Finite-element analysis employing the scalar and vector H-field formulations and with the aid of the perturbation technique is used to calculate the TE–TM complex propagation characteristics of integrated optical devices in gallium arsenide, lithium niobate, and silica fiber, incorporating a lossy metal cladding. The propagation and attenuation properties of several types of metal-clad planar optical waveguide, which exhibit surface-plasmon properties for the TM polarization, are reviewed, and the modal loss caused by the metal cladding in a titanium-diffused lithium niobate electro-optic directional coupler modulator, an indium gallium arsenide phosphide-based TE–TM optical polarizer, and a submicron metal-clad silica fiber suitable for near-field optical scanning microscopy is calculated.
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