Abstract

A diode-pumped Tm:Ca2Al2SiO7 (Tm:CAS) laser has been demonstrated for the first time to the authors’ knowledge. A 39-mW output power and an 8.6% slope efficiency were obtained at -11 °C. The most attractive features of Tm:CAS are a broad absorption band near 785 nm and a large ground-state splitting. The improvement in laser performance expected from the large Stark splitting is shown to be limited by the enhancement of multiphonon relaxation processes and by the low thermal conductivity of the crystal.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4–15 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, M. G. Jani, S. R. Harrell, “Diode-pumped Ho,Tm:YLF laser pumping an AgGaSe2 parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2422–2426 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. C. Stoneman, L. Esterowitz, “Efficient, broadly tunable, laser-pumped Tm:YAG and Tm:YSGG cw lasers,” Opt. Lett. 15, 486–488 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. T. McGuckin, R. T. Menzies, “Efficient cw diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser with tunability near 2.067 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1025–1028 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–932 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Britos, A.-M. Lejus, B. Viana, D. Vivien, “Crystal growth and spectroscopy of Tm3+ doped Ca2Al2SiO7,” Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 32, 415–428 (1995).
  7. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. P. Risk, “Modeling of longitudinally pumped solid-state lasers exhibiting reabsorption losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1412–1423 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946-nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 605–612 (1987).
  10. M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. A. Riseberg, H. W. Moos, “Multiphonon orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare-earth ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev. 174, 429–438 (1968).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

N. Britos, A.-M. Lejus, B. Viana, D. Vivien, “Crystal growth and spectroscopy of Tm3+ doped Ca2Al2SiO7,” Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 32, 415–428 (1995).

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. T. McGuckin, R. T. Menzies, “Efficient cw diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser with tunability near 2.067 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1025–1028 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Stoneman, L. Esterowitz, “Efficient, broadly tunable, laser-pumped Tm:YAG and Tm:YSGG cw lasers,” Opt. Lett. 15, 486–488 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

W. P. Risk, “Modeling of longitudinally pumped solid-state lasers exhibiting reabsorption losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1412–1423 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–932 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946-nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 605–612 (1987).

1968 (1)

L. A. Riseberg, H. W. Moos, “Multiphonon orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare-earth ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev. 174, 429–438 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

Britos, N.

N. Britos, A.-M. Lejus, B. Viana, D. Vivien, “Crystal growth and spectroscopy of Tm3+ doped Ca2Al2SiO7,” Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 32, 415–428 (1995).

Bruns, D. L.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–932 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946-nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 605–612 (1987).

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Esterowitz, L.

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–932 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946-nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 605–612 (1987).

Fields, R. A.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fincher, C. L.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hale, C. P.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hannon, S. M.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Harrell, S. R.

Henderson, S. W.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–932 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Innocenzi, M. E.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jani, M. G.

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lejus, A.-M.

N. Britos, A.-M. Lejus, B. Viana, D. Vivien, “Crystal growth and spectroscopy of Tm3+ doped Ca2Al2SiO7,” Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 32, 415–428 (1995).

Magee, J. R.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McGuckin, B. T.

B. T. McGuckin, R. T. Menzies, “Efficient cw diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser with tunability near 2.067 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1025–1028 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Menzies, R. T.

B. T. McGuckin, R. T. Menzies, “Efficient cw diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser with tunability near 2.067 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1025–1028 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mitzscherlich, P.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–932 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Moos, H. W.

L. A. Riseberg, H. W. Moos, “Multiphonon orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare-earth ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev. 174, 429–438 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Murray, K. E.

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Riseberg, L. A.

L. A. Riseberg, H. W. Moos, “Multiphonon orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare-earth ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev. 174, 429–438 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Risk, W. P.

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stoneman, R. C.

Suni, P. J.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Viana, B.

N. Britos, A.-M. Lejus, B. Viana, D. Vivien, “Crystal growth and spectroscopy of Tm3+ doped Ca2Al2SiO7,” Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 32, 415–428 (1995).

Vivien, D.

N. Britos, A.-M. Lejus, B. Viana, D. Vivien, “Crystal growth and spectroscopy of Tm3+ doped Ca2Al2SiO7,” Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 32, 415–428 (1995).

Yuen, E. H.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yura, H. T.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. (1)

N. Britos, A.-M. Lejus, B. Viana, D. Vivien, “Crystal growth and spectroscopy of Tm3+ doped Ca2Al2SiO7,” Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 32, 415–428 (1995).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. T. McGuckin, R. T. Menzies, “Efficient cw diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser with tunability near 2.067 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1025–1028 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–932 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946-nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 605–612 (1987).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

L. A. Riseberg, H. W. Moos, “Multiphonon orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare-earth ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev. 174, 429–438 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Room-temperature transmission spectra of the 3.6-mm 10% Tm:CAS crystal for π and σ polarizations. The thickness of the 5.9% Tm:YAG is 4 mm. The absorption cross sections at 788.4 nm are 0.44 × 10-20 cm2 for σ polarization and 0.21 × 10-20 cm2 for π polarization (0.6 × 10-20 cm2 for Tm:YAG).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup: ROC, radius of curvature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Tm:CAS output power as a function of incident absorbed pump power for 6.5% output coupling.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Tm:CAS output power variation with heat-sink temperature (for a 20% duty cycle) and with pumping duty cycle (for a -11 °C temperature) at the highest pump power for 6.5% output coupling.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Laser threshold as a function of the transmission coefficient of the output coupler.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Tm:CAS output spectrum for two heat-sink temperatures, -11 and +25 °C.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spectroscopic parameters of Tm:CAS, Tm:YAG, and Tm:YLF

Equations (5)

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T r ,   z = T r b ,   z + α P h exp - α z 4 π K c ln r b 2 r 2 + E 1 2 r b 2 ω p 2 - E 1 2 r 2 ω p 2 ,
W NR T = 0 = B   exp - α Δ E .
W NR T = W NR 0 1 - exp - ω kT - p .
P h = P abs 1 - λ p λ l   η   τ τ rad .
β = 1 + Z u Z l exp Δ E kT - 1 ,

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