Abstract

Two-photon-pumped (TPP) frequency-upconverted blue lasing of Coumarin 500 dye solution has been experimentally investigated. The shortest lasing wavelength was measured to be ∼479 nm from a Coumarin 500 solution in chloroform pumped with ∼800-nm laser pulses of ∼5-ns duration. The spectral, temporal, and spatial structures as well as the output–input characteristics of TPP cavity lasing were measured with a 1-cm-long Coumarin 500 solution–filled quartz cuvette. The cavity lasing spectral structure and the numbers of longitudinal modes were easily controlled simply by attachment of an optical plate to the output window of the dye-solution cuvette. The net conversion efficiency from the absorbed 800-nm pump pulse energy to the blue-upconverted cavity lasing energy was ∼4.8%.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, M. Birnbaum, “Three-fold upconversion laser at 0.85, 1.23, and 1.73 mm in Er:YLF pumped with a 1.53 mm Er:glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 869–871 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. C. Nguyen, G. E. Faulkner, M. Dulick, “Blue-green (450-nm) upconversion Tm3+:YLF laser,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3553–3555 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. A. McFarlane, “Dual wavelength visible upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2301–2302 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Mita, Y. Wang, S. Shionoya, “High brightness blue and green light sources pumped with a 980 nm emitting laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 802–804 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “Room temperature cw tunable green upconversion holmium fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 261–263 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing at blue, green and red wavelengths in infrared-pumped Pr3+-doped fluoride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1307–1309 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, “CW room temperature blue upconversion fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1243–1244 (1992).
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  10. C. K. N. Patel, P. A. Fleury, R. E. Slusher, H. L. Frisch, “Multiphoton plasma production and stimulated recombination radiation insemiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 971–974 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Yoshida, K. Miyazaki, K. Fujisawa, “Emission properties of two-photon pumped InSb laser under magnetic field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1987–1993 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. P. Gribkovskii, V. A. Zaporozhchenko, V. A. Ivanov, A. C. Kachinskii, V. V. Parashchuk, G. P. Yablonskii, “Lasing in ZnTe, ZnSe, and CdS single crystals excited by ruby laser picosecond pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1305–1307 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. H. Yang, J. M. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, E. Cantwell, “Two-photon pumped blue lasing in bulk ZnSe and ZnS,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1071–1073 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Rapp, B. Gronau, “Laser emission from two xanthene dyes via double-photon excitation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 8, 529–531 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. R. Topp, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond stimulated emission in a fluorescent solution following two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 3, 358–364 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. N. Rubinov, M. C. Richardson, K. Sala, A. J. Alcock, “Generation of single-picosecond dye laser pulses using one- and two-photon traveling-wave excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 358–360 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Qiu, A. Penzkofer, “Intense ultrashort pulse generation in a two-photon pumped generator-amplifier system,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 115–124 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. S. Kwok, A. Serpenguzel, W. F. Hsieh, R. K. Chang, J. B. Gillespie, “Two-photon-pumped lasing in microdroplets,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1435–1437 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Mukherjee, “Two-photon pumped upconverted lasing in a dye-doped polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423–3425 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, R. McKellar, A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437; erratum, 1930 (1995).
  21. G. S. He, R. Gvishi, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, “Two-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization in organic molecule-doped solid materials,” Opt. Commun. 117, 133–136 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon absorption dye doped solid matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433–2435 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. S. He, L. Yuan, N. Cheng, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, “Nonlinear optical properties of a new chromophore,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1079–1087 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in a dye-solution-filled hollow-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2393–2395 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. G. S. He, C. F. Zhao, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye-doped bulk matrix rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3703–3705 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one- and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1983 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C. K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, P. N. Prasad, “Efficient, two-photon pumped green upconverted cavity lasing in a new dye,” Opt. Commun. 124, 33–37 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion dye-doped polymer fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3549–3551 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  29. G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Properties of two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped solid matrices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 749–755 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  30. G. S. He, Y. Cui, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, D. D. Bhawalkar, “Intracavity upconversion lasing within a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 175–179 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  31. G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, P. N. Prasad, “Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  32. G. S. He, L. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconversion lasing of a new blue-green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  33. G. S. He, R. Signorini, P. N. Prasad, “Longitudinally two-photon pumped leaky waveguide dye film laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 7–13 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  34. G. S. He, Y. Cui, M. Yoshida, P. N. Prasad, “Phase-conjugate backward emission from a two-photon-pumped lasing medium,” Opt. Lett. 22, 10–12 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. G. S. He, P. N. Prasad, “Phase-conjugation properties of two-photon-pumped backward-stimulated emission. I. Experimental studies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1078–1085 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (5)

G. S. He, Y. Cui, M. Yoshida, P. N. Prasad, “Phase-conjugate backward emission from a two-photon-pumped lasing medium,” Opt. Lett. 22, 10–12 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, N. Cheng, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, “Nonlinear optical properties of a new chromophore,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1079–1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, Y. Cui, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, D. D. Bhawalkar, “Intracavity upconversion lasing within a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 175–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, P. N. Prasad, “Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconversion lasing of a new blue-green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C. K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, P. N. Prasad, “Efficient, two-photon pumped green upconverted cavity lasing in a new dye,” Opt. Commun. 124, 33–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion dye-doped polymer fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3549–3551 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Properties of two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped solid matrices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 749–755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (5)

G. S. He, C. F. Zhao, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye-doped bulk matrix rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3703–3705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one- and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, R. Gvishi, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, “Two-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization in organic molecule-doped solid materials,” Opt. Commun. 117, 133–136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon absorption dye doped solid matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433–2435 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in a dye-solution-filled hollow-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2393–2395 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

A. Mukherjee, “Two-photon pumped upconverted lasing in a dye-doped polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423–3425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Yang, J. M. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, E. Cantwell, “Two-photon pumped blue lasing in bulk ZnSe and ZnS,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1071–1073 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mita, Y. Wang, S. Shionoya, “High brightness blue and green light sources pumped with a 980 nm emitting laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 802–804 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, “CW room temperature blue upconversion fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1243–1244 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Kwok, A. Serpenguzel, W. F. Hsieh, R. K. Chang, J. B. Gillespie, “Two-photon-pumped lasing in microdroplets,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1435–1437 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing at blue, green and red wavelengths in infrared-pumped Pr3+-doped fluoride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1307–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “Room temperature cw tunable green upconversion holmium fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 261–263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (4)

R. A. McFarlane, “Dual wavelength visible upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2301–2302 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Nguyen, G. E. Faulkner, M. Dulick, “Blue-green (450-nm) upconversion Tm3+:YLF laser,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3553–3555 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, M. Birnbaum, “Three-fold upconversion laser at 0.85, 1.23, and 1.73 mm in Er:YLF pumped with a 1.53 mm Er:glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 869–871 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Qiu, A. Penzkofer, “Intense ultrashort pulse generation in a two-photon pumped generator-amplifier system,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 115–124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

G. S. He, R. Signorini, P. N. Prasad, “Longitudinally two-photon pumped leaky waveguide dye film laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 7–13 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, R. M. MacFarlane, “Green infrared pumped erbium upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977–1979 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

V. P. Gribkovskii, V. A. Zaporozhchenko, V. A. Ivanov, A. C. Kachinskii, V. V. Parashchuk, G. P. Yablonskii, “Lasing in ZnTe, ZnSe, and CdS single crystals excited by ruby laser picosecond pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1305–1307 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

A. N. Rubinov, M. C. Richardson, K. Sala, A. J. Alcock, “Generation of single-picosecond dye laser pulses using one- and two-photon traveling-wave excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 358–360 (1975).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshida, K. Miyazaki, K. Fujisawa, “Emission properties of two-photon pumped InSb laser under magnetic field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1987–1993 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

W. Rapp, B. Gronau, “Laser emission from two xanthene dyes via double-photon excitation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 8, 529–531 (1971).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Topp, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond stimulated emission in a fluorescent solution following two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 3, 358–364 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

C. K. N. Patel, P. A. Fleury, R. E. Slusher, H. L. Frisch, “Multiphoton plasma production and stimulated recombination radiation insemiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 971–974 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Abbotto, A.

G. S. He, L. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconversion lasing of a new blue-green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Alcock, A. J.

A. N. Rubinov, M. C. Richardson, K. Sala, A. J. Alcock, “Generation of single-picosecond dye laser pulses using one- and two-photon traveling-wave excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 358–360 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Allain, J. Y.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “Room temperature cw tunable green upconversion holmium fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 261–263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, K. W.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, “CW room temperature blue upconversion fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1243–1244 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bhatt, J. C.

Bhawalkar, D. D.

G. S. He, Y. Cui, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, D. D. Bhawalkar, “Intracavity upconversion lasing within a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 175–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bhawalkar, J. D.

G. S. He, Y. Cui, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, D. D. Bhawalkar, “Intracavity upconversion lasing within a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 175–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, N. Cheng, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, “Nonlinear optical properties of a new chromophore,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1079–1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C. K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, P. N. Prasad, “Efficient, two-photon pumped green upconverted cavity lasing in a new dye,” Opt. Commun. 124, 33–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion dye-doped polymer fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3549–3551 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Properties of two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped solid matrices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 749–755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon absorption dye doped solid matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433–2435 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, C. F. Zhao, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye-doped bulk matrix rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3703–3705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one- and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in a dye-solution-filled hollow-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2393–2395 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birnbaum, M.

A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, M. Birnbaum, “Three-fold upconversion laser at 0.85, 1.23, and 1.73 mm in Er:YLF pumped with a 1.53 mm Er:glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 869–871 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brierley, M. C.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, R. S.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, “CW room temperature blue upconversion fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1243–1244 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cantwell, E.

X. H. Yang, J. M. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, E. Cantwell, “Two-photon pumped blue lasing in bulk ZnSe and ZnS,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1071–1073 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carter, S. F.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing at blue, green and red wavelengths in infrared-pumped Pr3+-doped fluoride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1307–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chang, D. B.

A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, M. Birnbaum, “Three-fold upconversion laser at 0.85, 1.23, and 1.73 mm in Er:YLF pumped with a 1.53 mm Er:glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 869–871 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

Cheng, N.

Cui, Y.

G. S. He, Y. Cui, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, D. D. Bhawalkar, “Intracavity upconversion lasing within a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 175–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, Y. Cui, M. Yoshida, P. N. Prasad, “Phase-conjugate backward emission from a two-photon-pumped lasing medium,” Opt. Lett. 22, 10–12 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, P. N. Prasad, “Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davey, S. T.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing at blue, green and red wavelengths in infrared-pumped Pr3+-doped fluoride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1307–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dillard, A. G.

Dulick, M.

Facchetti, A.

G. S. He, L. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconversion lasing of a new blue-green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Faulkner, G. E.

Fleury, P. A.

C. K. N. Patel, P. A. Fleury, R. E. Slusher, H. L. Frisch, “Multiphoton plasma production and stimulated recombination radiation insemiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 971–974 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Frisch, H. L.

C. K. N. Patel, P. A. Fleury, R. E. Slusher, H. L. Frisch, “Multiphoton plasma production and stimulated recombination radiation insemiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 971–974 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Fujisawa, K.

T. Yoshida, K. Miyazaki, K. Fujisawa, “Emission properties of two-photon pumped InSb laser under magnetic field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1987–1993 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gillespie, J. B.

Gribkovskii, V. P.

V. P. Gribkovskii, V. A. Zaporozhchenko, V. A. Ivanov, A. C. Kachinskii, V. V. Parashchuk, G. P. Yablonskii, “Lasing in ZnTe, ZnSe, and CdS single crystals excited by ruby laser picosecond pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1305–1307 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gronau, B.

W. Rapp, B. Gronau, “Laser emission from two xanthene dyes via double-photon excitation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 8, 529–531 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Grubb, S. G.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, “CW room temperature blue upconversion fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1243–1244 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gvishi, R.

G. S. He, R. Gvishi, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, “Two-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization in organic molecule-doped solid materials,” Opt. Commun. 117, 133–136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing at blue, green and red wavelengths in infrared-pumped Pr3+-doped fluoride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1307–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hays, J. M.

X. H. Yang, J. M. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, E. Cantwell, “Two-photon pumped blue lasing in bulk ZnSe and ZnS,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1071–1073 (1993).
[CrossRef]

He, G. S.

G. S. He, P. N. Prasad, “Phase-conjugation properties of two-photon-pumped backward-stimulated emission. I. Experimental studies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1078–1085 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, P. N. Prasad, “Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, N. Cheng, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, “Nonlinear optical properties of a new chromophore,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1079–1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconversion lasing of a new blue-green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, Y. Cui, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, D. D. Bhawalkar, “Intracavity upconversion lasing within a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 175–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, Y. Cui, M. Yoshida, P. N. Prasad, “Phase-conjugate backward emission from a two-photon-pumped lasing medium,” Opt. Lett. 22, 10–12 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C. K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, P. N. Prasad, “Efficient, two-photon pumped green upconverted cavity lasing in a new dye,” Opt. Commun. 124, 33–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion dye-doped polymer fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3549–3551 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Properties of two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped solid matrices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 749–755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon absorption dye doped solid matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433–2435 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, C. F. Zhao, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye-doped bulk matrix rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3703–3705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one- and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in a dye-solution-filled hollow-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2393–2395 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, R. Gvishi, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, “Two-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization in organic molecule-doped solid materials,” Opt. Commun. 117, 133–136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, R. Signorini, P. N. Prasad, “Longitudinally two-photon pumped leaky waveguide dye film laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 7–13 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, R. McKellar, A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437; erratum, 1930 (1995).

Hsieh, W. F.

Humer, W. F.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, “CW room temperature blue upconversion fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1243–1244 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, V. A.

V. P. Gribkovskii, V. A. Zaporozhchenko, V. A. Ivanov, A. C. Kachinskii, V. V. Parashchuk, G. P. Yablonskii, “Lasing in ZnTe, ZnSe, and CdS single crystals excited by ruby laser picosecond pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1305–1307 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kachinskii, A. C.

V. P. Gribkovskii, V. A. Zaporozhchenko, V. A. Ivanov, A. C. Kachinskii, V. V. Parashchuk, G. P. Yablonskii, “Lasing in ZnTe, ZnSe, and CdS single crystals excited by ruby laser picosecond pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1305–1307 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, A. S.

Lenth, W.

A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, R. M. MacFarlane, “Green infrared pumped erbium upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977–1979 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, P. N. Prasad, “Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

MacFarlane, R. M.

A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, R. M. MacFarlane, “Green infrared pumped erbium upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977–1979 (1987).
[CrossRef]

McFarlane, R. A.

R. A. McFarlane, “Dual wavelength visible upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2301–2302 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McKellar, R.

Millar, C. A.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mita, Y.

Y. Mita, Y. Wang, S. Shionoya, “High brightness blue and green light sources pumped with a 980 nm emitting laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 802–804 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, K.

T. Yoshida, K. Miyazaki, K. Fujisawa, “Emission properties of two-photon pumped InSb laser under magnetic field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1987–1993 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Monerie, M.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “Room temperature cw tunable green upconversion holmium fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 261–263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, A.

A. Mukherjee, “Two-photon pumped upconverted lasing in a dye-doped polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423–3425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D. C.

Pagani, G. A.

G. S. He, L. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconversion lasing of a new blue-green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Parashchuk, V. V.

V. P. Gribkovskii, V. A. Zaporozhchenko, V. A. Ivanov, A. C. Kachinskii, V. V. Parashchuk, G. P. Yablonskii, “Lasing in ZnTe, ZnSe, and CdS single crystals excited by ruby laser picosecond pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1305–1307 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Park, C. K.

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C. K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, P. N. Prasad, “Efficient, two-photon pumped green upconverted cavity lasing in a new dye,” Opt. Commun. 124, 33–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion dye-doped polymer fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3549–3551 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in a dye-solution-filled hollow-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2393–2395 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one- and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. K. N.

C. K. N. Patel, P. A. Fleury, R. E. Slusher, H. L. Frisch, “Multiphoton plasma production and stimulated recombination radiation insemiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 971–974 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Penzkofer, A.

P. Qiu, A. Penzkofer, “Intense ultrashort pulse generation in a two-photon pumped generator-amplifier system,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 115–124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Poignant, H.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “Room temperature cw tunable green upconversion holmium fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 261–263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, A.

A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, M. Birnbaum, “Three-fold upconversion laser at 0.85, 1.23, and 1.73 mm in Er:YLF pumped with a 1.53 mm Er:glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 869–871 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

G. S. He, P. N. Prasad, “Phase-conjugation properties of two-photon-pumped backward-stimulated emission. I. Experimental studies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1078–1085 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, Y. Cui, M. Yoshida, P. N. Prasad, “Phase-conjugate backward emission from a two-photon-pumped lasing medium,” Opt. Lett. 22, 10–12 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, Y. Cui, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, D. D. Bhawalkar, “Intracavity upconversion lasing within a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 175–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, N. Cheng, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, “Nonlinear optical properties of a new chromophore,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1079–1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconversion lasing of a new blue-green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, P. N. Prasad, “Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C. K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, P. N. Prasad, “Efficient, two-photon pumped green upconverted cavity lasing in a new dye,” Opt. Commun. 124, 33–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion dye-doped polymer fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3549–3551 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Properties of two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped solid matrices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 749–755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon absorption dye doped solid matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433–2435 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one- and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, C. F. Zhao, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye-doped bulk matrix rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3703–3705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in a dye-solution-filled hollow-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2393–2395 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, R. Gvishi, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, “Two-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization in organic molecule-doped solid materials,” Opt. Commun. 117, 133–136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, R. Signorini, P. N. Prasad, “Longitudinally two-photon pumped leaky waveguide dye film laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 7–13 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, R. McKellar, A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437; erratum, 1930 (1995).

Qiu, P.

P. Qiu, A. Penzkofer, “Intense ultrashort pulse generation in a two-photon pumped generator-amplifier system,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 115–124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rapp, W.

W. Rapp, B. Gronau, “Laser emission from two xanthene dyes via double-photon excitation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 8, 529–531 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, B. A.

G. S. He, R. Gvishi, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, “Two-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization in organic molecule-doped solid materials,” Opt. Commun. 117, 133–136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, R. McKellar, A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437; erratum, 1930 (1995).

Rentzepis, P. M.

M. R. Topp, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond stimulated emission in a fluorescent solution following two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 3, 358–364 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M. C.

A. N. Rubinov, M. C. Richardson, K. Sala, A. J. Alcock, “Generation of single-picosecond dye laser pulses using one- and two-photon traveling-wave excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 358–360 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rubinov, A. N.

A. N. Rubinov, M. C. Richardson, K. Sala, A. J. Alcock, “Generation of single-picosecond dye laser pulses using one- and two-photon traveling-wave excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 358–360 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ruland, G.

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C. K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, P. N. Prasad, “Efficient, two-photon pumped green upconverted cavity lasing in a new dye,” Opt. Commun. 124, 33–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sala, K.

A. N. Rubinov, M. C. Richardson, K. Sala, A. J. Alcock, “Generation of single-picosecond dye laser pulses using one- and two-photon traveling-wave excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 358–360 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Serpenguzel, A.

Shan, W.

X. H. Yang, J. M. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, E. Cantwell, “Two-photon pumped blue lasing in bulk ZnSe and ZnS,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1071–1073 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shionoya, S.

Y. Mita, Y. Wang, S. Shionoya, “High brightness blue and green light sources pumped with a 980 nm emitting laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 802–804 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Signorini, R.

G. S. He, R. Signorini, P. N. Prasad, “Longitudinally two-photon pumped leaky waveguide dye film laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 7–13 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Silversmith, A. J.

A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, R. M. MacFarlane, “Green infrared pumped erbium upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977–1979 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

C. K. N. Patel, P. A. Fleury, R. E. Slusher, H. L. Frisch, “Multiphoton plasma production and stimulated recombination radiation insemiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 971–974 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Smart, R. G.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing at blue, green and red wavelengths in infrared-pumped Pr3+-doped fluoride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1307–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. J.

X. H. Yang, J. M. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, E. Cantwell, “Two-photon pumped blue lasing in bulk ZnSe and ZnS,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1071–1073 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Szebesta, D.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing at blue, green and red wavelengths in infrared-pumped Pr3+-doped fluoride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1307–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Topp, M. R.

M. R. Topp, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond stimulated emission in a fluorescent solution following two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 3, 358–364 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing at blue, green and red wavelengths in infrared-pumped Pr3+-doped fluoride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1307–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Mita, Y. Wang, S. Shionoya, “High brightness blue and green light sources pumped with a 980 nm emitting laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 802–804 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Whitley, T. J.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, R.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G. C.

Yablonskii, G. P.

V. P. Gribkovskii, V. A. Zaporozhchenko, V. A. Ivanov, A. C. Kachinskii, V. V. Parashchuk, G. P. Yablonskii, “Lasing in ZnTe, ZnSe, and CdS single crystals excited by ruby laser picosecond pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1305–1307 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. H.

X. H. Yang, J. M. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, E. Cantwell, “Two-photon pumped blue lasing in bulk ZnSe and ZnS,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1071–1073 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

Yoshida, T.

T. Yoshida, K. Miyazaki, K. Fujisawa, “Emission properties of two-photon pumped InSb laser under magnetic field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1987–1993 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, L.

G. S. He, L. Yuan, N. Cheng, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, “Nonlinear optical properties of a new chromophore,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1079–1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconversion lasing of a new blue-green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, P. N. Prasad, “Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zaporozhchenko, V. A.

V. P. Gribkovskii, V. A. Zaporozhchenko, V. A. Ivanov, A. C. Kachinskii, V. V. Parashchuk, G. P. Yablonskii, “Lasing in ZnTe, ZnSe, and CdS single crystals excited by ruby laser picosecond pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1305–1307 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C. F.

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Properties of two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped solid matrices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 749–755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion dye-doped polymer fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3549–3551 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C. K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, P. N. Prasad, “Efficient, two-photon pumped green upconverted cavity lasing in a new dye,” Opt. Commun. 124, 33–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in a dye-solution-filled hollow-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2393–2395 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon absorption dye doped solid matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433–2435 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, C. F. Zhao, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye-doped bulk matrix rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3703–3705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one- and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Qiu, A. Penzkofer, “Intense ultrashort pulse generation in a two-photon pumped generator-amplifier system,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 115–124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

G. S. He, C. F. Zhao, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye-doped bulk matrix rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3703–3705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion dye-doped polymer fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3549–3551 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. A. McFarlane, “Dual wavelength visible upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2301–2302 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mita, Y. Wang, S. Shionoya, “High brightness blue and green light sources pumped with a 980 nm emitting laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 802–804 (1993).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Yang, J. M. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, E. Cantwell, “Two-photon pumped blue lasing in bulk ZnSe and ZnS,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1071–1073 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, R. M. MacFarlane, “Green infrared pumped erbium upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977–1979 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, M. Birnbaum, “Three-fold upconversion laser at 0.85, 1.23, and 1.73 mm in Er:YLF pumped with a 1.53 mm Er:glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 869–871 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Mukherjee, “Two-photon pumped upconverted lasing in a dye-doped polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423–3425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Rubinov, M. C. Richardson, K. Sala, A. J. Alcock, “Generation of single-picosecond dye laser pulses using one- and two-photon traveling-wave excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 358–360 (1975).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon absorption dye doped solid matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433–2435 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one- and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Rapp, B. Gronau, “Laser emission from two xanthene dyes via double-photon excitation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 8, 529–531 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “Room temperature cw tunable green upconversion holmium fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 261–263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing at blue, green and red wavelengths in infrared-pumped Pr3+-doped fluoride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1307–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, “CW room temperature blue upconversion fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1243–1244 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Properties of two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped solid matrices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 749–755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, R. Signorini, P. N. Prasad, “Longitudinally two-photon pumped leaky waveguide dye film laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 7–13 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, P. N. Prasad, “Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Yoshida, K. Miyazaki, K. Fujisawa, “Emission properties of two-photon pumped InSb laser under magnetic field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1987–1993 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Linear absorption spectra of (a) the Coumarin 500 solution in chloroform and (b) the Coumarin 500 solution in benzyl alcohol. The absorption spectra of the pure solvents are shown by dashed curves.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for TPP cavity lasing measurement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured spectral curves for one-photon-excited fluorescence, linear absorption, and cavity lasing from a 1-cm-long Coumarin 500 solution in chloroform.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured spectral curves for one-photon-excited fluorescence, linear absorption, and cavity lasing from a 1-cm-long Coumarin 500 solution in benzyl alcohol.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured spectral curves for cavityless lasing and for cavity lasing from the same 1-cm-long Coumarian 500 solution in benzyl alcohol.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Detailed structure of subcavities provided by a 1-cm-long quartz glass cuvette filled with a dye solution.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Detailed spectral structures of cavity lasing with an external optical plate formed air-gap Fabry–Perot étalon of different thicknesses δ.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Temporal profiles of the 800-nm pump pulse and the cavity lasing pulse at various pump energy levels.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Near-field distribution of cavity lasing from a Coumarin 500 solution in benzyl alcohol; (b) near-field distribution of cavityless lasing from the same sample.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Pulse energy of blue cavity lasing output versus input 800-nm pump pulse energy for Coumarin 500 solutions in benzyl alcohol and in chloroform. Repetition rate, 1 Hz.

Equations (3)

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2 nL + n l 1 + l 2 = K 1 λ , 2 nL = K 2 λ , 2 nL + n l 2 = K 3 λ , 2 nL + n l 1 = K 4 λ ,
2 n l 2 - l 1 = K 3 - K 4 λ = K λ .
| Δ λ | = λ ¯ 2 2 n | l 2 - l 1 | .

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