Abstract

The design of an alignment-detection system that uses off-axis diffractive elements and photodetectors is presented. The system was developed to detect the real-time misalignment of an array of optical beams as they pass through a microchannel relay. The design of this scheme is presented along with experimental results obtained from a prototype detection system.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. M. Sasian, D. A. Baillie, “Simple technique for out-of-focus feature alignment,” Opt. Eng. 34, 564–566 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  4. J. Jahns, S. J. Walker, “Imaging with planar optical systems,” Opt. Commun. 76, 313–317 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Jahns, Y. H. Lee, C. A. Burrus, J. L. Jewell, “Optical interconnects using top-surface-emitting microlasers and planar optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 592–597 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI) (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 306–312.
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Reconfigurable intelligent optical backplane for parallel computing and communications,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1253–1268 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Architecture of a terabit free-space intelligent optical backplane,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. (to be published).
  9. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 265–277 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

J. M. Sasian, D. A. Baillie, “Simple technique for out-of-focus feature alignment,” Opt. Eng. 34, 564–566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 265–277 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Jahns, Y. H. Lee, C. A. Burrus, J. L. Jewell, “Optical interconnects using top-surface-emitting microlasers and planar optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 592–597 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. Jahns, S. J. Walker, “Imaging with planar optical systems,” Opt. Commun. 76, 313–317 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ayliffe, M. H.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI) (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Baillie, D. A.

J. M. Sasian, D. A. Baillie, “Simple technique for out-of-focus feature alignment,” Opt. Eng. 34, 564–566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Boisset, G. C.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI) (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Burrus, C. A.

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 265–277 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Feldblum, A. Y.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 265–277 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goodwill, D. J.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI) (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Hinton, H. S.

T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Reconfigurable intelligent optical backplane for parallel computing and communications,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1253–1268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 265–277 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI) (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Architecture of a terabit free-space intelligent optical backplane,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. (to be published).

Iyer, R.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI) (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

Jewell, J. L.

Kabal, D.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI) (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

Liu, Y.

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Liu, Y. S.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI) (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 265–277 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mersereau, K. O.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 265–277 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ozguz, V. H.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Patra, S. K.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Plant, D. V.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI) (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Robertson, B.

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI) (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Robertson, W. W.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI) (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Rolston, D. R.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI) (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J. M.

J. M. Sasian, D. A. Baillie, “Simple technique for out-of-focus feature alignment,” Opt. Eng. 34, 564–566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 265–277 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Szymanski, T. H.

T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Reconfigurable intelligent optical backplane for parallel computing and communications,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1253–1268 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI) (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Architecture of a terabit free-space intelligent optical backplane,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. (to be published).

Taghizadeh, M. R.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI) (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 265–277 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Venditti, M.

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI) (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. J.

J. Jahns, S. J. Walker, “Imaging with planar optical systems,” Opt. Commun. 76, 313–317 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Jahns, S. J. Walker, “Imaging with planar optical systems,” Opt. Commun. 76, 313–317 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

J. M. Sasian, D. A. Baillie, “Simple technique for out-of-focus feature alignment,” Opt. Eng. 34, 564–566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, K. O. Mersereau, A. Y. Feldblum, “Optical interconnections using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 265–277 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. R. Rolston, M. Venditti, T. H. Szymanski, W. W. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Optical, optomechanical, and optoelectronic design and operational testing of a multistage optical backplane demonstration system,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI) (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 306–312.
[CrossRef]

T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Architecture of a terabit free-space intelligent optical backplane,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. (to be published).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic overview of the ADS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top view of the ADS with the signal beams perfectly aligned.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Side view of the ADS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic overview of the free-space photonic backplane.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photographs of (a) the OPSLA showing the ADS and (b) the CMOS–SEED lenslet array.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photograph of the spot array generated by the optical power supply.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Theoretical variation of pc 1/pc 2 with the longitudinal misalignment Δz.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

PCB donut.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Electronic preprocessing circuitry.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Photograph of the ADS–microchannel relay assembly. The outer diameter of the assembly is 25 mm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental measurement of the signal voltages V x1 and V x2 versus the translation error.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Photodiode Parameters

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

sin   α m - sin   α i = m λ / T x ,   y ,
D = 2 L   tan   ψ ,
h x = h z   tan arcsin λ / Λ + n   sin   ψ ,
h 0 = h z   tan arcsin n   sin   ψ .
w L = w 0 1 + z 1 λ / π w 0 2 2 1 / 2 .
pc 1 = 0 g 1 / 2   2 π rI r d r , pc 2 = 0 g 2 / 2   2 π rI r d r ,

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