. H. Naqvi, R. H. Krukar, J. R. McNeil, J. E. Franke, T. M. Niemczyk, D. M. Haaland, R. A. Gottscho, A. Kornblit, “Etch-depth estimation of large-period silicon gratings with multivariate calibration of rigorously simulated diffraction profiles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2485–2493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 1,” Solid State Technol. 36, 29–32 (1993).

J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 2,” Solid State Technol. 36, 53–56 (1993).

S. S. H. Naqvi, S. Kaspar, K. Hickman, K. Bishop, J. R. McNeil, “Linewidth measurement of gratings on photomasks: a simple technique,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1377–1384 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Krukar, S. L. Prins, D. M. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, S. M. Gaspar, J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, D. R. Hush, “Using scattered light modeling for semiconductor critical dimension metrology and calibration,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control VII, M. T. Postek, ed., Proc. SPIE1926, 60–71 (1993).

B. K. Minhas, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Towards sub-0.1 μm CD measurements using scatterometry,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE2725, 729–739 (1996).

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murmane, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “A scatterometric sensor for lithography,” in Manufacturing Process Control for Microelectronic Devices and Circuits, A. G. Sabnis, ed., Proc. SPIE2336, 37–49 (1994).

Milner, L. M.

J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 1,” Solid State Technol. 36, 29–32 (1993).

J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 2,” Solid State Technol. 36, 53–56 (1993).

Minhas, B. K.

B. K. Minhas, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Towards sub-0.1 μm CD measurements using scatterometry,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE2725, 729–739 (1996).

Moharam, M. G.

Murmane, M. R.

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murmane, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “A scatterometric sensor for lithography,” in Manufacturing Process Control for Microelectronic Devices and Circuits, A. G. Sabnis, ed., Proc. SPIE2336, 37–49 (1994).

Naqvi, S. S. H.

S. S. H. Naqvi, R. H. Krukar, J. R. McNeil, J. E. Franke, T. M. Niemczyk, D. M. Haaland, R. A. Gottscho, A. Kornblit, “Etch-depth estimation of large-period silicon gratings with multivariate calibration of rigorously simulated diffraction profiles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2485–2493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 1,” Solid State Technol. 36, 29–32 (1993).

J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 2,” Solid State Technol. 36, 53–56 (1993).

S. S. H. Naqvi, S. Kaspar, K. Hickman, K. Bishop, J. R. McNeil, “Linewidth measurement of gratings on photomasks: a simple technique,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1377–1384 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. Minhas, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Towards sub-0.1 μm CD measurements using scatterometry,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE2725, 729–739 (1996).

R. H. Krukar, S. L. Prins, D. M. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, S. M. Gaspar, J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, D. R. Hush, “Using scattered light modeling for semiconductor critical dimension metrology and calibration,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control VII, M. T. Postek, ed., Proc. SPIE1926, 60–71 (1993).

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murmane, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “A scatterometric sensor for lithography,” in Manufacturing Process Control for Microelectronic Devices and Circuits, A. G. Sabnis, ed., Proc. SPIE2336, 37–49 (1994).

Niemczyk, T. M.

Oja, E.

E. Oja, “Neural networks—advantages and applications,” in Pattern Recognition in Practice IV, E. Gelsema, L. Kanal, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1994), pp. 359–365.

Pearson, J. D.

D. J. Search, C. A. Hobson, J. T. Atkinson, J. D. Pearson, “Diffraction pattern analysis for automatic defect classification in manufactured electronic assemblies,” in Machine Vision Applications in Industrial Inspection II, B. M. Dawson, S. S. Wilson, F. Y. Wu, eds., Proc. SPIE2183, 170–179 (1994).

Petersen, G. A.

J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 1,” Solid State Technol. 36, 29–32 (1993).

J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 2,” Solid State Technol. 36, 53–56 (1993).

R. H. Krukar, S. L. Prins, D. M. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, S. M. Gaspar, J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, D. R. Hush, “Using scattered light modeling for semiconductor critical dimension metrology and calibration,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control VII, M. T. Postek, ed., Proc. SPIE1926, 60–71 (1993).

Prins, S. L.

R. H. Krukar, S. L. Prins, D. M. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, S. M. Gaspar, J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, D. R. Hush, “Using scattered light modeling for semiconductor critical dimension metrology and calibration,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control VII, M. T. Postek, ed., Proc. SPIE1926, 60–71 (1993).

B. K. Minhas, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Towards sub-0.1 μm CD measurements using scatterometry,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE2725, 729–739 (1996).

Raymond, C. J.

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murmane, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “A scatterometric sensor for lithography,” in Manufacturing Process Control for Microelectronic Devices and Circuits, A. G. Sabnis, ed., Proc. SPIE2336, 37–49 (1994).

Reitman, E. A.

R. Krukar, A. Kornblit, L. A. Clark, J. Kruskal, D. Lambert, E. A. Reitman, R. A. Gottscho, “Reactive ion etching profile and depth characterization using statistical and neural analysis of light scattering data,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3698–3706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roger, A.

A. Roger, M. Breidne, “Grating profile reconstruction by an inverse scattering method,” Opt. Commun. 35, 299–302 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Roger, D. Maystre, “Inverse scattering method in electromagnetic optics: application to diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1483–1495 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Search, D. J.

D. J. Search, C. A. Hobson, J. T. Atkinson, J. D. Pearson, “Diffraction pattern analysis for automatic defect classification in manufactured electronic assemblies,” in Machine Vision Applications in Industrial Inspection II, B. M. Dawson, S. S. Wilson, F. Y. Wu, eds., Proc. SPIE2183, 170–179 (1994).

Sinatore, D.

K. P. Giapis, R. A. Gottscho, L. A. Clark, J. B. Kruskal, D. Lambert, A. Kornblit, D. Sinatore, “Use of light scattering in characterizing reactively ion etched profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 664–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stinchcombe, M.

K. Hornik, M. Stinchcombe, H. White, “Multilayer feedforward networks are universal approximators,” Neural Networks 2, 359–366 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Truckenbrodt, H.

J. Bischoff, J. W. Baumgart, H. Truckenbrodt, J. J. Bauer, “Photoresist metrology based on light scattering,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE2725, 678–689 (1996).

Wang, S.-G.

White, H.

K. Hornik, M. Stinchcombe, H. White, “Multilayer feedforward networks are universal approximators,” Neural Networks 2, 359–366 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, I. J.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1980), pp. 51–70.

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Krukar, A. Kornblit, L. A. Clark, J. Kruskal, D. Lambert, E. A. Reitman, R. A. Gottscho, “Reactive ion etching profile and depth characterization using statistical and neural analysis of light scattering data,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3698–3706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

K. P. Giapis, R. A. Gottscho, L. A. Clark, J. B. Kruskal, D. Lambert, A. Kornblit, D. Sinatore, “Use of light scattering in characterizing reactively ion etched profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 664–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Neural Comput. (1)

E. Hartman, J. D. Keeler, J. M. Kowalski, “Layered neural networks with Gaussian hidden units as universal approximators,” Neural Comput. 2, 210–215 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Neural Networks (1)

K. Hornik, M. Stinchcombe, H. White, “Multilayer feedforward networks are universal approximators,” Neural Networks 2, 359–366 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Roger, M. Breidne, “Grating profile reconstruction by an inverse scattering method,” Opt. Commun. 35, 299–302 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Technol. (2)

J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 1,” Solid State Technol. 36, 29–32 (1993).

J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, S. M. Gaspar, K. C. Hickman, K. P. Bishop, L. M. Milner, R. H. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, “Scatterometry applied to microelectronics processing—part 2,” Solid State Technol. 36, 53–56 (1993).

Other (9)

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murmane, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “A scatterometric sensor for lithography,” in Manufacturing Process Control for Microelectronic Devices and Circuits, A. G. Sabnis, ed., Proc. SPIE2336, 37–49 (1994).

B. K. Minhas, S. L. Prins, S. S. H. Naqvi, J. R. McNeil, “Towards sub-0.1 μm CD measurements using scatterometry,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE2725, 729–739 (1996).

J. Bischoff, J. W. Baumgart, H. Truckenbrodt, J. J. Bauer, “Photoresist metrology based on light scattering,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE2725, 678–689 (1996).

D. J. Search, C. A. Hobson, J. T. Atkinson, J. D. Pearson, “Diffraction pattern analysis for automatic defect classification in manufactured electronic assemblies,” in Machine Vision Applications in Industrial Inspection II, B. M. Dawson, S. S. Wilson, F. Y. Wu, eds., Proc. SPIE2183, 170–179 (1994).

R. H. Krukar, S. L. Prins, D. M. Krukar, G. A. Petersen, S. M. Gaspar, J. R. McNeil, S. S. H. Naqvi, D. R. Hush, “Using scattered light modeling for semiconductor critical dimension metrology and calibration,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control VII, M. T. Postek, ed., Proc. SPIE1926, 60–71 (1993).

S. Haykin, Neural Networks—A Comprehensive Foundation (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994).

E. Oja, “Neural networks—advantages and applications,” in Pattern Recognition in Practice IV, E. Gelsema, L. Kanal, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1994), pp. 359–365.

C. M. Bishop, Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1995).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1980), pp. 51–70.

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