Abstract

An extension to the 355- and 1064-nm wavelengths of a numerical optical model originally developed at 532 nm is presented. The resulting parameterization allows estimates of stratospheric aerosol surface area, volume, and extinction-to-backscatter ratio from lidar measurements obtained at one of the two Nd:YAG laser wavelengths. Functional relationships that link single-wavelength backscatter to each of the physical variables are provided for sulfate aerosol types ranging from background to heavy volcanic under environmental conditions representative of the global lower stratosphere. The behavior of the functional relationships at the three Nd:YAG wavelengths is compared. Relative errors of model estimates range between 10% and 50%, depending on wavelength and backscatter cross sections. These values are comparable with the ones that characterize in situ particle counters. The inference of particle effective radius and the application of the method to the interpretation of supercooled polar stratospheric cloud observations are discussed.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Hansen, M. Sato, A. Lacis, R. Ruedy, “The missing climate forcing,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London B 352, 231–240 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, “Stratospheric aerosol: observation and theory,” Rev. Geophys. 20, 233–279 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. M. Middlebrook, L. T. Iraci, L. S. McNeill, B. G. Koehler, O. W. Saastad, M. A. Tolbert, D. R. Hanson, “FTIR studies of thin film H2SO4/H2O films: formation, water uptake, and solid–liquid phase changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20,473–20,481 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Koop, K. S. Carslaw, “Melting of H2SO4-H2O particles upon cooling: implications for polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 272, 1638–1641 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, “Effects of temperature and humidity on the growth and optical properties of sulfuric acid–water droplets in the stratosphere,” J. Aerosol Sci. 12, 517–528 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. K. Yue, L. R. Poole, P. H. Wang, E. W. Chiou, “Stratospheric aerosol acidity, density and refractive index deduced from SAGE II and NMC temperature data,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3727–3738 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. P. Gobbi, “Lidar estimation of stratospheric aerosol properties: surface, volume and extinction to backscatter ratio,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11219–11235 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar measurement of particle and gases by elastic backscattering and differential absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976), pp. 71–145.
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, “Airborne lidar observations of the Pinatubo volcanic plume,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 167–170 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Adriani, “Early stratospheric effects of the Pinatubo eruption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 997–1000 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. P. Gobbi, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, “Physical properties of stratospheric clouds during the Antarctic winter of 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).
    [PubMed]
  16. P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingson, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversion,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofmann, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements. III. Optical model calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304–313 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “Stratospheric sulfuric acid fraction and mass estimate for the 1982 volcanic eruption of El Chichon,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 313–316 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, P. B. Russell, R. F. Pueschel, V. R. Oberbeck, “Effects of the El Chichon on stratospheric aerosol, late 1982 to early 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 761–771 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Jäger, D. J. Hofmann, “Midlatitude lidar backscatter to mass, area, and extinction conversion model based on in situ aerosol measurements from 1980 to 1987,” Appl. Opt. 30, 127–138 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. L. R. Poole, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. 23681 (personal communication, 1998).
  23. D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, J. W. Harder, J. V. Hereford, “Balloon-borne measurements of aerosol, condensation nuclei, and cloud particles in the stratosphere at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, during the spring of 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11253–11269 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “One-year observations of Mount-Pinatubo aerosol with an advanced raman lidar over Germany at 53.5N,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 711–714 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1997

J. Hansen, M. Sato, A. Lacis, R. Ruedy, “The missing climate forcing,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London B 352, 231–240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

T. Koop, K. S. Carslaw, “Melting of H2SO4-H2O particles upon cooling: implications for polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 272, 1638–1641 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

G. P. Gobbi, “Lidar estimation of stratospheric aerosol properties: surface, volume and extinction to backscatter ratio,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11219–11235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

G. K. Yue, L. R. Poole, P. H. Wang, E. W. Chiou, “Stratospheric aerosol acidity, density and refractive index deduced from SAGE II and NMC temperature data,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3727–3738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. M. Middlebrook, L. T. Iraci, L. S. McNeill, B. G. Koehler, O. W. Saastad, M. A. Tolbert, D. R. Hanson, “FTIR studies of thin film H2SO4/H2O films: formation, water uptake, and solid–liquid phase changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20,473–20,481 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Molina, R. Zhang, P. J. Wooldridge, J. R. McMahon, J. E. Kim, H. Y. Chang, K. D. Beyer, “Physical chemistry of the H2SO4/HNO3/H2O system: implications for polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 261, 1418–1423 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “One-year observations of Mount-Pinatubo aerosol with an advanced raman lidar over Germany at 53.5N,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 711–714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, “Airborne lidar observations of the Pinatubo volcanic plume,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 167–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Adriani, “Early stratospheric effects of the Pinatubo eruption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 997–1000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1989

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, J. W. Harder, J. V. Hereford, “Balloon-borne measurements of aerosol, condensation nuclei, and cloud particles in the stratosphere at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, during the spring of 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11253–11269 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Michelangeli, M. Allen, Y. L. Yung, “El Chichon volcanic aerosol: impact of radiative, thermal, and chemical perturbations,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18,429–18,443 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, P. B. Russell, R. F. Pueschel, V. R. Oberbeck, “Effects of the El Chichon on stratospheric aerosol, late 1982 to early 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 761–771 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “Stratospheric sulfuric acid fraction and mass estimate for the 1982 volcanic eruption of El Chichon,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 313–316 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, “Stratospheric aerosol: observation and theory,” Rev. Geophys. 20, 233–279 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, “Effects of temperature and humidity on the growth and optical properties of sulfuric acid–water droplets in the stratosphere,” J. Aerosol Sci. 12, 517–528 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingson, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversion,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofmann, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements. III. Optical model calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304–313 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Adriani, A.

G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Adriani, “Early stratospheric effects of the Pinatubo eruption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 997–1000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Gobbi, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, “Physical properties of stratospheric clouds during the Antarctic winter of 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Allen, M.

D. V. Michelangeli, M. Allen, Y. L. Yung, “El Chichon volcanic aerosol: impact of radiative, thermal, and chemical perturbations,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18,429–18,443 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “One-year observations of Mount-Pinatubo aerosol with an advanced raman lidar over Germany at 53.5N,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 711–714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bauman, J. J.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bergstrom, R. W.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Beyer, K. D.

M. J. Molina, R. Zhang, P. J. Wooldridge, J. R. McMahon, J. E. Kim, H. Y. Chang, K. D. Beyer, “Physical chemistry of the H2SO4/HNO3/H2O system: implications for polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 261, 1418–1423 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brooks, S. L.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carslaw, K. S.

T. Koop, K. S. Carslaw, “Melting of H2SO4-H2O particles upon cooling: implications for polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 272, 1638–1641 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, H. Y.

M. J. Molina, R. Zhang, P. J. Wooldridge, J. R. McMahon, J. E. Kim, H. Y. Chang, K. D. Beyer, “Physical chemistry of the H2SO4/HNO3/H2O system: implications for polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 261, 1418–1423 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiou, E. W.

G. K. Yue, L. R. Poole, P. H. Wang, E. W. Chiou, “Stratospheric aerosol acidity, density and refractive index deduced from SAGE II and NMC temperature data,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3727–3738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W. P.

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingson, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversion,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Collis, R. T. H.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar measurement of particle and gases by elastic backscattering and differential absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976), pp. 71–145.
[CrossRef]

Congeduti, F.

G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Adriani, “Early stratospheric effects of the Pinatubo eruption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 997–1000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Deshler, T.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Di Donfrancesco, G.

G. P. Gobbi, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, “Physical properties of stratospheric clouds during the Antarctic winter of 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Dutton, E. G.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, G. V.

K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, P. B. Russell, R. F. Pueschel, V. R. Oberbeck, “Effects of the El Chichon on stratospheric aerosol, late 1982 to early 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 761–771 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gobbi, G. P.

G. P. Gobbi, “Lidar estimation of stratospheric aerosol properties: surface, volume and extinction to backscatter ratio,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11219–11235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Adriani, “Early stratospheric effects of the Pinatubo eruption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 997–1000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Gobbi, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, “Physical properties of stratospheric clouds during the Antarctic winter of 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Hamill, P.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, “Effects of temperature and humidity on the growth and optical properties of sulfuric acid–water droplets in the stratosphere,” J. Aerosol Sci. 12, 517–528 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, A. Lacis, R. Ruedy, “The missing climate forcing,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London B 352, 231–240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, D. R.

A. M. Middlebrook, L. T. Iraci, L. S. McNeill, B. G. Koehler, O. W. Saastad, M. A. Tolbert, D. R. Hanson, “FTIR studies of thin film H2SO4/H2O films: formation, water uptake, and solid–liquid phase changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20,473–20,481 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Harder, J. W.

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, J. W. Harder, J. V. Hereford, “Balloon-borne measurements of aerosol, condensation nuclei, and cloud particles in the stratosphere at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, during the spring of 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11253–11269 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hereford, J. V.

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, J. W. Harder, J. V. Hereford, “Balloon-borne measurements of aerosol, condensation nuclei, and cloud particles in the stratosphere at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, during the spring of 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11253–11269 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

H. Jäger, D. J. Hofmann, “Midlatitude lidar backscatter to mass, area, and extinction conversion model based on in situ aerosol measurements from 1980 to 1987,” Appl. Opt. 30, 127–138 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, J. W. Harder, J. V. Hereford, “Balloon-borne measurements of aerosol, condensation nuclei, and cloud particles in the stratosphere at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, during the spring of 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11253–11269 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “Stratospheric sulfuric acid fraction and mass estimate for the 1982 volcanic eruption of El Chichon,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 313–316 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofmann, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements. III. Optical model calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304–313 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Iraci, L. T.

A. M. Middlebrook, L. T. Iraci, L. S. McNeill, B. G. Koehler, O. W. Saastad, M. A. Tolbert, D. R. Hanson, “FTIR studies of thin film H2SO4/H2O films: formation, water uptake, and solid–liquid phase changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20,473–20,481 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jäger, H.

Johnson, B. J.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. E.

M. J. Molina, R. Zhang, P. J. Wooldridge, J. R. McMahon, J. E. Kim, H. Y. Chang, K. D. Beyer, “Physical chemistry of the H2SO4/HNO3/H2O system: implications for polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 261, 1418–1423 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koehler, B. G.

A. M. Middlebrook, L. T. Iraci, L. S. McNeill, B. G. Koehler, O. W. Saastad, M. A. Tolbert, D. R. Hanson, “FTIR studies of thin film H2SO4/H2O films: formation, water uptake, and solid–liquid phase changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20,473–20,481 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koop, T.

T. Koop, K. S. Carslaw, “Melting of H2SO4-H2O particles upon cooling: implications for polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 272, 1638–1641 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacis, A.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, A. Lacis, R. Ruedy, “The missing climate forcing,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London B 352, 231–240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Livingson, J. M.

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingson, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversion,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, J. M.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingson, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversion,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

McMahon, J. R.

M. J. Molina, R. Zhang, P. J. Wooldridge, J. R. McMahon, J. E. Kim, H. Y. Chang, K. D. Beyer, “Physical chemistry of the H2SO4/HNO3/H2O system: implications for polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 261, 1418–1423 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNeill, L. S.

A. M. Middlebrook, L. T. Iraci, L. S. McNeill, B. G. Koehler, O. W. Saastad, M. A. Tolbert, D. R. Hanson, “FTIR studies of thin film H2SO4/H2O films: formation, water uptake, and solid–liquid phase changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20,473–20,481 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Michelangeli, D. V.

D. V. Michelangeli, M. Allen, Y. L. Yung, “El Chichon volcanic aerosol: impact of radiative, thermal, and chemical perturbations,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18,429–18,443 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Middlebrook, A. M.

A. M. Middlebrook, L. T. Iraci, L. S. McNeill, B. G. Koehler, O. W. Saastad, M. A. Tolbert, D. R. Hanson, “FTIR studies of thin film H2SO4/H2O films: formation, water uptake, and solid–liquid phase changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20,473–20,481 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Molina, M. J.

M. J. Molina, R. Zhang, P. J. Wooldridge, J. R. McMahon, J. E. Kim, H. Y. Chang, K. D. Beyer, “Physical chemistry of the H2SO4/HNO3/H2O system: implications for polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 261, 1418–1423 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oberbeck, V. R.

K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, P. B. Russell, R. F. Pueschel, V. R. Oberbeck, “Effects of the El Chichon on stratospheric aerosol, late 1982 to early 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 761–771 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Osborn, M. T.

D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, “Airborne lidar observations of the Pinatubo volcanic plume,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 167–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pepin, T. J.

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingson, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversion,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pinnick, R. G.

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofmann, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements. III. Optical model calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304–313 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, J. B.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poole, L. R.

G. K. Yue, L. R. Poole, P. H. Wang, E. W. Chiou, “Stratospheric aerosol acidity, density and refractive index deduced from SAGE II and NMC temperature data,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3727–3738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Poole, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. 23681 (personal communication, 1998).

Pueschel, R. F.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, P. B. Russell, R. F. Pueschel, V. R. Oberbeck, “Effects of the El Chichon on stratospheric aerosol, late 1982 to early 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 761–771 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, J. M.

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, J. W. Harder, J. V. Hereford, “Balloon-borne measurements of aerosol, condensation nuclei, and cloud particles in the stratosphere at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, during the spring of 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11253–11269 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “Stratospheric sulfuric acid fraction and mass estimate for the 1982 volcanic eruption of El Chichon,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 313–316 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofmann, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements. III. Optical model calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304–313 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rozier, W. R.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ruedy, R.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, A. Lacis, R. Ruedy, “The missing climate forcing,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London B 352, 231–240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, P. B. Russell, R. F. Pueschel, V. R. Oberbeck, “Effects of the El Chichon on stratospheric aerosol, late 1982 to early 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 761–771 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingson, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversion,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar measurement of particle and gases by elastic backscattering and differential absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976), pp. 71–145.
[CrossRef]

Saastad, O. W.

A. M. Middlebrook, L. T. Iraci, L. S. McNeill, B. G. Koehler, O. W. Saastad, M. A. Tolbert, D. R. Hanson, “FTIR studies of thin film H2SO4/H2O films: formation, water uptake, and solid–liquid phase changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20,473–20,481 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, A. Lacis, R. Ruedy, “The missing climate forcing,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London B 352, 231–240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Snetsinger, K. G.

K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, P. B. Russell, R. F. Pueschel, V. R. Oberbeck, “Effects of the El Chichon on stratospheric aerosol, late 1982 to early 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 761–771 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Steele, H. M.

H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, “Effects of temperature and humidity on the growth and optical properties of sulfuric acid–water droplets in the stratosphere,” J. Aerosol Sci. 12, 517–528 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L. L.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Swissler, T. J.

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingson, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversion,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Thomason, L. W.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tolbert, M. A.

A. M. Middlebrook, L. T. Iraci, L. S. McNeill, B. G. Koehler, O. W. Saastad, M. A. Tolbert, D. R. Hanson, “FTIR studies of thin film H2SO4/H2O films: formation, water uptake, and solid–liquid phase changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20,473–20,481 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, “Stratospheric aerosol: observation and theory,” Rev. Geophys. 20, 233–279 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Turco, R. P.

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, “Stratospheric aerosol: observation and theory,” Rev. Geophys. 20, 233–279 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “One-year observations of Mount-Pinatubo aerosol with an advanced raman lidar over Germany at 53.5N,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 711–714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. H.

G. K. Yue, L. R. Poole, P. H. Wang, E. W. Chiou, “Stratospheric aerosol acidity, density and refractive index deduced from SAGE II and NMC temperature data,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3727–3738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “One-year observations of Mount-Pinatubo aerosol with an advanced raman lidar over Germany at 53.5N,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 711–714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Whitten, R. C.

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, “Stratospheric aerosol: observation and theory,” Rev. Geophys. 20, 233–279 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D. M.

D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, “Airborne lidar observations of the Pinatubo volcanic plume,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 167–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wooldridge, P. J.

M. J. Molina, R. Zhang, P. J. Wooldridge, J. R. McMahon, J. E. Kim, H. Y. Chang, K. D. Beyer, “Physical chemistry of the H2SO4/HNO3/H2O system: implications for polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 261, 1418–1423 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yue, G. K.

G. K. Yue, L. R. Poole, P. H. Wang, E. W. Chiou, “Stratospheric aerosol acidity, density and refractive index deduced from SAGE II and NMC temperature data,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3727–3738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yung, Y. L.

D. V. Michelangeli, M. Allen, Y. L. Yung, “El Chichon volcanic aerosol: impact of radiative, thermal, and chemical perturbations,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18,429–18,443 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

M. J. Molina, R. Zhang, P. J. Wooldridge, J. R. McMahon, J. E. Kim, H. Y. Chang, K. D. Beyer, “Physical chemistry of the H2SO4/HNO3/H2O system: implications for polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 261, 1418–1423 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Geophys. Res. Lett.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “One-year observations of Mount-Pinatubo aerosol with an advanced raman lidar over Germany at 53.5N,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 711–714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “Stratospheric sulfuric acid fraction and mass estimate for the 1982 volcanic eruption of El Chichon,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 313–316 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, “Airborne lidar observations of the Pinatubo volcanic plume,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 167–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Adriani, “Early stratospheric effects of the Pinatubo eruption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 997–1000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol Sci.

H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, “Effects of temperature and humidity on the growth and optical properties of sulfuric acid–water droplets in the stratosphere,” J. Aerosol Sci. 12, 517–528 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofmann, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements. III. Optical model calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304–313 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingson, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversion,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, J. W. Harder, J. V. Hereford, “Balloon-borne measurements of aerosol, condensation nuclei, and cloud particles in the stratosphere at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, during the spring of 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11253–11269 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, P. B. Russell, R. F. Pueschel, V. R. Oberbeck, “Effects of the El Chichon on stratospheric aerosol, late 1982 to early 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 761–771 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Middlebrook, L. T. Iraci, L. S. McNeill, B. G. Koehler, O. W. Saastad, M. A. Tolbert, D. R. Hanson, “FTIR studies of thin film H2SO4/H2O films: formation, water uptake, and solid–liquid phase changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20,473–20,481 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Gobbi, “Lidar estimation of stratospheric aerosol properties: surface, volume and extinction to backscatter ratio,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11219–11235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, L. R. Poole, P. H. Wang, E. W. Chiou, “Stratospheric aerosol acidity, density and refractive index deduced from SAGE II and NMC temperature data,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3727–3738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Michelangeli, M. Allen, Y. L. Yung, “El Chichon volcanic aerosol: impact of radiative, thermal, and chemical perturbations,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18,429–18,443 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London B

J. Hansen, M. Sato, A. Lacis, R. Ruedy, “The missing climate forcing,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London B 352, 231–240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys.

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, “Stratospheric aerosol: observation and theory,” Rev. Geophys. 20, 233–279 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Science

M. J. Molina, R. Zhang, P. J. Wooldridge, J. R. McMahon, J. E. Kim, H. Y. Chang, K. D. Beyer, “Physical chemistry of the H2SO4/HNO3/H2O system: implications for polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 261, 1418–1423 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koop, K. S. Carslaw, “Melting of H2SO4-H2O particles upon cooling: implications for polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 272, 1638–1641 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar measurement of particle and gases by elastic backscattering and differential absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976), pp. 71–145.
[CrossRef]

G. P. Gobbi, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, “Physical properties of stratospheric clouds during the Antarctic winter of 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).
[PubMed]

World Meteorological Organization, “Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion,” WMO Report No. 37 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 1995).

L. R. Poole, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. 23681 (personal communication, 1998).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Average value points of the relationship S a versus β a computed at 355 (open triangles), 532 (crossed circles), and 1064 nm (open squares). Solid curves show the log–log, second-order polynomial fit to the relevant points. Fit parameters are reported in Table 2. (b) Solid curves with symbols show relative errors dS a /S a (dS a = 1σ) of model estimates represented by the fits of (a). Single symbols depict typical observational errors at 355 (filled triangles), 532 (filled circles), and 1064 nm (filled squares), as derived for the NASA Langley three-wavelength lidar.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Average value points of the relationship V a versus β a computed at 355 (open triangles), 532 (crossed circles), and 1064 nm (open squares). Solid curves show the log–log, second-order polinomial fit to the relevant points. Fit parameters are reported in Table 2. (b) Solid curves with symbols show relative errors dV a /V a (dV a = 1σ) of model estimates represented by the fits of (a). Single symbols depict typical observational errors at 355 (filled triangles), 532 (filled circles), and 1064 nm (filled squares), as derived for the NASA Langley three-wavelength lidar.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Average value points of the relationship R eb versus β a computed at 355 (open triangles), 532 (crossed circles), and 1064 nm (open squares). Solid curves show the log–log, second-order polynomial fit to the relevant points. Fit parameters are reported in Table 2. (b) Relative errors dR eb/R eb (dR eb = 1σ) of model estimates represented by the fits of (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Average value points of the relationship r eff versus β a computed at 355 (open triangles), 532 (crossed circles), and 1064 nm (open squares). Solid curves show the log–log, second-order polynomial fit to the relevant points. Fit parameters are reported in Table 2. (b) Relative errors dr eff/r eff (dr eff = 1σ) of model estimates represented by the fits of (a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Curves of the model-derived relationship S a versus β a at the following three wavelengths: 1064 (top curve with error bars), 532 (middle curve), and 355 nm (bottom curve with error bars), plus single points representing two NASA Langley, three-wavelength lidar observations made in January (filled symbols) and December (open symbols) 1992. Observations at 532 nm are not plotted and are employed only to estimate particle surface area and coincide with the 532-nm model curve. Squares and triangles represent the 1064- and 355-nm lidar backscatter observations, respectively. (b) Same as in (a) but for volume estimates.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Boundaries (Min–Max) to the Random Variability of Distribution Parameters Employed in the Simulationsa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Equation (4) Coefficients of Parabolic Fits to the Average Value of the Aerosol Variables (Var),a as a Function of Backscatter Cross Section βa (cm-1 sr-1) at 355, 532, and 1064 nm

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

β a = 0   Q bs r ,   λ ,   m n r π r 2 d r ,
n r = d n d r = N 0 r 2 π ln   σ g exp - ln 2 r / r g 2   ln 2 σ g ,
r eff = 0   n r r π r 2 d r 0   n r π r 2 d r .
Y = a 0 Y + a 1 Y X + a 2 Y X 2 ,
S a = 10 a 0 S   +   a 1 S X   +   a 2 S X 2 .
R eb = 10 a 0 E   +   a 1 E log   β a   +   a 2 E log 2   β a β a ,

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