Abstract

Spectrally resolved emission (270–560 nm) from dilute suspensions of washed Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were measured by use of tunable laser excitation between 270 and 300 nm. Integrated absolute emission cross sections increase with decreasing excitation wavelength and range from 1.8 × 10-12 to 6.0 × 10-11 cm2/(particle sr). An emission band near 340 nm dominates all observed spectra. At each excitation wavelength spectrally resolved emissions from the E. coli and B. subtilis suspensions are indistinguishable.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. B. V. Bronk, L. Reinisch, “Variability of steady-state bacterial fluorescence with respect to growth conditions,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 436–440 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. R. Marshal, R. C. Smith, “Raman scattering and in-water ocean optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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  18. I. I. Kondelenko, P. A. Korotkov, V. A. Klimenko, O. P. Demyanenko, “Transverse cross section of the Raman scattering of the n1 vibration of the water molecule in the liquid and gaseous states,” Opt. Spectrosc. 43, 384–386 (1975).
  19. R. B. Slusher, V. E. Derr, “Temperature dependence and cross sections of some Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman lines in ice Ih,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2116–2120 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Seawater temperature measurements from Raman spectra,” Res. Note 920, N62269-72-C-0204, ARPA Order No. 1911 (July1972).
  21. S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. J. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. W. Faris, R. A. Copeland, “Wavelength dependence of the Raman cross section for liquid water,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2686–2688 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. D. Christesen, K. K. Ong, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of biological agents: I. Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus and Brucella suis,” ERDEC Internal Rep., contact S. Christesen, Attn.: SCBRD-RTE, U.S. Army Edgewood RDEC, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. 21010-5423.
  24. Sandia National Laboratory, “UV detection of biological species,” ERDEC Internal Rep., contact S. Christesen, Attn.: SCBRD-RTE, U.S. Army Edgewood RDEC, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. 21010-5423.

1997 (2)

1995 (1)

J. F. Pinto, L. Esterowitz, G. H. Rosenblatt, “Frequency tripling of a Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser to the UV region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 58–63 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. J. Sorrell, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, R. H. Ossoff, “Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155–163 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. J. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

D. C. Shelly, J. M. Quarles, I. M. Warner, “Identification of fluorescent Pseudomonas species,” Clin. Chem. 26, 1127–1132 (1980).
[PubMed]

D. C. Shelly, J. M. Quarles, I. M. Warner, “Multiparameter approach to the ‘fingerprint’ of fluorescent Pseudomonas,” Clin. Chem. 26, 1419–1424 (1980).
[PubMed]

1977 (1)

W. B. Bowden, “Comparison of two direct-count techniques for enumerating aquatic bacteria,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33, 1229–1232 (1977).
[PubMed]

1976 (1)

D. Mauzerall, “Multiple excitation in photosynthetic systems,” Biophys. J. 16, 87–92 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (2)

I. I. Kondelenko, P. A. Korotkov, V. A. Klimenko, O. P. Demyanenko, “Transverse cross section of the Raman scattering of the n1 vibration of the water molecule in the liquid and gaseous states,” Opt. Spectrosc. 43, 384–386 (1975).

R. B. Slusher, V. E. Derr, “Temperature dependence and cross sections of some Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman lines in ice Ih,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2116–2120 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

N. P. Romanov, V. S. Shuklin, “Raman scattering cross section of liquid water,” Opt. Spectrosc. 38, 646–648 (1970).

Bowden, W. B.

W. B. Bowden, “Comparison of two direct-count techniques for enumerating aquatic bacteria,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33, 1229–1232 (1977).
[PubMed]

Britt, D.

Brock, T. D.

T. D. Brock, M. T. Madigan, J. M. Martinko, J. Parker, Biology of Microorganisms, 7th ed. (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994) Chap. 19.

Bronk, B. V.

Cantor, C. R.

C. R. Cantor, P. R. Schimmel, Biophysical Chemistry (W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, 1980), pp. 380, 443.

Chang, C. H.

C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Seawater temperature measurements from Raman spectra,” Res. Note 920, N62269-72-C-0204, ARPA Order No. 1911 (July1972).

Copeland, R. A.

Dalterio, R. A.

Demyanenko, O. P.

I. I. Kondelenko, P. A. Korotkov, V. A. Klimenko, O. P. Demyanenko, “Transverse cross section of the Raman scattering of the n1 vibration of the water molecule in the liquid and gaseous states,” Opt. Spectrosc. 43, 384–386 (1975).

Derr, V. E.

Esterowitz, L.

J. F. Pinto, L. Esterowitz, G. H. Rosenblatt, “Frequency tripling of a Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser to the UV region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 58–63 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eversole, J. D.

D. C. Roselle, M. Seaver, J. D. Eversole, “Changes in intrinsic fluorescence during the production of viable but nonculturable Escherichia coli,” J. Ind. Microbiol. 20 (in press).

Faris, G. W.

Kishino, M.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. J. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Klimenko, V. A.

I. I. Kondelenko, P. A. Korotkov, V. A. Klimenko, O. P. Demyanenko, “Transverse cross section of the Raman scattering of the n1 vibration of the water molecule in the liquid and gaseous states,” Opt. Spectrosc. 43, 384–386 (1975).

Kondelenko, I. I.

I. I. Kondelenko, P. A. Korotkov, V. A. Klimenko, O. P. Demyanenko, “Transverse cross section of the Raman scattering of the n1 vibration of the water molecule in the liquid and gaseous states,” Opt. Spectrosc. 43, 384–386 (1975).

Konev, S. V.

S. V. Konev, Fluorescence and Phosphorescence of Proteins and Nucleic Acids (Plenum, New York, 1967), p. 10.

Korotkov, P. A.

I. I. Kondelenko, P. A. Korotkov, V. A. Klimenko, O. P. Demyanenko, “Transverse cross section of the Raman scattering of the n1 vibration of the water molecule in the liquid and gaseous states,” Opt. Spectrosc. 43, 384–386 (1975).

Madigan, M. T.

T. D. Brock, M. T. Madigan, J. M. Martinko, J. Parker, Biology of Microorganisms, 7th ed. (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994) Chap. 19.

Marshal, B. R.

Martinko, J. M.

T. D. Brock, M. T. Madigan, J. M. Martinko, J. Parker, Biology of Microorganisms, 7th ed. (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994) Chap. 19.

Mauzerall, D.

D. Mauzerall, “Multiple excitation in photosynthetic systems,” Biophys. J. 16, 87–92 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mortelmans, K.

Nelson, W. H.

Okami, M. J.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. J. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ossoff, R. H.

M. J. Sorrell, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, R. H. Ossoff, “Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155–163 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, J.

T. D. Brock, M. T. Madigan, J. M. Martinko, J. Parker, Biology of Microorganisms, 7th ed. (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994) Chap. 19.

Pinto, J. F.

J. F. Pinto, L. Esterowitz, G. H. Rosenblatt, “Frequency tripling of a Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser to the UV region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 58–63 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Psaras, D.

Quarles, J. M.

D. C. Shelly, J. M. Quarles, I. M. Warner, “Identification of fluorescent Pseudomonas species,” Clin. Chem. 26, 1127–1132 (1980).
[PubMed]

D. C. Shelly, J. M. Quarles, I. M. Warner, “Multiparameter approach to the ‘fingerprint’ of fluorescent Pseudomonas,” Clin. Chem. 26, 1419–1424 (1980).
[PubMed]

Reinisch, L.

M. J. Sorrell, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, R. H. Ossoff, “Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155–163 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. V. Bronk, L. Reinisch, “Variability of steady-state bacterial fluorescence with respect to growth conditions,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 436–440 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Romanov, N. P.

N. P. Romanov, V. S. Shuklin, “Raman scattering cross section of liquid water,” Opt. Spectrosc. 38, 646–648 (1970).

Roselle, D. C.

D. C. Roselle, M. Seaver, J. D. Eversole, “Changes in intrinsic fluorescence during the production of viable but nonculturable Escherichia coli,” J. Ind. Microbiol. 20 (in press).

Rosenblatt, G. H.

J. F. Pinto, L. Esterowitz, G. H. Rosenblatt, “Frequency tripling of a Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser to the UV region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 58–63 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schimmel, P. R.

C. R. Cantor, P. R. Schimmel, Biophysical Chemistry (W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, 1980), pp. 380, 443.

Seaver, M.

D. C. Roselle, M. Seaver, J. D. Eversole, “Changes in intrinsic fluorescence during the production of viable but nonculturable Escherichia coli,” J. Ind. Microbiol. 20 (in press).

Shelly, D. C.

D. C. Shelly, J. M. Quarles, I. M. Warner, “Identification of fluorescent Pseudomonas species,” Clin. Chem. 26, 1127–1132 (1980).
[PubMed]

D. C. Shelly, J. M. Quarles, I. M. Warner, “Multiparameter approach to the ‘fingerprint’ of fluorescent Pseudomonas,” Clin. Chem. 26, 1419–1424 (1980).
[PubMed]

Shuklin, V. S.

N. P. Romanov, V. S. Shuklin, “Raman scattering cross section of liquid water,” Opt. Spectrosc. 38, 646–648 (1970).

Slusher, R. B.

Smith, R. C.

Sorrell, M. J.

M. J. Sorrell, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, R. H. Ossoff, “Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155–163 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sperry, J.

Sugihara, S.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. J. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Suib, S. L.

Tanquay, J. F.

Tribble, J.

M. J. Sorrell, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, R. H. Ossoff, “Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155–163 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warner, I. M.

D. C. Shelly, J. M. Quarles, I. M. Warner, “Multiparameter approach to the ‘fingerprint’ of fluorescent Pseudomonas,” Clin. Chem. 26, 1419–1424 (1980).
[PubMed]

D. C. Shelly, J. M. Quarles, I. M. Warner, “Identification of fluorescent Pseudomonas species,” Clin. Chem. 26, 1127–1132 (1980).
[PubMed]

Werkhaven, J. A.

M. J. Sorrell, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, R. H. Ossoff, “Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155–163 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, L. A.

C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Seawater temperature measurements from Raman spectra,” Res. Note 920, N62269-72-C-0204, ARPA Order No. 1911 (July1972).

Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1)

W. B. Bowden, “Comparison of two direct-count techniques for enumerating aquatic bacteria,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33, 1229–1232 (1977).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Spectrosc. (3)

Biophys. J. (1)

D. Mauzerall, “Multiple excitation in photosynthetic systems,” Biophys. J. 16, 87–92 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Chem. (2)

D. C. Shelly, J. M. Quarles, I. M. Warner, “Identification of fluorescent Pseudomonas species,” Clin. Chem. 26, 1127–1132 (1980).
[PubMed]

D. C. Shelly, J. M. Quarles, I. M. Warner, “Multiparameter approach to the ‘fingerprint’ of fluorescent Pseudomonas,” Clin. Chem. 26, 1419–1424 (1980).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. F. Pinto, L. Esterowitz, G. H. Rosenblatt, “Frequency tripling of a Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser to the UV region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 58–63 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Ind. Microbiol. (1)

D. C. Roselle, M. Seaver, J. D. Eversole, “Changes in intrinsic fluorescence during the production of viable but nonculturable Escherichia coli,” J. Ind. Microbiol. 20 (in press).

J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. (1)

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. J. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

M. J. Sorrell, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, R. H. Ossoff, “Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155–163 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Spectrosc. (2)

N. P. Romanov, V. S. Shuklin, “Raman scattering cross section of liquid water,” Opt. Spectrosc. 38, 646–648 (1970).

I. I. Kondelenko, P. A. Korotkov, V. A. Klimenko, O. P. Demyanenko, “Transverse cross section of the Raman scattering of the n1 vibration of the water molecule in the liquid and gaseous states,” Opt. Spectrosc. 43, 384–386 (1975).

Other (7)

C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Seawater temperature measurements from Raman spectra,” Res. Note 920, N62269-72-C-0204, ARPA Order No. 1911 (July1972).

C. R. Cantor, P. R. Schimmel, Biophysical Chemistry (W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, 1980), pp. 380, 443.

S. V. Konev, Fluorescence and Phosphorescence of Proteins and Nucleic Acids (Plenum, New York, 1967), p. 10.

T. D. Brock, M. T. Madigan, J. M. Martinko, J. Parker, Biology of Microorganisms, 7th ed. (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994) Chap. 19.

American Type Culture Collection, 12301 Parklawn Drive, Rockville, Md. 20852-1776.

S. D. Christesen, K. K. Ong, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of biological agents: I. Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus and Brucella suis,” ERDEC Internal Rep., contact S. Christesen, Attn.: SCBRD-RTE, U.S. Army Edgewood RDEC, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. 21010-5423.

Sandia National Laboratory, “UV detection of biological species,” ERDEC Internal Rep., contact S. Christesen, Attn.: SCBRD-RTE, U.S. Army Edgewood RDEC, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. 21010-5423.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic showing the experimental arrangement: sample, collection optics, spectrometer and detector, and excitation light source consisting of nonlinear crystals for tripling the tunable Cr:LiSAF laser output.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absolute fluorescence spectra from A, E. coli, and B, B. subtilis for excitation at 270, 285, and 300 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the dispersed fluorescence from E. coli and B. subtilis for 270-nm excitation. The same degree of overlap is seen for all excitation wavelengths used in this paper.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Integrated Absolute Fluorescence Cross Sections for B. subtilis and E. coli for Excitation Wavelengths between 270 and 300 nm

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