Abstract

Congruent vaporization is a process that yields constant vapor species. Ti2O3 was continuously electron-beam evaporated to produce titanium oxide thin films. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry was employed to study the evolution of the composition of these films. It seems that congruent vaporization can be established in a coating plant. TiO2 films produced by conventional reactive deposition tend to contain mixtures of titanium oxides. Increasing the transmission of TiO2 films becomes an issue of increasing the TiO2 component in the films by adequate reactive evaporation.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. G. Wahlbeck, P. W. Gilles, “Reinvestigation of the phase diagram for the system titanium–oxygen,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 49, 180–183 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. I. Sheldon, P. W. Gilles, “The high temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. XI. Stoichiometric titanium monoxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 66, 3705–3711 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. W. Chase, J. L. Curnutt, A. T. Hu, H. Prophet, A. N. Syverud, L. C. Walker, ed., “JANAF thermochemical tables,” Suppl. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 311–480 (1974); M. W. Chase, J. L. Curnutt, H. Prophet, R. A. McDonald, A. N. Syverud, ed., “JANAF Thermochemical Tables,” Suppl. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 4, 1–175 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. W. Gilles, “Vaporization processes,” in The Characterization of High-Temperature Vapors, J. L. Margrave, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1967), Chap. 2.
  5. H. K. Pulker, in Coatings on Glass, (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984), Chap. 6.
  6. E. David Cater, Barbara H. Mueller, James A. Fries, “Congruent vaporization and thermodynamics in the praseodymium-sulfur system,” Natl. Bur. Stand. Spec. Publ. 561, 237–242 (1979).
  7. P. W. Gilles, K. D. Carlson, H. F. Franzen, P. G. Wahlbeck, “High-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. I. Vaporization characteristics of the crystalline phases,” J. Chem. Phys. 46, 2461–2465 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. G. Wahlbeck, P. W. Gilles, “Dissociation energy of TiO(g) and the high-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. II. Trititanium pentoxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 46, 2465–2473 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. W. Gilles, H. F. Franzen, G. D. Stone, P. G. Wahlbeck, “High-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. III. Vaporization characteristics of the liquid phase,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 1938–1941 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. K. Pulker, G. Paesold, E. Ritter, “Refractive indices of TiO2 films produced by reactive evaporation of various titanium–oxygen phases,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2986–2991 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Drowart, P. Coppens, S. Smoes, “Dissociation energy of the molecule TiO(g) and the thermodynamics of the system Titanium–Oxygen,” J. Chem. Phys. 50, 1046–1048 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. J. Hampson, P. W. Gilles, “High-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. VII. Mass spectrometry and dissociation energies of TiO(g) and TiO2(g),” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 3712–3729 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Banon, C. Chatillon, M. Allibert, “Investigation of the evaporation thermodynamics and stationary states (so-called congruent states) in the study of oxides and their mixtures by the effusion method application to Al2O3, CaO, and the mixtures Al2O3–CaO and Ti2O3–TiO2,” High Temp. Sci. 15, 129–149 (1982).
  14. H. K. Pulker, “Characterization of optical thin films,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1969–1977 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. “Start of operation,” in QSR-BPU, the measuring and control concept for coating processes, BAK 760 Operating Instructions (Balzers, Hudson, N.H., 1982), Sect. 2.6.
  16. W. Grossklaus, R. F. Bunshah, “Synthesis of various oxides in the Ti–O system by reactive evaporation and activated reactive evaporation techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 593–597 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. P. Lehan, “Microstructural investigations of optical coatings by backscattering spectrometry, electron diffraction, and spectrophotometry,” Ph. D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, 1990), Chap. 6.
  18. K. H. Guenther, “Microstructure of vapor-deposited optical coatings,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3806–3815 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. B. Brik, I. I. Petrova, “Determination of the various forms of adsorbed water in porous titanium oxide films,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 59, 54–57 (1992).
  20. E. Ritter, “Deposition of oxide films by reactive evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 225–226 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. N. Rao, S. Mohan, “Optical properties of electron-beam evaporated TiO2 films deposited in an ionized oxygen medium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 3260–3264 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Kuster, J. Ebert, “Activated reactive evaporation of TiO2 layers and their absorption indices,” Thin Solid Films 70, 43–47 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. O. Hayward, B. M. W. Trapnell, Chemisorption (Butterworths, London, 1964), Chap. 3.
  24. R. C. Paule, J. L. Margrave, “Free-evaporation and effusion techniques,” in The Characterization of High-Temperature Vapors, J. L. Margrave, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1967), Chap. 6.
  25. C. T. Foxon, J. A. Harvey, B. A. Joyce, “The evaporation of GaAs under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions using a modulated beam technique,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 34, 1693–1701 (1973).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. B. Brik, I. I. Petrova, “Determination of the various forms of adsorbed water in porous titanium oxide films,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 59, 54–57 (1992).

1990 (1)

K. N. Rao, S. Mohan, “Optical properties of electron-beam evaporated TiO2 films deposited in an ionized oxygen medium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 3260–3264 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

S. Banon, C. Chatillon, M. Allibert, “Investigation of the evaporation thermodynamics and stationary states (so-called congruent states) in the study of oxides and their mixtures by the effusion method application to Al2O3, CaO, and the mixtures Al2O3–CaO and Ti2O3–TiO2,” High Temp. Sci. 15, 129–149 (1982).

1980 (1)

H. Kuster, J. Ebert, “Activated reactive evaporation of TiO2 layers and their absorption indices,” Thin Solid Films 70, 43–47 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

H. K. Pulker, “Characterization of optical thin films,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1969–1977 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. David Cater, Barbara H. Mueller, James A. Fries, “Congruent vaporization and thermodynamics in the praseodymium-sulfur system,” Natl. Bur. Stand. Spec. Publ. 561, 237–242 (1979).

1977 (1)

R. I. Sheldon, P. W. Gilles, “The high temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. XI. Stoichiometric titanium monoxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 66, 3705–3711 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

W. Grossklaus, R. F. Bunshah, “Synthesis of various oxides in the Ti–O system by reactive evaporation and activated reactive evaporation techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 593–597 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

M. W. Chase, J. L. Curnutt, A. T. Hu, H. Prophet, A. N. Syverud, L. C. Walker, ed., “JANAF thermochemical tables,” Suppl. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 311–480 (1974); M. W. Chase, J. L. Curnutt, H. Prophet, R. A. McDonald, A. N. Syverud, ed., “JANAF Thermochemical Tables,” Suppl. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 4, 1–175 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

C. T. Foxon, J. A. Harvey, B. A. Joyce, “The evaporation of GaAs under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions using a modulated beam technique,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 34, 1693–1701 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

P. J. Hampson, P. W. Gilles, “High-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. VII. Mass spectrometry and dissociation energies of TiO(g) and TiO2(g),” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 3712–3729 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

J. Drowart, P. Coppens, S. Smoes, “Dissociation energy of the molecule TiO(g) and the thermodynamics of the system Titanium–Oxygen,” J. Chem. Phys. 50, 1046–1048 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

P. W. Gilles, H. F. Franzen, G. D. Stone, P. G. Wahlbeck, “High-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. III. Vaporization characteristics of the liquid phase,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 1938–1941 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

P. W. Gilles, K. D. Carlson, H. F. Franzen, P. G. Wahlbeck, “High-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. I. Vaporization characteristics of the crystalline phases,” J. Chem. Phys. 46, 2461–2465 (1967).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Wahlbeck, P. W. Gilles, “Dissociation energy of TiO(g) and the high-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. II. Trititanium pentoxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 46, 2465–2473 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

P. G. Wahlbeck, P. W. Gilles, “Reinvestigation of the phase diagram for the system titanium–oxygen,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 49, 180–183 (1966).
[CrossRef]

E. Ritter, “Deposition of oxide films by reactive evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 225–226 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Allibert, M.

S. Banon, C. Chatillon, M. Allibert, “Investigation of the evaporation thermodynamics and stationary states (so-called congruent states) in the study of oxides and their mixtures by the effusion method application to Al2O3, CaO, and the mixtures Al2O3–CaO and Ti2O3–TiO2,” High Temp. Sci. 15, 129–149 (1982).

Banon, S.

S. Banon, C. Chatillon, M. Allibert, “Investigation of the evaporation thermodynamics and stationary states (so-called congruent states) in the study of oxides and their mixtures by the effusion method application to Al2O3, CaO, and the mixtures Al2O3–CaO and Ti2O3–TiO2,” High Temp. Sci. 15, 129–149 (1982).

Brik, E. B.

E. B. Brik, I. I. Petrova, “Determination of the various forms of adsorbed water in porous titanium oxide films,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 59, 54–57 (1992).

Bunshah, R. F.

W. Grossklaus, R. F. Bunshah, “Synthesis of various oxides in the Ti–O system by reactive evaporation and activated reactive evaporation techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 593–597 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, K. D.

P. W. Gilles, K. D. Carlson, H. F. Franzen, P. G. Wahlbeck, “High-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. I. Vaporization characteristics of the crystalline phases,” J. Chem. Phys. 46, 2461–2465 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Cater, E. David

E. David Cater, Barbara H. Mueller, James A. Fries, “Congruent vaporization and thermodynamics in the praseodymium-sulfur system,” Natl. Bur. Stand. Spec. Publ. 561, 237–242 (1979).

Chase, M. W.

M. W. Chase, J. L. Curnutt, A. T. Hu, H. Prophet, A. N. Syverud, L. C. Walker, ed., “JANAF thermochemical tables,” Suppl. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 311–480 (1974); M. W. Chase, J. L. Curnutt, H. Prophet, R. A. McDonald, A. N. Syverud, ed., “JANAF Thermochemical Tables,” Suppl. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 4, 1–175 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Chatillon, C.

S. Banon, C. Chatillon, M. Allibert, “Investigation of the evaporation thermodynamics and stationary states (so-called congruent states) in the study of oxides and their mixtures by the effusion method application to Al2O3, CaO, and the mixtures Al2O3–CaO and Ti2O3–TiO2,” High Temp. Sci. 15, 129–149 (1982).

Coppens, P.

J. Drowart, P. Coppens, S. Smoes, “Dissociation energy of the molecule TiO(g) and the thermodynamics of the system Titanium–Oxygen,” J. Chem. Phys. 50, 1046–1048 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Curnutt, J. L.

M. W. Chase, J. L. Curnutt, A. T. Hu, H. Prophet, A. N. Syverud, L. C. Walker, ed., “JANAF thermochemical tables,” Suppl. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 311–480 (1974); M. W. Chase, J. L. Curnutt, H. Prophet, R. A. McDonald, A. N. Syverud, ed., “JANAF Thermochemical Tables,” Suppl. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 4, 1–175 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Drowart, J.

J. Drowart, P. Coppens, S. Smoes, “Dissociation energy of the molecule TiO(g) and the thermodynamics of the system Titanium–Oxygen,” J. Chem. Phys. 50, 1046–1048 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, J.

H. Kuster, J. Ebert, “Activated reactive evaporation of TiO2 layers and their absorption indices,” Thin Solid Films 70, 43–47 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Foxon, C. T.

C. T. Foxon, J. A. Harvey, B. A. Joyce, “The evaporation of GaAs under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions using a modulated beam technique,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 34, 1693–1701 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Franzen, H. F.

P. W. Gilles, H. F. Franzen, G. D. Stone, P. G. Wahlbeck, “High-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. III. Vaporization characteristics of the liquid phase,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 1938–1941 (1968).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Gilles, K. D. Carlson, H. F. Franzen, P. G. Wahlbeck, “High-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. I. Vaporization characteristics of the crystalline phases,” J. Chem. Phys. 46, 2461–2465 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Fries, James A.

E. David Cater, Barbara H. Mueller, James A. Fries, “Congruent vaporization and thermodynamics in the praseodymium-sulfur system,” Natl. Bur. Stand. Spec. Publ. 561, 237–242 (1979).

Gilles, P. W.

R. I. Sheldon, P. W. Gilles, “The high temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. XI. Stoichiometric titanium monoxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 66, 3705–3711 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Hampson, P. W. Gilles, “High-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. VII. Mass spectrometry and dissociation energies of TiO(g) and TiO2(g),” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 3712–3729 (1971).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Gilles, H. F. Franzen, G. D. Stone, P. G. Wahlbeck, “High-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. III. Vaporization characteristics of the liquid phase,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 1938–1941 (1968).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Wahlbeck, P. W. Gilles, “Dissociation energy of TiO(g) and the high-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. II. Trititanium pentoxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 46, 2465–2473 (1967).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Gilles, K. D. Carlson, H. F. Franzen, P. G. Wahlbeck, “High-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. I. Vaporization characteristics of the crystalline phases,” J. Chem. Phys. 46, 2461–2465 (1967).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Wahlbeck, P. W. Gilles, “Reinvestigation of the phase diagram for the system titanium–oxygen,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 49, 180–183 (1966).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Gilles, “Vaporization processes,” in The Characterization of High-Temperature Vapors, J. L. Margrave, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1967), Chap. 2.

Grossklaus, W.

W. Grossklaus, R. F. Bunshah, “Synthesis of various oxides in the Ti–O system by reactive evaporation and activated reactive evaporation techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 593–597 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, K. H.

Hampson, P. J.

P. J. Hampson, P. W. Gilles, “High-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. VII. Mass spectrometry and dissociation energies of TiO(g) and TiO2(g),” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 3712–3729 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. A.

C. T. Foxon, J. A. Harvey, B. A. Joyce, “The evaporation of GaAs under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions using a modulated beam technique,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 34, 1693–1701 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hayward, D. O.

D. O. Hayward, B. M. W. Trapnell, Chemisorption (Butterworths, London, 1964), Chap. 3.

Hu, A. T.

M. W. Chase, J. L. Curnutt, A. T. Hu, H. Prophet, A. N. Syverud, L. C. Walker, ed., “JANAF thermochemical tables,” Suppl. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 311–480 (1974); M. W. Chase, J. L. Curnutt, H. Prophet, R. A. McDonald, A. N. Syverud, ed., “JANAF Thermochemical Tables,” Suppl. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 4, 1–175 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Joyce, B. A.

C. T. Foxon, J. A. Harvey, B. A. Joyce, “The evaporation of GaAs under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions using a modulated beam technique,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 34, 1693–1701 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kuster, H.

H. Kuster, J. Ebert, “Activated reactive evaporation of TiO2 layers and their absorption indices,” Thin Solid Films 70, 43–47 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lehan, J. P.

J. P. Lehan, “Microstructural investigations of optical coatings by backscattering spectrometry, electron diffraction, and spectrophotometry,” Ph. D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, 1990), Chap. 6.

Margrave, J. L.

R. C. Paule, J. L. Margrave, “Free-evaporation and effusion techniques,” in The Characterization of High-Temperature Vapors, J. L. Margrave, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1967), Chap. 6.

Mohan, S.

K. N. Rao, S. Mohan, “Optical properties of electron-beam evaporated TiO2 films deposited in an ionized oxygen medium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 3260–3264 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, Barbara H.

E. David Cater, Barbara H. Mueller, James A. Fries, “Congruent vaporization and thermodynamics in the praseodymium-sulfur system,” Natl. Bur. Stand. Spec. Publ. 561, 237–242 (1979).

Paesold, G.

Paule, R. C.

R. C. Paule, J. L. Margrave, “Free-evaporation and effusion techniques,” in The Characterization of High-Temperature Vapors, J. L. Margrave, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1967), Chap. 6.

Petrova, I. I.

E. B. Brik, I. I. Petrova, “Determination of the various forms of adsorbed water in porous titanium oxide films,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 59, 54–57 (1992).

Prophet, H.

M. W. Chase, J. L. Curnutt, A. T. Hu, H. Prophet, A. N. Syverud, L. C. Walker, ed., “JANAF thermochemical tables,” Suppl. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 311–480 (1974); M. W. Chase, J. L. Curnutt, H. Prophet, R. A. McDonald, A. N. Syverud, ed., “JANAF Thermochemical Tables,” Suppl. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 4, 1–175 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pulker, H. K.

Rao, K. N.

K. N. Rao, S. Mohan, “Optical properties of electron-beam evaporated TiO2 films deposited in an ionized oxygen medium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 3260–3264 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, E.

Sheldon, R. I.

R. I. Sheldon, P. W. Gilles, “The high temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. XI. Stoichiometric titanium monoxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 66, 3705–3711 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Smoes, S.

J. Drowart, P. Coppens, S. Smoes, “Dissociation energy of the molecule TiO(g) and the thermodynamics of the system Titanium–Oxygen,” J. Chem. Phys. 50, 1046–1048 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Stone, G. D.

P. W. Gilles, H. F. Franzen, G. D. Stone, P. G. Wahlbeck, “High-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. III. Vaporization characteristics of the liquid phase,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 1938–1941 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Syverud, A. N.

M. W. Chase, J. L. Curnutt, A. T. Hu, H. Prophet, A. N. Syverud, L. C. Walker, ed., “JANAF thermochemical tables,” Suppl. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 311–480 (1974); M. W. Chase, J. L. Curnutt, H. Prophet, R. A. McDonald, A. N. Syverud, ed., “JANAF Thermochemical Tables,” Suppl. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 4, 1–175 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Trapnell, B. M. W.

D. O. Hayward, B. M. W. Trapnell, Chemisorption (Butterworths, London, 1964), Chap. 3.

Wahlbeck, P. G.

P. W. Gilles, H. F. Franzen, G. D. Stone, P. G. Wahlbeck, “High-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. III. Vaporization characteristics of the liquid phase,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 1938–1941 (1968).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Gilles, K. D. Carlson, H. F. Franzen, P. G. Wahlbeck, “High-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. I. Vaporization characteristics of the crystalline phases,” J. Chem. Phys. 46, 2461–2465 (1967).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Wahlbeck, P. W. Gilles, “Dissociation energy of TiO(g) and the high-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. II. Trititanium pentoxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 46, 2465–2473 (1967).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Wahlbeck, P. W. Gilles, “Reinvestigation of the phase diagram for the system titanium–oxygen,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 49, 180–183 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Walker, L. C.

M. W. Chase, J. L. Curnutt, A. T. Hu, H. Prophet, A. N. Syverud, L. C. Walker, ed., “JANAF thermochemical tables,” Suppl. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 311–480 (1974); M. W. Chase, J. L. Curnutt, H. Prophet, R. A. McDonald, A. N. Syverud, ed., “JANAF Thermochemical Tables,” Suppl. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 4, 1–175 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

High Temp. Sci. (1)

S. Banon, C. Chatillon, M. Allibert, “Investigation of the evaporation thermodynamics and stationary states (so-called congruent states) in the study of oxides and their mixtures by the effusion method application to Al2O3, CaO, and the mixtures Al2O3–CaO and Ti2O3–TiO2,” High Temp. Sci. 15, 129–149 (1982).

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

P. G. Wahlbeck, P. W. Gilles, “Reinvestigation of the phase diagram for the system titanium–oxygen,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 49, 180–183 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (6)

R. I. Sheldon, P. W. Gilles, “The high temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. XI. Stoichiometric titanium monoxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 66, 3705–3711 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Drowart, P. Coppens, S. Smoes, “Dissociation energy of the molecule TiO(g) and the thermodynamics of the system Titanium–Oxygen,” J. Chem. Phys. 50, 1046–1048 (1969).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Hampson, P. W. Gilles, “High-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. VII. Mass spectrometry and dissociation energies of TiO(g) and TiO2(g),” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 3712–3729 (1971).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Gilles, K. D. Carlson, H. F. Franzen, P. G. Wahlbeck, “High-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. I. Vaporization characteristics of the crystalline phases,” J. Chem. Phys. 46, 2461–2465 (1967).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Wahlbeck, P. W. Gilles, “Dissociation energy of TiO(g) and the high-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. II. Trititanium pentoxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 46, 2465–2473 (1967).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Gilles, H. F. Franzen, G. D. Stone, P. G. Wahlbeck, “High-temperature vaporization and thermodynamics of the titanium oxides. III. Vaporization characteristics of the liquid phase,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 1938–1941 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

C. T. Foxon, J. A. Harvey, B. A. Joyce, “The evaporation of GaAs under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions using a modulated beam technique,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 34, 1693–1701 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (2)

E. Ritter, “Deposition of oxide films by reactive evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 225–226 (1966).
[CrossRef]

W. Grossklaus, R. F. Bunshah, “Synthesis of various oxides in the Ti–O system by reactive evaporation and activated reactive evaporation techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 593–597 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

K. N. Rao, S. Mohan, “Optical properties of electron-beam evaporated TiO2 films deposited in an ionized oxygen medium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 3260–3264 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Natl. Bur. Stand. Spec. Publ. (1)

E. David Cater, Barbara H. Mueller, James A. Fries, “Congruent vaporization and thermodynamics in the praseodymium-sulfur system,” Natl. Bur. Stand. Spec. Publ. 561, 237–242 (1979).

Sov. J. Opt. Technol. (1)

E. B. Brik, I. I. Petrova, “Determination of the various forms of adsorbed water in porous titanium oxide films,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 59, 54–57 (1992).

Suppl. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

M. W. Chase, J. L. Curnutt, A. T. Hu, H. Prophet, A. N. Syverud, L. C. Walker, ed., “JANAF thermochemical tables,” Suppl. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 311–480 (1974); M. W. Chase, J. L. Curnutt, H. Prophet, R. A. McDonald, A. N. Syverud, ed., “JANAF Thermochemical Tables,” Suppl. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 4, 1–175 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

H. Kuster, J. Ebert, “Activated reactive evaporation of TiO2 layers and their absorption indices,” Thin Solid Films 70, 43–47 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

D. O. Hayward, B. M. W. Trapnell, Chemisorption (Butterworths, London, 1964), Chap. 3.

R. C. Paule, J. L. Margrave, “Free-evaporation and effusion techniques,” in The Characterization of High-Temperature Vapors, J. L. Margrave, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1967), Chap. 6.

P. W. Gilles, “Vaporization processes,” in The Characterization of High-Temperature Vapors, J. L. Margrave, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1967), Chap. 2.

H. K. Pulker, in Coatings on Glass, (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984), Chap. 6.

J. P. Lehan, “Microstructural investigations of optical coatings by backscattering spectrometry, electron diffraction, and spectrophotometry,” Ph. D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, 1990), Chap. 6.

“Start of operation,” in QSR-BPU, the measuring and control concept for coating processes, BAK 760 Operating Instructions (Balzers, Hudson, N.H., 1982), Sect. 2.6.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Startup power of Balzers’ electron gun versus time.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission curves of deposition series 941.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission curves of deposition series 942.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission curves of deposition series 943.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission curves of deposition series 944.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission curves of deposition series 945.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Oxygen/Titanium Ratio and Processing Parameters of Deposition series 941, 942, 943, and 944

Equations (3)

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A x B y s AB g + A x - 1 B y - 1 g ,
A x B y s AB s + A x - 1 B y - 1 g ,
Ti 3 O 5 s TiO g + 2 TiO 2 g .

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