Abstract

A two-dimensional Raman technique was used to investigate mixing phenomena of cryogenic jets under both supercritical and transcritical conditions. The aim of this study was to enlarge the experimental data basis for modeling purposes and to provide quantitative information to help to improve the design of injectors for high-pressure rocket engine combustion chambers. Cryogenic nitrogen, which served as substitute for liquid O2, was injected into N2 at room temperature at pressures up to 6.0 MPa. The liquid N2 jet could be atomized by a coaxial H2 flow. Raman scattering was generated with a XeF excimer laser. The resulting signal images were discriminated against background by spectral filtering and preferential detection of light with a polarization corresponding to the polarization of the laser, thus making use of the conserved polarization of the Raman-scattered light. The Raman images were converted into density distributions of N2 and H2, respectively, as well as into temperature distributions for a variety of experimental conditions.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Mayer, H. Tamura, “Flow visualization of supercritical propellant injection in a firing LOx/GH2 rocket engine,” presented at the 31st AIAA–ASME–SAE–ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, 10–12 July 1995, San Diego, Calif., paper 95-2433.
  2. J. A. Newman, T. A. Brzustowski, “Behavior of a liquid jet near the thermodynamic critical region,” AIAA J. 9, 1595–1602 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Birk, M. McQuaid, “Deliberations on the dynamics and core structure of reacting sprays at elevated pressures,” in Recent Advances in Spray Combustion: Spray Atomization and Drop Burning Phenomena, Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 166, 309–325 (1996).
  4. R. D. Woodward, D. G. Talley, “Raman imaging of transcritical cryogenic propellants,” presented at the 34th Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, 15–18 January 1996, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 96-0468.
  5. W. Mayer, A. Schik, C. Schweitzer, M. Schaeffler, “Injection and mixing processes in high pressure LOx/GH2 rocket combustors,” presented at the 32nd AIAA–ASME–SAE–ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, 1–3 July 1996, Lake Buena Vista, Fla., paper 96-2620.
  6. B. Atakan, J. Heinze, U. E. Meier, “OH laser-induced fluorescence at high pressures: spectroscopic and two-dimensional measurements exciting the A–X (1, 0) transition,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 585–591 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. G. Allen, K. R. McManus, D. M. Sonnenfroh, “PLIF imaging in spray flame combustors at elevated pressure,” presented at the 33rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 9–12 January 1995, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 95-0172.
  8. T. J. Anderson, R. D. Woodward, M. Winter, “Oxygen concentration measurements in a high pressure environment using Raman imaging,” presented at the 33rd Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, 9–12 January 1995, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 95-0140.
  9. M. J. Foust, M. Deshpande, S. Pal, T. Ni, C. L. Merkle, R. J. Santoro, “Experimental and analytical characterization of a shear coaxial combusting GO2/GH2 flowfield,” presented at the 34th Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, 15–18 January 1996, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 96-0646.
  10. C. A. Schley, G. Hagemann, P. Tucker, S. Venkateswaran, C. L. Merkle, “Comparison of computational codes for modelling hydrogen–oxygen injectors,” presented at the 33rd AIAA–ASME–SAE–ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Seattle, Washington, 6–9 July 1997, paper No. 97-3302.
  11. G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, “Planar air density measurements near model surfaces by ultraviolet Rayleigh/Raman scattering,” AIAA J. 32, 1457–1463 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. M. Cherlow, S. P. S. Porto, “Laser Raman spectroscopy of gases,” in Laser Spectroscopy of Atoms and Molecules, H. Walther, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 253–282.
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Raman–Rayleigh scattering measurements in reacting and non-reacting dilute two-phase flows,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 24, 83–89 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Eckhardt, W. G. Wagner, “On the calculation of absolute Raman scattering cross sections from Raman scattering coefficients,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 19, 407–411 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. C. Weast, M. J. Astle, eds., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 62nd ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1981–1982).
  16. H. W. Schrötter, H. W. Klöckner, “Raman scattering cross sections in gases and liquids,” in Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids, A. Weber, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 123.
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. H. Wang, R. B. Wright, “Effect of density on the Raman scattering of molecular fluids. I. A detailed study of the scattering polarization, intensity, frequency shift, and spectral shape in gaseous N2,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 1706–1712 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. A. Younglove, “Thermophysical properties of nitrogen,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 11, Suppl. 1, 1/162–1/255 (1982).

1997

B. Atakan, J. Heinze, U. E. Meier, “OH laser-induced fluorescence at high pressures: spectroscopic and two-dimensional measurements exciting the A–X (1, 0) transition,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 585–591 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. Birk, M. McQuaid, “Deliberations on the dynamics and core structure of reacting sprays at elevated pressures,” in Recent Advances in Spray Combustion: Spray Atomization and Drop Burning Phenomena, Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 166, 309–325 (1996).

1994

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, “Planar air density measurements near model surfaces by ultraviolet Rayleigh/Raman scattering,” AIAA J. 32, 1457–1463 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Raman–Rayleigh scattering measurements in reacting and non-reacting dilute two-phase flows,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 24, 83–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1982

B. A. Younglove, “Thermophysical properties of nitrogen,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 11, Suppl. 1, 1/162–1/255 (1982).

1973

C. H. Wang, R. B. Wright, “Effect of density on the Raman scattering of molecular fluids. I. A detailed study of the scattering polarization, intensity, frequency shift, and spectral shape in gaseous N2,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 1706–1712 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971

J. A. Newman, T. A. Brzustowski, “Behavior of a liquid jet near the thermodynamic critical region,” AIAA J. 9, 1595–1602 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1966

G. Eckhardt, W. G. Wagner, “On the calculation of absolute Raman scattering cross sections from Raman scattering coefficients,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 19, 407–411 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M. G.

M. G. Allen, K. R. McManus, D. M. Sonnenfroh, “PLIF imaging in spray flame combustors at elevated pressure,” presented at the 33rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 9–12 January 1995, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 95-0172.

Anderson, T. J.

T. J. Anderson, R. D. Woodward, M. Winter, “Oxygen concentration measurements in a high pressure environment using Raman imaging,” presented at the 33rd Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, 9–12 January 1995, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 95-0140.

Atakan, B.

B. Atakan, J. Heinze, U. E. Meier, “OH laser-induced fluorescence at high pressures: spectroscopic and two-dimensional measurements exciting the A–X (1, 0) transition,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 585–591 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, R. S.

A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Raman–Rayleigh scattering measurements in reacting and non-reacting dilute two-phase flows,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 24, 83–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Beushausen, V.

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, “Planar air density measurements near model surfaces by ultraviolet Rayleigh/Raman scattering,” AIAA J. 32, 1457–1463 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Birk, A.

A. Birk, M. McQuaid, “Deliberations on the dynamics and core structure of reacting sprays at elevated pressures,” in Recent Advances in Spray Combustion: Spray Atomization and Drop Burning Phenomena, Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 166, 309–325 (1996).

Brzustowski, T. A.

J. A. Newman, T. A. Brzustowski, “Behavior of a liquid jet near the thermodynamic critical region,” AIAA J. 9, 1595–1602 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Cherlow, J. M.

J. M. Cherlow, S. P. S. Porto, “Laser Raman spectroscopy of gases,” in Laser Spectroscopy of Atoms and Molecules, H. Walther, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 253–282.
[CrossRef]

Deshpande, M.

M. J. Foust, M. Deshpande, S. Pal, T. Ni, C. L. Merkle, R. J. Santoro, “Experimental and analytical characterization of a shear coaxial combusting GO2/GH2 flowfield,” presented at the 34th Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, 15–18 January 1996, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 96-0646.

Dibble, R. W.

A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Raman–Rayleigh scattering measurements in reacting and non-reacting dilute two-phase flows,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 24, 83–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eckhardt, G.

G. Eckhardt, W. G. Wagner, “On the calculation of absolute Raman scattering cross sections from Raman scattering coefficients,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 19, 407–411 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Foust, M. J.

M. J. Foust, M. Deshpande, S. Pal, T. Ni, C. L. Merkle, R. J. Santoro, “Experimental and analytical characterization of a shear coaxial combusting GO2/GH2 flowfield,” presented at the 34th Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, 15–18 January 1996, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 96-0646.

Grünefeld, G.

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, “Planar air density measurements near model surfaces by ultraviolet Rayleigh/Raman scattering,” AIAA J. 32, 1457–1463 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hagemann, G.

C. A. Schley, G. Hagemann, P. Tucker, S. Venkateswaran, C. L. Merkle, “Comparison of computational codes for modelling hydrogen–oxygen injectors,” presented at the 33rd AIAA–ASME–SAE–ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Seattle, Washington, 6–9 July 1997, paper No. 97-3302.

Heinze, J.

B. Atakan, J. Heinze, U. E. Meier, “OH laser-induced fluorescence at high pressures: spectroscopic and two-dimensional measurements exciting the A–X (1, 0) transition,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 585–591 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Klöckner, H. W.

H. W. Schrötter, H. W. Klöckner, “Raman scattering cross sections in gases and liquids,” in Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids, A. Weber, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 123.
[CrossRef]

Masri, A. R.

A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Raman–Rayleigh scattering measurements in reacting and non-reacting dilute two-phase flows,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 24, 83–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, W.

W. Mayer, H. Tamura, “Flow visualization of supercritical propellant injection in a firing LOx/GH2 rocket engine,” presented at the 31st AIAA–ASME–SAE–ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, 10–12 July 1995, San Diego, Calif., paper 95-2433.

W. Mayer, A. Schik, C. Schweitzer, M. Schaeffler, “Injection and mixing processes in high pressure LOx/GH2 rocket combustors,” presented at the 32nd AIAA–ASME–SAE–ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, 1–3 July 1996, Lake Buena Vista, Fla., paper 96-2620.

McManus, K. R.

M. G. Allen, K. R. McManus, D. M. Sonnenfroh, “PLIF imaging in spray flame combustors at elevated pressure,” presented at the 33rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 9–12 January 1995, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 95-0172.

McQuaid, M.

A. Birk, M. McQuaid, “Deliberations on the dynamics and core structure of reacting sprays at elevated pressures,” in Recent Advances in Spray Combustion: Spray Atomization and Drop Burning Phenomena, Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 166, 309–325 (1996).

Meier, U. E.

B. Atakan, J. Heinze, U. E. Meier, “OH laser-induced fluorescence at high pressures: spectroscopic and two-dimensional measurements exciting the A–X (1, 0) transition,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 585–591 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Merkle, C. L.

C. A. Schley, G. Hagemann, P. Tucker, S. Venkateswaran, C. L. Merkle, “Comparison of computational codes for modelling hydrogen–oxygen injectors,” presented at the 33rd AIAA–ASME–SAE–ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Seattle, Washington, 6–9 July 1997, paper No. 97-3302.

M. J. Foust, M. Deshpande, S. Pal, T. Ni, C. L. Merkle, R. J. Santoro, “Experimental and analytical characterization of a shear coaxial combusting GO2/GH2 flowfield,” presented at the 34th Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, 15–18 January 1996, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 96-0646.

Newman, J. A.

J. A. Newman, T. A. Brzustowski, “Behavior of a liquid jet near the thermodynamic critical region,” AIAA J. 9, 1595–1602 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ni, T.

M. J. Foust, M. Deshpande, S. Pal, T. Ni, C. L. Merkle, R. J. Santoro, “Experimental and analytical characterization of a shear coaxial combusting GO2/GH2 flowfield,” presented at the 34th Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, 15–18 January 1996, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 96-0646.

Pal, S.

M. J. Foust, M. Deshpande, S. Pal, T. Ni, C. L. Merkle, R. J. Santoro, “Experimental and analytical characterization of a shear coaxial combusting GO2/GH2 flowfield,” presented at the 34th Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, 15–18 January 1996, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 96-0646.

Porto, S. P. S.

J. M. Cherlow, S. P. S. Porto, “Laser Raman spectroscopy of gases,” in Laser Spectroscopy of Atoms and Molecules, H. Walther, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 253–282.
[CrossRef]

Santoro, R. J.

M. J. Foust, M. Deshpande, S. Pal, T. Ni, C. L. Merkle, R. J. Santoro, “Experimental and analytical characterization of a shear coaxial combusting GO2/GH2 flowfield,” presented at the 34th Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, 15–18 January 1996, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 96-0646.

Schaeffler, M.

W. Mayer, A. Schik, C. Schweitzer, M. Schaeffler, “Injection and mixing processes in high pressure LOx/GH2 rocket combustors,” presented at the 32nd AIAA–ASME–SAE–ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, 1–3 July 1996, Lake Buena Vista, Fla., paper 96-2620.

Schik, A.

W. Mayer, A. Schik, C. Schweitzer, M. Schaeffler, “Injection and mixing processes in high pressure LOx/GH2 rocket combustors,” presented at the 32nd AIAA–ASME–SAE–ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, 1–3 July 1996, Lake Buena Vista, Fla., paper 96-2620.

Schley, C. A.

C. A. Schley, G. Hagemann, P. Tucker, S. Venkateswaran, C. L. Merkle, “Comparison of computational codes for modelling hydrogen–oxygen injectors,” presented at the 33rd AIAA–ASME–SAE–ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Seattle, Washington, 6–9 July 1997, paper No. 97-3302.

Schrötter, H. W.

H. W. Schrötter, H. W. Klöckner, “Raman scattering cross sections in gases and liquids,” in Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids, A. Weber, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 123.
[CrossRef]

Schweitzer, C.

W. Mayer, A. Schik, C. Schweitzer, M. Schaeffler, “Injection and mixing processes in high pressure LOx/GH2 rocket combustors,” presented at the 32nd AIAA–ASME–SAE–ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, 1–3 July 1996, Lake Buena Vista, Fla., paper 96-2620.

Sonnenfroh, D. M.

M. G. Allen, K. R. McManus, D. M. Sonnenfroh, “PLIF imaging in spray flame combustors at elevated pressure,” presented at the 33rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 9–12 January 1995, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 95-0172.

Talley, D. G.

R. D. Woodward, D. G. Talley, “Raman imaging of transcritical cryogenic propellants,” presented at the 34th Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, 15–18 January 1996, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 96-0468.

Tamura, H.

W. Mayer, H. Tamura, “Flow visualization of supercritical propellant injection in a firing LOx/GH2 rocket engine,” presented at the 31st AIAA–ASME–SAE–ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, 10–12 July 1995, San Diego, Calif., paper 95-2433.

Tucker, P.

C. A. Schley, G. Hagemann, P. Tucker, S. Venkateswaran, C. L. Merkle, “Comparison of computational codes for modelling hydrogen–oxygen injectors,” presented at the 33rd AIAA–ASME–SAE–ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Seattle, Washington, 6–9 July 1997, paper No. 97-3302.

Venkateswaran, S.

C. A. Schley, G. Hagemann, P. Tucker, S. Venkateswaran, C. L. Merkle, “Comparison of computational codes for modelling hydrogen–oxygen injectors,” presented at the 33rd AIAA–ASME–SAE–ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Seattle, Washington, 6–9 July 1997, paper No. 97-3302.

Wagner, W. G.

G. Eckhardt, W. G. Wagner, “On the calculation of absolute Raman scattering cross sections from Raman scattering coefficients,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 19, 407–411 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. H.

C. H. Wang, R. B. Wright, “Effect of density on the Raman scattering of molecular fluids. I. A detailed study of the scattering polarization, intensity, frequency shift, and spectral shape in gaseous N2,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 1706–1712 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Winter, M.

T. J. Anderson, R. D. Woodward, M. Winter, “Oxygen concentration measurements in a high pressure environment using Raman imaging,” presented at the 33rd Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, 9–12 January 1995, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 95-0140.

Woodward, R. D.

R. D. Woodward, D. G. Talley, “Raman imaging of transcritical cryogenic propellants,” presented at the 34th Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, 15–18 January 1996, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 96-0468.

T. J. Anderson, R. D. Woodward, M. Winter, “Oxygen concentration measurements in a high pressure environment using Raman imaging,” presented at the 33rd Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, 9–12 January 1995, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 95-0140.

Wright, R. B.

C. H. Wang, R. B. Wright, “Effect of density on the Raman scattering of molecular fluids. I. A detailed study of the scattering polarization, intensity, frequency shift, and spectral shape in gaseous N2,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 1706–1712 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Younglove, B. A.

B. A. Younglove, “Thermophysical properties of nitrogen,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 11, Suppl. 1, 1/162–1/255 (1982).

AIAA J.

J. A. Newman, T. A. Brzustowski, “Behavior of a liquid jet near the thermodynamic critical region,” AIAA J. 9, 1595–1602 (1971).
[CrossRef]

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, “Planar air density measurements near model surfaces by ultraviolet Rayleigh/Raman scattering,” AIAA J. 32, 1457–1463 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

B. Atakan, J. Heinze, U. E. Meier, “OH laser-induced fluorescence at high pressures: spectroscopic and two-dimensional measurements exciting the A–X (1, 0) transition,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 585–591 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

C. H. Wang, R. B. Wright, “Effect of density on the Raman scattering of molecular fluids. I. A detailed study of the scattering polarization, intensity, frequency shift, and spectral shape in gaseous N2,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 1706–1712 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

G. Eckhardt, W. G. Wagner, “On the calculation of absolute Raman scattering cross sections from Raman scattering coefficients,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 19, 407–411 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data

B. A. Younglove, “Thermophysical properties of nitrogen,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 11, Suppl. 1, 1/162–1/255 (1982).

J. Raman Spectrosc.

A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Raman–Rayleigh scattering measurements in reacting and non-reacting dilute two-phase flows,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 24, 83–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Recent Advances in Spray Combustion: Spray Atomization and Drop Burning Phenomena

A. Birk, M. McQuaid, “Deliberations on the dynamics and core structure of reacting sprays at elevated pressures,” in Recent Advances in Spray Combustion: Spray Atomization and Drop Burning Phenomena, Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 166, 309–325 (1996).

Other

R. D. Woodward, D. G. Talley, “Raman imaging of transcritical cryogenic propellants,” presented at the 34th Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, 15–18 January 1996, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 96-0468.

W. Mayer, A. Schik, C. Schweitzer, M. Schaeffler, “Injection and mixing processes in high pressure LOx/GH2 rocket combustors,” presented at the 32nd AIAA–ASME–SAE–ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, 1–3 July 1996, Lake Buena Vista, Fla., paper 96-2620.

M. G. Allen, K. R. McManus, D. M. Sonnenfroh, “PLIF imaging in spray flame combustors at elevated pressure,” presented at the 33rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 9–12 January 1995, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 95-0172.

T. J. Anderson, R. D. Woodward, M. Winter, “Oxygen concentration measurements in a high pressure environment using Raman imaging,” presented at the 33rd Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, 9–12 January 1995, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 95-0140.

M. J. Foust, M. Deshpande, S. Pal, T. Ni, C. L. Merkle, R. J. Santoro, “Experimental and analytical characterization of a shear coaxial combusting GO2/GH2 flowfield,” presented at the 34th Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, 15–18 January 1996, Reno, Nevada; AIAA paper No. 96-0646.

C. A. Schley, G. Hagemann, P. Tucker, S. Venkateswaran, C. L. Merkle, “Comparison of computational codes for modelling hydrogen–oxygen injectors,” presented at the 33rd AIAA–ASME–SAE–ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Seattle, Washington, 6–9 July 1997, paper No. 97-3302.

W. Mayer, H. Tamura, “Flow visualization of supercritical propellant injection in a firing LOx/GH2 rocket engine,” presented at the 31st AIAA–ASME–SAE–ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, 10–12 July 1995, San Diego, Calif., paper 95-2433.

J. M. Cherlow, S. P. S. Porto, “Laser Raman spectroscopy of gases,” in Laser Spectroscopy of Atoms and Molecules, H. Walther, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 253–282.
[CrossRef]

R. C. Weast, M. J. Astle, eds., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 62nd ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1981–1982).

H. W. Schrötter, H. W. Klöckner, “Raman scattering cross sections in gases and liquids,” in Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids, A. Weber, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 123.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the injector head.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental arrangement. For simultaneous detection of N2 and H2, camera 2 was moved to a position opposite the one here; in its previous position, the flash lamp was located. HR, highly reflecting.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Suppression of unpolarized stray light: a, averaged image, Raman + stray light. b, Stray light only. Rectangles show areas used for calibration. c, Single-pulse signal image + stray light. d, single-pulse stray-light image. e, Difference between c and d.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fit to equation-of-state data from Ref. 18.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of a, a simultaneously recorded shadowgraph and b, a Raman image. Note the apparent differences in the marked areas.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a, Single-pulse and b, average N2 density image.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Radial temperature and N2 density profiles corresponding to Fig. 6: a, single pulse; b, 70-pulse average.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

a, b, N2 density distributions at different axial positions; c, d, corresponding relative standard deviations. The dark areas in c and d were excluded from calculation because their signal levels were too low.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Radial profiles of a, N2 density; b, standard deviation; and c, temperature from Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Radial profiles of a, N2 density and b, standard deviation at different axial positions for LN2 injection with H2 coflow.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Radial H2 density profiles at two axial positions. Dotted–dashed line, limit for reliable density measurement.

Equations (5)

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S 1 = S R , 1 + S u , 1 ,
S 2 = S u , 2 ,
S u , 1 = fS u , 2 .
S 1 = S u , 1 = fS u , 2 ,
S 2 = S u , 2 .

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