Abstract

Finite-element analysis employing the scalar and vector H-field formulations and with the aid of the perturbation technique is used to calculate the TE–TM complex propagation characteristics of integrated optical devices in gallium arsenide, lithium niobate, and silica fiber, incorporating a lossy metal cladding. The propagation and attenuation properties of several types of metal-clad planar optical waveguide, which exhibit surface-plasmon properties for the TM polarization, are reviewed, and the modal loss caused by the metal cladding in a titanium-diffused lithium niobate electro-optic directional coupler modulator, an indium gallium arsenide phosphide-based TE–TM optical polarizer, and a submicron metal-clad silica fiber suitable for near-field optical scanning microscopy is calculated.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. L. Wooten, W. S. C. Chang, “Test structures for characterization of electrooptic waveguide modulators in lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 161–170 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, P. Regli, “Light propagation through nanometer-sized structures: the two-dimensional aperture scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1768–1779 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Reisinger, “Characteristics of optical guided modes in lossy waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1015–1025 (1973).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. P. Silvester, R. L. Ferrari, “Finite elements for electrical engineers,” (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1991).
  7. B. M. A. Rahman, J. B. Davies, “Finite-element solution of integrated optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 682–688 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. M. A. Rahman, J. B. Davies, “Vector-H finite element solution of GaAs/GaAlAs rib waveguides,” IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 132, 349–353 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Themistos, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Finite element analysis for lossy waveguides by using perturbation technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 537–539 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Themistos, A. Hadjicharalambous, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Loss/gain characterization of optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1760–1765 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Themistos, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Finite-element analysis of surface-plasmon modes for lossy optical waveguides by the use of perturbation techniques,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7695–7701 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. Themistos, A. Hadjicharalambous, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, F. A. Fernandez, “Gain/loss characterisation of optical waveguide and semiconductor laser structures,” IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 145, 93–98 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. D. Boardman, Electromagnetic Surface Modes (Wiley, New York, 1982).
  14. A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).
  15. W. Johnstone, G. Steward, B. Culshaw, T. Hart, “Fibre-optic polarizers and polarizing couplers,” Electron. Lett. 24, 866–868 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Albrecht, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffman, H.-P. Nolting, C. M. Weinert, “TE/TM mode splitters on InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 114–115 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  17. U. Durig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318–3327 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. Themistos, A. Hadjicharalambous, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, F. A. Fernandez, “Gain/loss characterisation of optical waveguide and semiconductor laser structures,” IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 145, 93–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

C. Themistos, A. Hadjicharalambous, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Loss/gain characterization of optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1760–1765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Themistos, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Finite-element analysis of surface-plasmon modes for lossy optical waveguides by the use of perturbation techniques,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7695–7701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

1993 (1)

E. L. Wooten, W. S. C. Chang, “Test structures for characterization of electrooptic waveguide modulators in lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 161–170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

P. Albrecht, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffman, H.-P. Nolting, C. M. Weinert, “TE/TM mode splitters on InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 114–115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

W. Johnstone, G. Steward, B. Culshaw, T. Hart, “Fibre-optic polarizers and polarizing couplers,” Electron. Lett. 24, 866–868 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

U. Durig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318–3327 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

B. M. A. Rahman, J. B. Davies, “Vector-H finite element solution of GaAs/GaAlAs rib waveguides,” IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 132, 349–353 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

B. M. A. Rahman, J. B. Davies, “Finite-element solution of integrated optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 682–688 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Albrecht, P.

P. Albrecht, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffman, H.-P. Nolting, C. M. Weinert, “TE/TM mode splitters on InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 114–115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Boardman, A. D.

A. D. Boardman, Electromagnetic Surface Modes (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Chang, W. S. C.

E. L. Wooten, W. S. C. Chang, “Test structures for characterization of electrooptic waveguide modulators in lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 161–170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

W. Johnstone, G. Steward, B. Culshaw, T. Hart, “Fibre-optic polarizers and polarizing couplers,” Electron. Lett. 24, 866–868 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Davies, J. B.

B. M. A. Rahman, J. B. Davies, “Vector-H finite element solution of GaAs/GaAlAs rib waveguides,” IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 132, 349–353 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. M. A. Rahman, J. B. Davies, “Finite-element solution of integrated optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 682–688 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Durig, U.

U. Durig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318–3327 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, F. A.

C. Themistos, A. Hadjicharalambous, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, F. A. Fernandez, “Gain/loss characterisation of optical waveguide and semiconductor laser structures,” IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 145, 93–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, R. L.

P. P. Silvester, R. L. Ferrari, “Finite elements for electrical engineers,” (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1991).

Grattan, K. T. V.

C. Themistos, A. Hadjicharalambous, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, F. A. Fernandez, “Gain/loss characterisation of optical waveguide and semiconductor laser structures,” IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 145, 93–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Themistos, A. Hadjicharalambous, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Loss/gain characterization of optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1760–1765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Themistos, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Finite-element analysis of surface-plasmon modes for lossy optical waveguides by the use of perturbation techniques,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7695–7701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Themistos, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Finite element analysis for lossy waveguides by using perturbation technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 537–539 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hadjicharalambous, A.

C. Themistos, A. Hadjicharalambous, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, F. A. Fernandez, “Gain/loss characterisation of optical waveguide and semiconductor laser structures,” IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 145, 93–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Themistos, A. Hadjicharalambous, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Loss/gain characterization of optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1760–1765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hamacher, M.

P. Albrecht, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffman, H.-P. Nolting, C. M. Weinert, “TE/TM mode splitters on InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 114–115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hart, T.

W. Johnstone, G. Steward, B. Culshaw, T. Hart, “Fibre-optic polarizers and polarizing couplers,” Electron. Lett. 24, 866–868 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Heidrich, H.

P. Albrecht, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffman, H.-P. Nolting, C. M. Weinert, “TE/TM mode splitters on InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 114–115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, D.

P. Albrecht, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffman, H.-P. Nolting, C. M. Weinert, “TE/TM mode splitters on InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 114–115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Johnstone, W.

W. Johnstone, G. Steward, B. Culshaw, T. Hart, “Fibre-optic polarizers and polarizing couplers,” Electron. Lett. 24, 866–868 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nolting, H.-P.

P. Albrecht, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffman, H.-P. Nolting, C. M. Weinert, “TE/TM mode splitters on InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 114–115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

Pohl, D. W.

Rahman, B. M. A.

C. Themistos, A. Hadjicharalambous, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, F. A. Fernandez, “Gain/loss characterisation of optical waveguide and semiconductor laser structures,” IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 145, 93–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Themistos, A. Hadjicharalambous, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Loss/gain characterization of optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1760–1765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Themistos, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Finite-element analysis of surface-plasmon modes for lossy optical waveguides by the use of perturbation techniques,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7695–7701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Themistos, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Finite element analysis for lossy waveguides by using perturbation technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 537–539 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. M. A. Rahman, J. B. Davies, “Vector-H finite element solution of GaAs/GaAlAs rib waveguides,” IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 132, 349–353 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. M. A. Rahman, J. B. Davies, “Finite-element solution of integrated optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 682–688 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Regli, P.

Reisinger, A.

Rohner, F.

U. Durig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318–3327 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Silvester, P. P.

P. P. Silvester, R. L. Ferrari, “Finite elements for electrical engineers,” (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1991).

Steward, G.

W. Johnstone, G. Steward, B. Culshaw, T. Hart, “Fibre-optic polarizers and polarizing couplers,” Electron. Lett. 24, 866–868 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

Themistos, C.

C. Themistos, A. Hadjicharalambous, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, F. A. Fernandez, “Gain/loss characterisation of optical waveguide and semiconductor laser structures,” IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 145, 93–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Themistos, A. Hadjicharalambous, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Loss/gain characterization of optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1760–1765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Themistos, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Finite-element analysis of surface-plasmon modes for lossy optical waveguides by the use of perturbation techniques,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7695–7701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Themistos, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Finite element analysis for lossy waveguides by using perturbation technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 537–539 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weinert, C. M.

P. Albrecht, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffman, H.-P. Nolting, C. M. Weinert, “TE/TM mode splitters on InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 114–115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wooten, E. L.

E. L. Wooten, W. S. C. Chang, “Test structures for characterization of electrooptic waveguide modulators in lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 161–170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Yip, G. L.

Zervas, M. N.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (1)

W. Johnstone, G. Steward, B. Culshaw, T. Hart, “Fibre-optic polarizers and polarizing couplers,” Electron. Lett. 24, 866–868 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. (2)

B. M. A. Rahman, J. B. Davies, “Vector-H finite element solution of GaAs/GaAlAs rib waveguides,” IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 132, 349–353 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. Themistos, A. Hadjicharalambous, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, F. A. Fernandez, “Gain/loss characterisation of optical waveguide and semiconductor laser structures,” IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 145, 93–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. L. Wooten, W. S. C. Chang, “Test structures for characterization of electrooptic waveguide modulators in lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 161–170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. Themistos, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Finite element analysis for lossy waveguides by using perturbation technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 537–539 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Albrecht, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffman, H.-P. Nolting, C. M. Weinert, “TE/TM mode splitters on InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 114–115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

U. Durig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318–3327 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

C. Themistos, A. Hadjicharalambous, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Loss/gain characterization of optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1760–1765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. M. A. Rahman, J. B. Davies, “Finite-element solution of integrated optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 682–688 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

P. P. Silvester, R. L. Ferrari, “Finite elements for electrical engineers,” (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1991).

A. D. Boardman, Electromagnetic Surface Modes (Wiley, New York, 1982).

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Variation of the normalized field profile for the TM0 mode of a single metal-dielectric interface with the transverse direction for several values of the refractive index of the dielectric.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of the effective indices for a symmetric surface-plasmon structure, in which a thin metal film is sandwiched between two dielectrics.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of the normalized modal loss coefficient versus the metal thickness for the first two supermodes for different values of the lower-cladding refractive index, in which a thin metal film is sandwiched between two dielectrics.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of the effective index with the dielectric film thickness for a symmetrical surface-plasmon structure, in which a planar-dielectric layer is sandwiched between two metal films.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Attenuation characteristics of a symmetrical metal-clad surface-plasmon structure with dielectric material sandwiched between two metal films.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of the effective index with the increase of the rib height (d) for the TE and TM modes of the polarization mode splitter (shown as an insert) for different separations (s) between the two ribs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

H x -field profile for the evenlike TM01 supermode along the x axis in the center of the active region for different values of the rib height at a separation s = 0.7 μm. (The TEeven mode profile is shown as an insert.)

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variation of the attenuation constant for the TM and TE modes of a polarization mode splitter with the increase of the rib height for different values of the separation s.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Variation of the effective index with the core radius for the fundamental TE and TM axisymmetric modes of a metal-clad optical fiber.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Attenuation characteristics for the symmetric TE and TM optical modes of a metal-clad optical fiber.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Attenuation characteristics for a directional coupler modulator with the variation of the SiO2 buffer thickness d for Al and Au metal electrodes.

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