Abstract

An airborne lidar has been developed for tropospheric ozone monitoring. The transmitter module is based on a solid-state Nd:YAG laser and stimulated Raman scattering in deuterium to generate three wavelengths (266, 289, and 316 nm) that are used for differential ozone measurements. Both analog and photon-counting detection methods are used to produce a measurement range up to 8 km. The system has been flown on the French Fokker 27 aircraft to perform both lower tropospheric (0.5–4-km) and upper tropospheric (4–12-km) measurements, with a 1-min temporal resolution corresponding to a 5-km spatial resolution. The vertical resolution of the ozone profile can vary from 300 to 1000 m to accommodate either a large-altitude range or optimum ozone accuracy. Comparisons with in situ ozone measurements performed by an aircraft UV photometer or ozone sondes and with ozone vertical profiles obtained by a ground-based lidar are presented. The accuracy of the tropospheric ozone measurements is generally better than 10–15%, except when aerosol interferences cannot be corrected. Examples of ozone profiles for different atmospheric conditions demonstrate the utility of the airborne lidar in the study of dynamic or photochemical mesoscale processes that control tropospheric ozone.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

G. Ancellet, M. Beekmann, “Evidence for changes in the ozone concentration in the free troposphere over Southern Europe from 1976–1995,” Atmos. Environ. 31, 2835–2851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Profitt, A. Langford, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar system for day and night measurements of ozone throughout the free troposphere,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2568–2585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, M. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. Bachmeier, B. Anderson, G. Gregory, H. Fuelberg, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, D. Blake, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24,043–24,068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, D. Martin, C. Abonnel, G. Duverneuil, F. Eideliman, P. Bessemoulin, N. Fritz, E. Gizard, “Intercomparison of tropospheric ozone profiles obtained by electrochemical sondes, a ground-based lidar and an airborne UV-photometer,” Atmos. Environ. 29, 1027–1042 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1993 (3)

D. Donovan, J. Whiteway, A. Carswell, “Correction for nonlinear photon-counting effects in lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6742–6753 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D’Altorio, F. Masci, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, E. Boschi, “Continuous lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols and ozone after the Pinatubo eruption. I. DIAL ozone retrieval in presence of stratospheric aerosol layers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2865–2868 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Conrad, C. Laqui, J. Pelon, “Active optoelectronic system for stabilizing pulsed lasers output energy at the 4th harmonic frequency,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 612–617 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. Uthe, J. Livingston, N. Nielsen, “Airborne lidar mapping of ozone concentrations during the Lake Michigan ozone study,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 42, 1313–1318 (1992).

1991 (1)

1990 (2)

1989 (3)

Y. Sasano, E. Browell, “Light scattering characteristics of various aerosols types derived from multiple wavelength lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1670–1679 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, G. Megie, “DIAL tropospheric ozone measurement using a Nd:YAG laser and the Raman shifting technique,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6, 832–839 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Godin, G. Megie, J. Pelon, “Systematic lidar measurements of the stratospheric ozone vertical distribution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 547–550 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. Luches, V. Nassisi, M. Perrone, “Improved conversion efficiency of XeCl radiation to the first Stokes at high pump energy,” Appl. Phys. B 47, 101–105 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

L. Molina, M. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross section of ozone in the 185 to 350 nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14,501–14,508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (3)

A. Chedin, N. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, “The improved initialisation inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of the TIROS-N series,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, S. Ismail, S. Shipley, “Ultraviolet DIAL measurements of O3 profiles in regions of spatially inhomogeneous aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2827–2836 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Mégie, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, “Lidar measurements of ozone vertical profiles,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3454–3463 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

M. Cann, J. Shinn, R. Nicholls, “Oxygen absorption in the spectral range 180–300 nm for temperatures to 3000 K and pressures to 50 atm,” Can. J. Phys. 62, 1738–1751 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

1982 (1)

J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Ozone monitoring in the troposphere and lower stratosphere: evaluation and operation of a ground-based lidar station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

A. Bass, L. Glasgow, C. Miller, J. Jesson, D. Filkin, “Temperature dependent absorption cross sections for formaldehyde (CH2O): the effect of formaldehyde on stratospheric chlorine chemistry,” Planet. Space Sci. 28, 675–679 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1976 (1)

A. Bass, A. Ledford, A. Laufer, “Extinction coefficients of NO2 and N2O4,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 143–166 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Abonnel, C.

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, D. Martin, C. Abonnel, G. Duverneuil, F. Eideliman, P. Bessemoulin, N. Fritz, E. Gizard, “Intercomparison of tropospheric ozone profiles obtained by electrochemical sondes, a ground-based lidar and an airborne UV-photometer,” Atmos. Environ. 29, 1027–1042 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Allen, R.

Alvarez, R.

R. Alvarez, S. Mayor, C. Senff, R. Hardesty, C. Frush, R. Banta, W. Eberhard, “The UV-DIAL ozone measurements during the 1995 southern oxidants study,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 351–354.
[CrossRef]

Ancellet, G.

G. Ancellet, M. Beekmann, “Evidence for changes in the ozone concentration in the free troposphere over Southern Europe from 1976–1995,” Atmos. Environ. 31, 2835–2851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, D. Martin, C. Abonnel, G. Duverneuil, F. Eideliman, P. Bessemoulin, N. Fritz, E. Gizard, “Intercomparison of tropospheric ozone profiles obtained by electrochemical sondes, a ground-based lidar and an airborne UV-photometer,” Atmos. Environ. 29, 1027–1042 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Conrad, C. Laqui, J. Pelon, “Active optoelectronic system for stabilizing pulsed lasers output energy at the 4th harmonic frequency,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 612–617 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Multiwavelength lidar for ozone measurements in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 29, 467–476 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, G. Megie, “DIAL tropospheric ozone measurement using a Nd:YAG laser and the Raman shifting technique,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6, 832–839 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Mégie, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, “Lidar measurements of ozone vertical profiles,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3454–3463 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, R. Barbini, M. Milton, “Tropospheric environmental studies by laser sounding (TESLAS),” in Instrument Development for Atmospheric Research and Monitoring, J. Bösenberg, D. Brassington, P. Simon, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 1–204.

Anderson, B.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, M. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. Bachmeier, B. Anderson, G. Gregory, H. Fuelberg, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, D. Blake, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24,043–24,068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bachmeier, A.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, M. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. Bachmeier, B. Anderson, G. Gregory, H. Fuelberg, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, D. Blake, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24,043–24,068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Backer, H. D.

D. D. Muer, H. D. Backer, P. V. Haver, “Trend analysis of 25 years of regular ozone soundings at Uccle (Belgium),” in Proceedings of Eurotrac Symposium 94, P. Borrell, ed. (SPB Academic, The Hague, 1994), pp. 330–334.

Banta, R.

R. Alvarez, S. Mayor, C. Senff, R. Hardesty, C. Frush, R. Banta, W. Eberhard, “The UV-DIAL ozone measurements during the 1995 southern oxidants study,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 351–354.
[CrossRef]

Barbini, R.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, R. Barbini, M. Milton, “Tropospheric environmental studies by laser sounding (TESLAS),” in Instrument Development for Atmospheric Research and Monitoring, J. Bösenberg, D. Brassington, P. Simon, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 1–204.

Bass, A.

A. Bass, L. Glasgow, C. Miller, J. Jesson, D. Filkin, “Temperature dependent absorption cross sections for formaldehyde (CH2O): the effect of formaldehyde on stratospheric chlorine chemistry,” Planet. Space Sci. 28, 675–679 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Bass, A. Ledford, A. Laufer, “Extinction coefficients of NO2 and N2O4,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 143–166 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Beekmann, M.

G. Ancellet, M. Beekmann, “Evidence for changes in the ozone concentration in the free troposphere over Southern Europe from 1976–1995,” Atmos. Environ. 31, 2835–2851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, D. Martin, C. Abonnel, G. Duverneuil, F. Eideliman, P. Bessemoulin, N. Fritz, E. Gizard, “Intercomparison of tropospheric ozone profiles obtained by electrochemical sondes, a ground-based lidar and an airborne UV-photometer,” Atmos. Environ. 29, 1027–1042 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bessemoulin, P.

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, D. Martin, C. Abonnel, G. Duverneuil, F. Eideliman, P. Bessemoulin, N. Fritz, E. Gizard, “Intercomparison of tropospheric ozone profiles obtained by electrochemical sondes, a ground-based lidar and an airborne UV-photometer,” Atmos. Environ. 29, 1027–1042 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bisling, P.

O. Thomsen, P. Bisling, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Measurement of the sulphur dioxide absorption cross section in the solar-blind ultraviolet,” in Proceedings of Eurotrac Symposium 90, P. Borrell, ed. (SPB Academic, The Hague, 1991), pp. 463–464.

Blake, D.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, M. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. Bachmeier, B. Anderson, G. Gregory, H. Fuelberg, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, D. Blake, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24,043–24,068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boschi, E.

A. D’Altorio, F. Masci, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, E. Boschi, “Continuous lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols and ozone after the Pinatubo eruption. I. DIAL ozone retrieval in presence of stratospheric aerosol layers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2865–2868 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bosenberg, J.

V. Matthias, V. Wulfmeyer, J. Bosenberg, “Comparison of retrieval methods in tropospheric ozone DIAL: the impact of Raman measurements,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 403–406.
[CrossRef]

Bösenberg, J.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, R. Barbini, M. Milton, “Tropospheric environmental studies by laser sounding (TESLAS),” in Instrument Development for Atmospheric Research and Monitoring, J. Bösenberg, D. Brassington, P. Simon, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 1–204.

Bradshaw, J.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, M. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. Bachmeier, B. Anderson, G. Gregory, H. Fuelberg, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, D. Blake, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24,043–24,068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brassington, D.

Bristow, M.

Browell, E.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, M. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. Bachmeier, B. Anderson, G. Gregory, H. Fuelberg, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, D. Blake, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24,043–24,068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, E. Browell, “Light scattering characteristics of various aerosols types derived from multiple wavelength lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1670–1679 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Browell, S. Ismail, S. Shipley, “Ultraviolet DIAL measurements of O3 profiles in regions of spatially inhomogeneous aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2827–2836 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Browell, A. Carter, S. Shipley, R. Allen, C. Butler, M. Mayo, J. Siviter, W. Hall, “NASA multipurpose airborne DIAL system and measurements of ozone and aerosol profiles,” Appl. Opt. 22, 522–534 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butler, C.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, M. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. Bachmeier, B. Anderson, G. Gregory, H. Fuelberg, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, D. Blake, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24,043–24,068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, A. Carter, S. Shipley, R. Allen, C. Butler, M. Mayo, J. Siviter, W. Hall, “NASA multipurpose airborne DIAL system and measurements of ozone and aerosol profiles,” Appl. Opt. 22, 522–534 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calpini, B.

L. Schoulepnikoff, V. Simeonov, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, D. Jeker, V. Mitev, “Characterization of Raman cell-based transmitters for UV,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 387–390.
[CrossRef]

Cann, M.

M. Cann, J. Shinn, R. Nicholls, “Oxygen absorption in the spectral range 180–300 nm for temperatures to 3000 K and pressures to 50 atm,” Can. J. Phys. 62, 1738–1751 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Carswell, A.

Carter, A.

Chedin, A.

A. Chedin, N. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, “The improved initialisation inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of the TIROS-N series,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Clayton, M.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, M. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. Bachmeier, B. Anderson, G. Gregory, H. Fuelberg, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, D. Blake, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24,043–24,068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Conrad, J.

A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Conrad, C. Laqui, J. Pelon, “Active optoelectronic system for stabilizing pulsed lasers output energy at the 4th harmonic frequency,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 612–617 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D’Altorio, A.

A. D’Altorio, F. Masci, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, E. Boschi, “Continuous lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols and ozone after the Pinatubo eruption. I. DIAL ozone retrieval in presence of stratospheric aerosol layers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2865–2868 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Davis, D.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Diebel, D.

Dombrowski, M.

Donovan, D.

Duverneuil, G.

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, D. Martin, C. Abonnel, G. Duverneuil, F. Eideliman, P. Bessemoulin, N. Fritz, E. Gizard, “Intercomparison of tropospheric ozone profiles obtained by electrochemical sondes, a ground-based lidar and an airborne UV-photometer,” Atmos. Environ. 29, 1027–1042 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eberhard, W.

R. Alvarez, S. Mayor, C. Senff, R. Hardesty, C. Frush, R. Banta, W. Eberhard, “The UV-DIAL ozone measurements during the 1995 southern oxidants study,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 351–354.
[CrossRef]

Eideliman, F.

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, D. Martin, C. Abonnel, G. Duverneuil, F. Eideliman, P. Bessemoulin, N. Fritz, E. Gizard, “Intercomparison of tropospheric ozone profiles obtained by electrochemical sondes, a ground-based lidar and an airborne UV-photometer,” Atmos. Environ. 29, 1027–1042 (1995).
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Fenn, M.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, M. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. Bachmeier, B. Anderson, G. Gregory, H. Fuelberg, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, D. Blake, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24,043–24,068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
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Fenn, R.

E. Shettle, R. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” Tech. Rep. 214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Filkin, D.

A. Bass, L. Glasgow, C. Miller, J. Jesson, D. Filkin, “Temperature dependent absorption cross sections for formaldehyde (CH2O): the effect of formaldehyde on stratospheric chlorine chemistry,” Planet. Space Sci. 28, 675–679 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fishman, J.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, M. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. Bachmeier, B. Anderson, G. Gregory, H. Fuelberg, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, D. Blake, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24,043–24,068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, N.

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, D. Martin, C. Abonnel, G. Duverneuil, F. Eideliman, P. Bessemoulin, N. Fritz, E. Gizard, “Intercomparison of tropospheric ozone profiles obtained by electrochemical sondes, a ground-based lidar and an airborne UV-photometer,” Atmos. Environ. 29, 1027–1042 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frush, C.

R. Alvarez, S. Mayor, C. Senff, R. Hardesty, C. Frush, R. Banta, W. Eberhard, “The UV-DIAL ozone measurements during the 1995 southern oxidants study,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 351–354.
[CrossRef]

Fuelberg, H.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, M. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. Bachmeier, B. Anderson, G. Gregory, H. Fuelberg, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, D. Blake, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24,043–24,068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gizard, E.

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, D. Martin, C. Abonnel, G. Duverneuil, F. Eideliman, P. Bessemoulin, N. Fritz, E. Gizard, “Intercomparison of tropospheric ozone profiles obtained by electrochemical sondes, a ground-based lidar and an airborne UV-photometer,” Atmos. Environ. 29, 1027–1042 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Glasgow, L.

A. Bass, L. Glasgow, C. Miller, J. Jesson, D. Filkin, “Temperature dependent absorption cross sections for formaldehyde (CH2O): the effect of formaldehyde on stratospheric chlorine chemistry,” Planet. Space Sci. 28, 675–679 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Godin, S.

S. Godin, G. Megie, J. Pelon, “Systematic lidar measurements of the stratospheric ozone vertical distribution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 547–550 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Grant, W.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, M. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. Bachmeier, B. Anderson, G. Gregory, H. Fuelberg, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, D. Blake, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24,043–24,068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, G.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, M. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. Bachmeier, B. Anderson, G. Gregory, H. Fuelberg, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, D. Blake, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24,043–24,068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hall, W.

Halldorsson, T.

Hardesty, R.

R. Alvarez, S. Mayor, C. Senff, R. Hardesty, C. Frush, R. Banta, W. Eberhard, “The UV-DIAL ozone measurements during the 1995 southern oxidants study,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 351–354.
[CrossRef]

Haver, P. V.

D. D. Muer, H. D. Backer, P. V. Haver, “Trend analysis of 25 years of regular ozone soundings at Uccle (Belgium),” in Proceedings of Eurotrac Symposium 94, P. Borrell, ed. (SPB Academic, The Hague, 1994), pp. 330–334.

Heikes, B.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, M. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. Bachmeier, B. Anderson, G. Gregory, H. Fuelberg, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, D. Blake, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24,043–24,068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, S.

Jeker, D.

L. Schoulepnikoff, V. Simeonov, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, D. Jeker, V. Mitev, “Characterization of Raman cell-based transmitters for UV,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 387–390.
[CrossRef]

Jesson, J.

A. Bass, L. Glasgow, C. Miller, J. Jesson, D. Filkin, “Temperature dependent absorption cross sections for formaldehyde (CH2O): the effect of formaldehyde on stratospheric chlorine chemistry,” Planet. Space Sci. 28, 675–679 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Korb, C.

Kovalev, V.

Langerholc, J.

Langford, A.

Laqui, C.

A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Conrad, C. Laqui, J. Pelon, “Active optoelectronic system for stabilizing pulsed lasers output energy at the 4th harmonic frequency,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 612–617 (1993).
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Laufer, A.

A. Bass, A. Ledford, A. Laufer, “Extinction coefficients of NO2 and N2O4,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 143–166 (1976).
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Ledford, A.

A. Bass, A. Ledford, A. Laufer, “Extinction coefficients of NO2 and N2O4,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 143–166 (1976).
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Lee, H. S.

Liu, S.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, J.

E. Uthe, J. Livingston, N. Nielsen, “Airborne lidar mapping of ozone concentrations during the Lake Michigan ozone study,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 42, 1313–1318 (1992).

Logan, J.

J. Logan, “Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone: an analysis of ozonesonde data,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25,553–25,585 (1994).
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Luches, A.

A. Luches, V. Nassisi, M. Perrone, “Improved conversion efficiency of XeCl radiation to the first Stokes at high pump energy,” Appl. Phys. B 47, 101–105 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M.

Martin, D.

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, D. Martin, C. Abonnel, G. Duverneuil, F. Eideliman, P. Bessemoulin, N. Fritz, E. Gizard, “Intercomparison of tropospheric ozone profiles obtained by electrochemical sondes, a ground-based lidar and an airborne UV-photometer,” Atmos. Environ. 29, 1027–1042 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Masci, F.

A. D’Altorio, F. Masci, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, E. Boschi, “Continuous lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols and ozone after the Pinatubo eruption. I. DIAL ozone retrieval in presence of stratospheric aerosol layers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2865–2868 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matthias, V.

V. Matthias, V. Wulfmeyer, J. Bosenberg, “Comparison of retrieval methods in tropospheric ozone DIAL: the impact of Raman measurements,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 403–406.
[CrossRef]

Mayo, M.

Mayor, S.

R. Alvarez, S. Mayor, C. Senff, R. Hardesty, C. Frush, R. Banta, W. Eberhard, “The UV-DIAL ozone measurements during the 1995 southern oxidants study,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 351–354.
[CrossRef]

McElroy, J.

Megie, G.

A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Multiwavelength lidar for ozone measurements in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 29, 467–476 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Godin, G. Megie, J. Pelon, “Systematic lidar measurements of the stratospheric ozone vertical distribution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 547–550 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, G. Megie, “DIAL tropospheric ozone measurement using a Nd:YAG laser and the Raman shifting technique,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6, 832–839 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mégie, G.

G. Mégie, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, “Lidar measurements of ozone vertical profiles,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3454–3463 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Ozone monitoring in the troposphere and lower stratosphere: evaluation and operation of a ground-based lidar station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Merrill, J.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
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Michaelis, W.

O. Thomsen, P. Bisling, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Measurement of the sulphur dioxide absorption cross section in the solar-blind ultraviolet,” in Proceedings of Eurotrac Symposium 90, P. Borrell, ed. (SPB Academic, The Hague, 1991), pp. 463–464.

Miller, C.

A. Bass, L. Glasgow, C. Miller, J. Jesson, D. Filkin, “Temperature dependent absorption cross sections for formaldehyde (CH2O): the effect of formaldehyde on stratospheric chlorine chemistry,” Planet. Space Sci. 28, 675–679 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Milton, M.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, R. Barbini, M. Milton, “Tropospheric environmental studies by laser sounding (TESLAS),” in Instrument Development for Atmospheric Research and Monitoring, J. Bösenberg, D. Brassington, P. Simon, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 1–204.

Mitev, V.

L. Schoulepnikoff, V. Simeonov, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, D. Jeker, V. Mitev, “Characterization of Raman cell-based transmitters for UV,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 387–390.
[CrossRef]

Miyazoe, Y.

Molina, L.

L. Molina, M. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross section of ozone in the 185 to 350 nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14,501–14,508 (1986).
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Molina, M.

L. Molina, M. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross section of ozone in the 185 to 350 nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14,501–14,508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Moulinier, P.

A. Chedin, N. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, “The improved initialisation inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of the TIROS-N series,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Muer, D. D.

D. D. Muer, H. D. Backer, P. V. Haver, “Trend analysis of 25 years of regular ozone soundings at Uccle (Belgium),” in Proceedings of Eurotrac Symposium 94, P. Borrell, ed. (SPB Academic, The Hague, 1994), pp. 330–334.

Nassisi, V.

A. Luches, V. Nassisi, M. Perrone, “Improved conversion efficiency of XeCl radiation to the first Stokes at high pump energy,” Appl. Phys. B 47, 101–105 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Newell, R.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nicholls, R.

M. Cann, J. Shinn, R. Nicholls, “Oxygen absorption in the spectral range 180–300 nm for temperatures to 3000 K and pressures to 50 atm,” Can. J. Phys. 62, 1738–1751 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, N.

E. Uthe, J. Livingston, N. Nielsen, “Airborne lidar mapping of ozone concentrations during the Lake Michigan ozone study,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 42, 1313–1318 (1992).

Papayannis, A.

A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Conrad, C. Laqui, J. Pelon, “Active optoelectronic system for stabilizing pulsed lasers output energy at the 4th harmonic frequency,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 612–617 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Multiwavelength lidar for ozone measurements in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 29, 467–476 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, G. Megie, “DIAL tropospheric ozone measurement using a Nd:YAG laser and the Raman shifting technique,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6, 832–839 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Conrad, C. Laqui, J. Pelon, “Active optoelectronic system for stabilizing pulsed lasers output energy at the 4th harmonic frequency,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 612–617 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Multiwavelength lidar for ozone measurements in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 29, 467–476 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Godin, G. Megie, J. Pelon, “Systematic lidar measurements of the stratospheric ozone vertical distribution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 547–550 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, G. Megie, “DIAL tropospheric ozone measurement using a Nd:YAG laser and the Raman shifting technique,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6, 832–839 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Mégie, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, “Lidar measurements of ozone vertical profiles,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3454–3463 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Ozone monitoring in the troposphere and lower stratosphere: evaluation and operation of a ground-based lidar station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Perrone, M.

A. Luches, V. Nassisi, M. Perrone, “Improved conversion efficiency of XeCl radiation to the first Stokes at high pump energy,” Appl. Phys. B 47, 101–105 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, C.

Profitt, M.

Randy, A.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rizi, V.

A. D’Altorio, F. Masci, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, E. Boschi, “Continuous lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols and ozone after the Pinatubo eruption. I. DIAL ozone retrieval in presence of stratospheric aerosol layers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2865–2868 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rowland, F.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sachse, G.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, M. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. Bachmeier, B. Anderson, G. Gregory, H. Fuelberg, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, D. Blake, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24,043–24,068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sandholm, S.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, M. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. Bachmeier, B. Anderson, G. Gregory, H. Fuelberg, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, D. Blake, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24,043–24,068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sasano, Y.

Schoulepnikoff, L.

L. Schoulepnikoff, V. Simeonov, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, D. Jeker, V. Mitev, “Characterization of Raman cell-based transmitters for UV,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 387–390.
[CrossRef]

Schwemmer, G.

Scott, N.

A. Chedin, N. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, “The improved initialisation inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of the TIROS-N series,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Senff, C.

R. Alvarez, S. Mayor, C. Senff, R. Hardesty, C. Frush, R. Banta, W. Eberhard, “The UV-DIAL ozone measurements during the 1995 southern oxidants study,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 351–354.
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E.

E. Shettle, R. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” Tech. Rep. 214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Shinn, J.

M. Cann, J. Shinn, R. Nicholls, “Oxygen absorption in the spectral range 180–300 nm for temperatures to 3000 K and pressures to 50 atm,” Can. J. Phys. 62, 1738–1751 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Shipley, S.

Simeonov, V.

L. Schoulepnikoff, V. Simeonov, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, D. Jeker, V. Mitev, “Characterization of Raman cell-based transmitters for UV,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 387–390.
[CrossRef]

Singh, H.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, M. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. Bachmeier, B. Anderson, G. Gregory, H. Fuelberg, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, D. Blake, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24,043–24,068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Siviter, J.

Talbot, R.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, M. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. Bachmeier, B. Anderson, G. Gregory, H. Fuelberg, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, D. Blake, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24,043–24,068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, O.

O. Thomsen, P. Bisling, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Measurement of the sulphur dioxide absorption cross section in the solar-blind ultraviolet,” in Proceedings of Eurotrac Symposium 90, P. Borrell, ed. (SPB Academic, The Hague, 1991), pp. 463–464.

Thornton, D.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Totunaga, M.

Uchino, O.

Uthe, E.

E. Uthe, J. Livingston, N. Nielsen, “Airborne lidar mapping of ozone concentrations during the Lake Michigan ozone study,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 42, 1313–1318 (1992).

van den Bergh, H.

L. Schoulepnikoff, V. Simeonov, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, D. Jeker, V. Mitev, “Characterization of Raman cell-based transmitters for UV,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 387–390.
[CrossRef]

Visconti, G.

A. D’Altorio, F. Masci, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, E. Boschi, “Continuous lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols and ozone after the Pinatubo eruption. I. DIAL ozone retrieval in presence of stratospheric aerosol layers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2865–2868 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wahiche, C.

A. Chedin, N. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, “The improved initialisation inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of the TIROS-N series,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

O. Thomsen, P. Bisling, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Measurement of the sulphur dioxide absorption cross section in the solar-blind ultraviolet,” in Proceedings of Eurotrac Symposium 90, P. Borrell, ed. (SPB Academic, The Hague, 1991), pp. 463–464.

Whiteway, J.

Wulfmeyer, V.

V. Matthias, V. Wulfmeyer, J. Bosenberg, “Comparison of retrieval methods in tropospheric ozone DIAL: the impact of Raman measurements,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 403–406.
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, R.

Appl. Opt. (12)

G. Mégie, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, “Lidar measurements of ozone vertical profiles,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3454–3463 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Browell, A. Carter, S. Shipley, R. Allen, C. Butler, M. Mayo, J. Siviter, W. Hall, “NASA multipurpose airborne DIAL system and measurements of ozone and aerosol profiles,” Appl. Opt. 22, 522–534 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Multiwavelength lidar for ozone measurements in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 29, 467–476 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Profitt, A. Langford, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar system for day and night measurements of ozone throughout the free troposphere,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2568–2585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, S. Ismail, S. Shipley, “Ultraviolet DIAL measurements of O3 profiles in regions of spatially inhomogeneous aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2827–2836 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Kovalev, J. McElroy, “Differential absorption lidar measurement of vertical ozone profiles in the troposphere that contains aerosol layers with strong backscattering gradients: a simplified version,” Appl. Opt. 33, 8393–8401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Diebel, M. Bristow, R. Zimmermann, “Stokes shifted laser lines in KrF-pumped hydrogen: reduction of beam divergence by addition of helium,” Appl. Opt. 30, 626–628 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Lee, G. Schwemmer, C. Korb, M. Dombrowski, C. Prasad, “Gated photomultiplier response characterization for DIAL measurements,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3303–3315 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Donovan, J. Whiteway, A. Carswell, “Correction for nonlinear photon-counting effects in lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6742–6753 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sasano, E. Browell, “Light scattering characteristics of various aerosols types derived from multiple wavelength lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1670–1679 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Brassington, “Sulfur dioxide absorption cross-section measurements,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3774–3779 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Halldorsson, J. Langerholc, “Geometrical form factors for the lidar function,” Appl. Opt. 17, 240–244 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Luches, V. Nassisi, M. Perrone, “Improved conversion efficiency of XeCl radiation to the first Stokes at high pump energy,” Appl. Phys. B 47, 101–105 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ. (2)

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, D. Martin, C. Abonnel, G. Duverneuil, F. Eideliman, P. Bessemoulin, N. Fritz, E. Gizard, “Intercomparison of tropospheric ozone profiles obtained by electrochemical sondes, a ground-based lidar and an airborne UV-photometer,” Atmos. Environ. 29, 1027–1042 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Ancellet, M. Beekmann, “Evidence for changes in the ozone concentration in the free troposphere over Southern Europe from 1976–1995,” Atmos. Environ. 31, 2835–2851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

M. Cann, J. Shinn, R. Nicholls, “Oxygen absorption in the spectral range 180–300 nm for temperatures to 3000 K and pressures to 50 atm,” Can. J. Phys. 62, 1738–1751 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

A. D’Altorio, F. Masci, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, E. Boschi, “Continuous lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols and ozone after the Pinatubo eruption. I. DIAL ozone retrieval in presence of stratospheric aerosol layers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2865–2868 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Godin, G. Megie, J. Pelon, “Systematic lidar measurements of the stratospheric ozone vertical distribution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 547–550 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. (1)

E. Uthe, J. Livingston, N. Nielsen, “Airborne lidar mapping of ozone concentrations during the Lake Michigan ozone study,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 42, 1313–1318 (1992).

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, G. Megie, “DIAL tropospheric ozone measurement using a Nd:YAG laser and the Raman shifting technique,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6, 832–839 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

A. Chedin, N. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulinier, “The improved initialisation inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of the TIROS-N series,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

L. Molina, M. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross section of ozone in the 185 to 350 nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14,501–14,508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Logan, “Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone: an analysis of ozonesonde data,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25,553–25,585 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Ozone monitoring in the troposphere and lower stratosphere: evaluation and operation of a ground-based lidar station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, J. Merrill, R. Newell, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, B. Anderson, A. Randy, A. Bachmeier, D. Blake, D. Davis, G. Gregory, B. Heikes, Y. Kondo, S. Liu, F. Rowland, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, D. Thornton, “Large-scale air mass characteristics observed over Western Pacific during summertime,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1691–1712 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, M. Clayton, J. Fishman, A. Bachmeier, B. Anderson, G. Gregory, H. Fuelberg, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, D. Blake, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, H. Singh, R. Talbot, “Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Atlantic basin during the burning season,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24,043–24,068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A (1)

A. Bass, A. Ledford, A. Laufer, “Extinction coefficients of NO2 and N2O4,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 143–166 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

A. Bass, L. Glasgow, C. Miller, J. Jesson, D. Filkin, “Temperature dependent absorption cross sections for formaldehyde (CH2O): the effect of formaldehyde on stratospheric chlorine chemistry,” Planet. Space Sci. 28, 675–679 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Conrad, C. Laqui, J. Pelon, “Active optoelectronic system for stabilizing pulsed lasers output energy at the 4th harmonic frequency,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 612–617 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

O. Thomsen, P. Bisling, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Measurement of the sulphur dioxide absorption cross section in the solar-blind ultraviolet,” in Proceedings of Eurotrac Symposium 90, P. Borrell, ed. (SPB Academic, The Hague, 1991), pp. 463–464.

V. Matthias, V. Wulfmeyer, J. Bosenberg, “Comparison of retrieval methods in tropospheric ozone DIAL: the impact of Raman measurements,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 403–406.
[CrossRef]

E. Shettle, R. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” Tech. Rep. 214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

D. D. Muer, H. D. Backer, P. V. Haver, “Trend analysis of 25 years of regular ozone soundings at Uccle (Belgium),” in Proceedings of Eurotrac Symposium 94, P. Borrell, ed. (SPB Academic, The Hague, 1994), pp. 330–334.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, R. Barbini, M. Milton, “Tropospheric environmental studies by laser sounding (TESLAS),” in Instrument Development for Atmospheric Research and Monitoring, J. Bösenberg, D. Brassington, P. Simon, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 1–204.

L. Schoulepnikoff, V. Simeonov, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, D. Jeker, V. Mitev, “Characterization of Raman cell-based transmitters for UV,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 387–390.
[CrossRef]

R. Alvarez, S. Mayor, C. Senff, R. Hardesty, C. Frush, R. Banta, W. Eberhard, “The UV-DIAL ozone measurements during the 1995 southern oxidants study,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), pp. 351–354.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the ALTO instrument.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Conversion efficiency of 266-nm radiation in a Raman cell filled either with pure deuterium (hydrogen) or with a deuterium–helium (hydrogen–helium) mixture. The helium pressure is 5 bars.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Lidar geometrical overlap functions and (b) range derivatives for four laser beam divergences. Divergence values are full beam angles at the exit of the Raman cell.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example of the range derivatives of the logarithm of six range-corrected lidar signals corresponding to photocounting or analog detection of the three transmitted wavelengths. The ozone concentration is 70 ppb at 5 km.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) 316-nm aerosol backscatter lidar profiles in a well-developed atmospheric boundary layer; the ozone lidar profiles (b) with and (c) without aerosol correction. The lidar profiles calculated for the 266–289- and 289–316-nm wavelength pairs are measured from the ground and are compared with aircraft in situ measurements (dotted curves).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wind field at 300 hPa and aircraft trajectory during the comparison of the ALTO and a BMast sonde launched from Uccle near Brussels. Asterisks, aircraft positions for selected lidar profiles during the return flight to Paris.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of the BM ozone sonde profile launched from Uccle and the ALTO profiles at 9:24 and 9:41 UT. Crosses, aircraft in situ measurements.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Wind field at 300 hPa and aircraft trajectory during the comparison of the ALTO and the OHP ground-based lidar. Asterisks, aircraft positions for selected lidar profiles.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of the OHP ground-based lidar data averaged over 1 h at 12 UT and the ALTO profile at 11:47 and at 11:20 UT. Crosses, aircraft in situ measurements.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Ozone vertical cross section measured by lidar between 43N and 45N on 22 June 1996. The darkest areas indicate ozone mixing ratios above 80 ppb. The aircraft in situ measurements are also shown at 4.2 km.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Wind field at 300 hPa and aircraft trajectory during the comparison of ALTO and ECC ozone sondes launched from the OHP and Gap. Asterisk, aircraft position for the selected lidar profile.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Comparison of the OHP and the Gap ozone sonde profiles launched at 9 UT and the ALTO profile at 10:12 UT. Cross, aircraft in situ measurement. (b) The 316-nm aerosol backscatter profile measured by ALTO indicates a small aerosol layer at 6.5 km.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Wind field at 700 hPa and aircraft trajectory during the ALTO flight from Athens to Kavalla. Asterisks, positions of the aircraft for selected ozone profiles.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) Ozone lidar profiles measured at three locations by the ALTO lidar flying at 3.7 km on 22 September 1996. (b) Ozone vertical profiles near Athens and Kavalla estimated from the aircraft measurements made during ascent and descent (b).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Absorption Coefficient in 10-3 km-1 of Interfering Molecules at Ground Level at 266, 289, 299, and 316.2 nm

Metrics