Abstract

We report the main parameters of a nine-electrode bimorph piezoelectric adaptive mirror designed to correct low-order aberrations. We describe measurements of the control coefficients for defocus, astigmatism, pure coma, and spherical aberration of this mirror and the temperature stability of its profile. The performance of a simple adaptive optical system for imaging through laboratory-generated turbulence is investigated. This low-order device is suitable for small (<1-m-diameter) telescopes and for nonastronomical applications of adaptive optics.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Q. Fugate, B. L. Ellerbroek, C. H. Higgins, M. P. Jelonek, W. J. Lange, A. C. Slavin, W. J. Wild, D. M. Winkler, J. M. Wynia, J. M. Spinhire, B. R. Boeke, B. E. Ruane, J. F. Moroney, M. D. Oliker, D. W. Swindle, R. A. Cleis, “Two generations of laser-guide-star adaptive-optics experiments at the Starfire Optical Range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 310–324 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. A. Ealey, J. A. Wellman, “Xinetics low cost deformable mirrors with actuator replacement cartridges,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc SPIE2201, 680–687 (1994).
  3. C. B. Hogge, R. R. Butts, “Frequency spectra for the geometric representation of wavefront distortions due to atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-24, 144–154 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. V. Kudryashov, V. V. Samarkin, “Control of high-power CO2-laser beam by adaptive optical elements,” Opt. Commun. 118, 317–322 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. J. Noll, “Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 207–211 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. L. Fried, “Optical resolution through a randomly inhomogeneous medium for very long and very short exposures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 56, 1372–1379 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Roddier, “Curvature sensing and compensation: a new concept in adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1223–1225 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. Forbes, F. Roddier, G. Poczulp, C. Pinches, G. Sweeny, R. Dueck, “Segmented bimorph deformable mirror,” J. Phys. E 22, 402–405 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. T. Adelman, “Spherical mirror with piezoelectrically controlled curvature,” Appl. Opt. 16, 3075–3077 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. A. Kokorowsky, “Analysis of adaptive optical elements made from piezoelectric bimorphs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 181–187 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. G. Lipson, E. Steinhaus, “Bimorph piezoelectric flexible mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 478–481 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. A. Vorontsov, A. V. Kudryashov, S. I. Nazarkin, V. I. Shmalgauzen, “Flexible mirror for adaptive light beam formation systems,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 839–841 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Schwartz, E. Ribak, S. G. Lipson, “Bimorph adaptive mirrors and curvature sensing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 895–902 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. W. Hardy, “Active optics: new technique for light beam control,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651–697 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. V. Kudryashov, V. V. Samarkin, “Control of high-power CO2-laser beam by adaptive optical elements,” Opt. Commun. 118, 317–322 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1989 (1)

F. Forbes, F. Roddier, G. Poczulp, C. Pinches, G. Sweeny, R. Dueck, “Segmented bimorph deformable mirror,” J. Phys. E 22, 402–405 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1984 (1)

M. A. Vorontsov, A. V. Kudryashov, S. I. Nazarkin, V. I. Shmalgauzen, “Flexible mirror for adaptive light beam formation systems,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 839–841 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

1978 (1)

J. W. Hardy, “Active optics: new technique for light beam control,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651–697 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1976 (2)

C. B. Hogge, R. R. Butts, “Frequency spectra for the geometric representation of wavefront distortions due to atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-24, 144–154 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Noll, “Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 207–211 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

D. L. Fried, “Optical resolution through a randomly inhomogeneous medium for very long and very short exposures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 56, 1372–1379 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Adelman, N. T.

Boeke, B. R.

Butts, R. R.

C. B. Hogge, R. R. Butts, “Frequency spectra for the geometric representation of wavefront distortions due to atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-24, 144–154 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Cleis, R. A.

Dueck, R.

F. Forbes, F. Roddier, G. Poczulp, C. Pinches, G. Sweeny, R. Dueck, “Segmented bimorph deformable mirror,” J. Phys. E 22, 402–405 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ealey, M. A.

M. A. Ealey, J. A. Wellman, “Xinetics low cost deformable mirrors with actuator replacement cartridges,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc SPIE2201, 680–687 (1994).

Ellerbroek, B. L.

Forbes, F.

F. Forbes, F. Roddier, G. Poczulp, C. Pinches, G. Sweeny, R. Dueck, “Segmented bimorph deformable mirror,” J. Phys. E 22, 402–405 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fried, D. L.

D. L. Fried, “Optical resolution through a randomly inhomogeneous medium for very long and very short exposures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 56, 1372–1379 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Fugate, R. Q.

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, “Active optics: new technique for light beam control,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651–697 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, C. H.

Hogge, C. B.

C. B. Hogge, R. R. Butts, “Frequency spectra for the geometric representation of wavefront distortions due to atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-24, 144–154 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Jelonek, M. P.

Kokorowsky, S. A.

Kudryashov, A. V.

A. V. Kudryashov, V. V. Samarkin, “Control of high-power CO2-laser beam by adaptive optical elements,” Opt. Commun. 118, 317–322 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Vorontsov, A. V. Kudryashov, S. I. Nazarkin, V. I. Shmalgauzen, “Flexible mirror for adaptive light beam formation systems,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 839–841 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lange, W. J.

Lipson, S. G.

Moroney, J. F.

Nazarkin, S. I.

M. A. Vorontsov, A. V. Kudryashov, S. I. Nazarkin, V. I. Shmalgauzen, “Flexible mirror for adaptive light beam formation systems,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 839–841 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Noll, R. J.

Oliker, M. D.

Pinches, C.

F. Forbes, F. Roddier, G. Poczulp, C. Pinches, G. Sweeny, R. Dueck, “Segmented bimorph deformable mirror,” J. Phys. E 22, 402–405 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Poczulp, G.

F. Forbes, F. Roddier, G. Poczulp, C. Pinches, G. Sweeny, R. Dueck, “Segmented bimorph deformable mirror,” J. Phys. E 22, 402–405 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ribak, E.

Roddier, F.

F. Forbes, F. Roddier, G. Poczulp, C. Pinches, G. Sweeny, R. Dueck, “Segmented bimorph deformable mirror,” J. Phys. E 22, 402–405 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. Roddier, “Curvature sensing and compensation: a new concept in adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1223–1225 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruane, B. E.

Samarkin, V. V.

A. V. Kudryashov, V. V. Samarkin, “Control of high-power CO2-laser beam by adaptive optical elements,” Opt. Commun. 118, 317–322 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, C.

Shmalgauzen, V. I.

M. A. Vorontsov, A. V. Kudryashov, S. I. Nazarkin, V. I. Shmalgauzen, “Flexible mirror for adaptive light beam formation systems,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 839–841 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Slavin, A. C.

Spinhire, J. M.

Steinhaus, E.

Sweeny, G.

F. Forbes, F. Roddier, G. Poczulp, C. Pinches, G. Sweeny, R. Dueck, “Segmented bimorph deformable mirror,” J. Phys. E 22, 402–405 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Swindle, D. W.

Vorontsov, M. A.

M. A. Vorontsov, A. V. Kudryashov, S. I. Nazarkin, V. I. Shmalgauzen, “Flexible mirror for adaptive light beam formation systems,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 839–841 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wellman, J. A.

M. A. Ealey, J. A. Wellman, “Xinetics low cost deformable mirrors with actuator replacement cartridges,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc SPIE2201, 680–687 (1994).

Wild, W. J.

Winkler, D. M.

Wynia, J. M.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

C. B. Hogge, R. R. Butts, “Frequency spectra for the geometric representation of wavefront distortions due to atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-24, 144–154 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Phys. E (1)

F. Forbes, F. Roddier, G. Poczulp, C. Pinches, G. Sweeny, R. Dueck, “Segmented bimorph deformable mirror,” J. Phys. E 22, 402–405 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. V. Kudryashov, V. V. Samarkin, “Control of high-power CO2-laser beam by adaptive optical elements,” Opt. Commun. 118, 317–322 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. W. Hardy, “Active optics: new technique for light beam control,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651–697 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. A. Vorontsov, A. V. Kudryashov, S. I. Nazarkin, V. I. Shmalgauzen, “Flexible mirror for adaptive light beam formation systems,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 839–841 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. A. Ealey, J. A. Wellman, “Xinetics low cost deformable mirrors with actuator replacement cartridges,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc SPIE2201, 680–687 (1994).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Nine-element bimorph deformable mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interferometric profiles of the mirror at λ = 0.63 μm: (a) defocus (+30 V to electrode e9), (b) one electrode profile (+60 V to electrode e1), (c) astigmatism, (d) profile for +120 V at odd electrodes and +120 V at even ones.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of aberrations on the voltage on general focus electrode e9.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature dependencies of the lowest-order aberrations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical frequency-response curve.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Low-order adaptive system setup.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Correction of static aberrations; ADC, analog-to-digital converter.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Time behavior of the Strehl intensity: (a) pure turbulence, (b) partially corrected turbulence; ADC, analog-to-digital converter.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Strehl Ratios for Different Values of D/r0 a

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Table 2 Required Profile Deformations Δx (in μm, for 95% Probability of Correction)

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Table 3 Control Voltage Sign on Each Electrode

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Table 4 Main Spatial Parameters of the Mirror

Metrics