Abstract

We demonstrate difference-frequency generation in the 6.8–12.5-μm range by mixing two high-power single-frequency laser diodes in a type II AgGaS2 crystal. This compact all-solid-state scheme provides maximum output powers that exceed 1 μW and permits continuous adjustment-free scans larger than 2 cm-1 across the entire tuning range.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Canarelli, Z. Benko, R. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Continuous-wave infrared laser spectrometer based on difference frequency generation in AgGaS2 for high-resolution spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 197–202 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. H. Hielscher, C. E. Miller, D. C. Bayard, U. Simon, K. P. Smolka, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Optimization of a midinfrared high-resolution difference-frequency laser spectrometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1962–1967 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. U. Simon, C. E. Miller, C. C. Bradley, R. G. Hulet, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Difference-frequency generation in AgGaS2 by use of single-mode diode-laser pump sources,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1062–1064 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. U. Simon, F. K. Tittel, L. Goldberg, “Difference-frequency mixing in AgGaS2 by use of a high-power GaAlAs tapered semiconductor amplifier at 860 nm,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1931–1933 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. U. Simon, S. Waltman, I. Loa, F. K. Tittel, L. Hollberg, “External-cavity difference-frequency source near 3.2 μm based on combining a tunable diode laser with a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser in AgGaS2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 323–327 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Sumpf, T. Keltz, M. Nägele, H.-D. Kronfeldt, “A cw AgGaS2 difference frequency spectrometer with diode lasers as pump sources,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 521–524 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Schade, T. Blanke, U. Willer, C. Rempel, “Compact tunable mid-infrared laser source by difference frequency generation of two diode-lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 99–102 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. M. Giltner, A. Balakrishnan, S. Sanders, D. G. Mehuys, R. J. Lang, D. F. Welch, T. B. Sauke, J. F. Becker, “Single-frequency, continuously tunable laser diode based source of 4.3 μm radiation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CFB5, p. 466.
  9. K. Kato, “High-power difference-frequency generation at 5–11 μm in AgGaS2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 698–699 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Harasaki, K. Kato, “New data on the nonlinear optical constant, phase-matching, and optical damage of AgGaS2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 700–703 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interactions of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. C. Eckhoff, R. S. Putnam, S. Wang, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “A continuously tunable long-wavelength cw IR source for high-resolution spectroscopy and trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 437–441 (1996).

1997 (2)

B. Sumpf, T. Keltz, M. Nägele, H.-D. Kronfeldt, “A cw AgGaS2 difference frequency spectrometer with diode lasers as pump sources,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 521–524 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Harasaki, K. Kato, “New data on the nonlinear optical constant, phase-matching, and optical damage of AgGaS2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 700–703 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

W. Schade, T. Blanke, U. Willer, C. Rempel, “Compact tunable mid-infrared laser source by difference frequency generation of two diode-lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 99–102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Eckhoff, R. S. Putnam, S. Wang, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “A continuously tunable long-wavelength cw IR source for high-resolution spectroscopy and trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 437–441 (1996).

1995 (1)

1993 (2)

1992 (2)

1984 (1)

K. Kato, “High-power difference-frequency generation at 5–11 μm in AgGaS2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 698–699 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interactions of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnan, A.

D. M. Giltner, A. Balakrishnan, S. Sanders, D. G. Mehuys, R. J. Lang, D. F. Welch, T. B. Sauke, J. F. Becker, “Single-frequency, continuously tunable laser diode based source of 4.3 μm radiation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CFB5, p. 466.

Bayard, D. C.

Becker, J. F.

D. M. Giltner, A. Balakrishnan, S. Sanders, D. G. Mehuys, R. J. Lang, D. F. Welch, T. B. Sauke, J. F. Becker, “Single-frequency, continuously tunable laser diode based source of 4.3 μm radiation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CFB5, p. 466.

Benko, Z.

Blanke, T.

W. Schade, T. Blanke, U. Willer, C. Rempel, “Compact tunable mid-infrared laser source by difference frequency generation of two diode-lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 99–102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interactions of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, C. C.

Canarelli, P.

Curl, R.

Curl, R. F.

Eckhoff, W. C.

W. C. Eckhoff, R. S. Putnam, S. Wang, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “A continuously tunable long-wavelength cw IR source for high-resolution spectroscopy and trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 437–441 (1996).

Giltner, D. M.

D. M. Giltner, A. Balakrishnan, S. Sanders, D. G. Mehuys, R. J. Lang, D. F. Welch, T. B. Sauke, J. F. Becker, “Single-frequency, continuously tunable laser diode based source of 4.3 μm radiation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CFB5, p. 466.

Goldberg, L.

Harasaki, A.

A. Harasaki, K. Kato, “New data on the nonlinear optical constant, phase-matching, and optical damage of AgGaS2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 700–703 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hielscher, A. H.

Hollberg, L.

Hulet, R. G.

Kato, K.

A. Harasaki, K. Kato, “New data on the nonlinear optical constant, phase-matching, and optical damage of AgGaS2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 700–703 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Kato, “High-power difference-frequency generation at 5–11 μm in AgGaS2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 698–699 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Keltz, T.

B. Sumpf, T. Keltz, M. Nägele, H.-D. Kronfeldt, “A cw AgGaS2 difference frequency spectrometer with diode lasers as pump sources,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 521–524 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kleinman, D. A.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interactions of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kronfeldt, H.-D.

B. Sumpf, T. Keltz, M. Nägele, H.-D. Kronfeldt, “A cw AgGaS2 difference frequency spectrometer with diode lasers as pump sources,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 521–524 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lang, R. J.

D. M. Giltner, A. Balakrishnan, S. Sanders, D. G. Mehuys, R. J. Lang, D. F. Welch, T. B. Sauke, J. F. Becker, “Single-frequency, continuously tunable laser diode based source of 4.3 μm radiation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CFB5, p. 466.

Loa, I.

Mehuys, D. G.

D. M. Giltner, A. Balakrishnan, S. Sanders, D. G. Mehuys, R. J. Lang, D. F. Welch, T. B. Sauke, J. F. Becker, “Single-frequency, continuously tunable laser diode based source of 4.3 μm radiation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CFB5, p. 466.

Miller, C. E.

Nägele, M.

B. Sumpf, T. Keltz, M. Nägele, H.-D. Kronfeldt, “A cw AgGaS2 difference frequency spectrometer with diode lasers as pump sources,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 521–524 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, R. S.

W. C. Eckhoff, R. S. Putnam, S. Wang, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “A continuously tunable long-wavelength cw IR source for high-resolution spectroscopy and trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 437–441 (1996).

Rempel, C.

W. Schade, T. Blanke, U. Willer, C. Rempel, “Compact tunable mid-infrared laser source by difference frequency generation of two diode-lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 99–102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, S.

D. M. Giltner, A. Balakrishnan, S. Sanders, D. G. Mehuys, R. J. Lang, D. F. Welch, T. B. Sauke, J. F. Becker, “Single-frequency, continuously tunable laser diode based source of 4.3 μm radiation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CFB5, p. 466.

Sauke, T. B.

D. M. Giltner, A. Balakrishnan, S. Sanders, D. G. Mehuys, R. J. Lang, D. F. Welch, T. B. Sauke, J. F. Becker, “Single-frequency, continuously tunable laser diode based source of 4.3 μm radiation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CFB5, p. 466.

Schade, W.

W. Schade, T. Blanke, U. Willer, C. Rempel, “Compact tunable mid-infrared laser source by difference frequency generation of two diode-lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 99–102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Simon, U.

Smolka, K. P.

Sumpf, B.

B. Sumpf, T. Keltz, M. Nägele, H.-D. Kronfeldt, “A cw AgGaS2 difference frequency spectrometer with diode lasers as pump sources,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 521–524 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

Waltman, S.

Wang, S.

W. C. Eckhoff, R. S. Putnam, S. Wang, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “A continuously tunable long-wavelength cw IR source for high-resolution spectroscopy and trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 437–441 (1996).

Welch, D. F.

D. M. Giltner, A. Balakrishnan, S. Sanders, D. G. Mehuys, R. J. Lang, D. F. Welch, T. B. Sauke, J. F. Becker, “Single-frequency, continuously tunable laser diode based source of 4.3 μm radiation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CFB5, p. 466.

Willer, U.

W. Schade, T. Blanke, U. Willer, C. Rempel, “Compact tunable mid-infrared laser source by difference frequency generation of two diode-lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 99–102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

B. Sumpf, T. Keltz, M. Nägele, H.-D. Kronfeldt, “A cw AgGaS2 difference frequency spectrometer with diode lasers as pump sources,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 521–524 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Schade, T. Blanke, U. Willer, C. Rempel, “Compact tunable mid-infrared laser source by difference frequency generation of two diode-lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 99–102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Eckhoff, R. S. Putnam, S. Wang, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “A continuously tunable long-wavelength cw IR source for high-resolution spectroscopy and trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 437–441 (1996).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Kato, “High-power difference-frequency generation at 5–11 μm in AgGaS2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 698–699 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interactions of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Harasaki, K. Kato, “New data on the nonlinear optical constant, phase-matching, and optical damage of AgGaS2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 700–703 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

D. M. Giltner, A. Balakrishnan, S. Sanders, D. G. Mehuys, R. J. Lang, D. F. Welch, T. B. Sauke, J. F. Becker, “Single-frequency, continuously tunable laser diode based source of 4.3 μm radiation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CFB5, p. 466.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: I1, I2, optical isolators; PR, polarization rotation in an off-plane 90° bending scheme; DM, dichroic mirror; L1, L2, lenses; F1, F2, Ge long-wave pass filters. The first filter serves to protect the second one, which is positioned just in front of the detector and not far from the focus of L2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Critical angle tuning in AgGaS2 for type II eoe phase matching, (b) MIR wavelength tunability of the DFG scheme, (c) spectral acceptance of the DFG scheme for 1-cm crystal length. Pump wavelength, 766 nm (dashed curves), 776 nm (solid curves), and 786 nm (dotted curves). In (c) the pump wavelength has been fixed and the signal wavelength is considered as variable that induces the phase mismatch.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimentally measured tunability of the DFG scheme and (b) output power at the idler wavelength (P I ) normalized by the pump (P P ) and the signal (P S ) powers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase-matching bandwidth of the DFG mixing process at a fixed signal wavelength of 855 nm.

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