Abstract

The electronics, computing hardware, and computing used to provide real-time modal control for a laser guide-star adaptive optics system are presented. This approach offers advantages in the control of unobserved modes, the elimination of unwanted modes (e.g., tip and tilt), and automatic handling of the case of low-resolution lens arrays. In our two-step modal implementation, the input vector of gradients is first decomposed into a Zernike polynomial mode by a least-squares estimate. The number of modes is assumed to be less than or equal to the number of actuators. The mode coefficients are then available for collection and analysis or for the application of modal weights. Thus the modal weights may be changed quickly without recalculating the full matrix. The control-loop integrators are at this point in the algorithm. To calculate the deformable-mirror drive signals, the mode coefficients are converted to the zonal signals by a matrix multiply. When the number of gradients measured is less than the number of actuators, the integration in the control loop will be done on the lower-resolution grid to avoid growth of unobserved modes. These low-resolution data will then be effectively interpolated to yield the deformable-mirror drive signals.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Beckers, “Adaptive optics for astronomy: principles, performance, and applications,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13–62 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Wirth, F. Landers, B. Trvalik, J. Navetta, T. Bruno, “A laser guide star atmospheric compensation system for the 3.5m Calar Alto telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper MA3-1.
  3. R. J. Noll, “Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 207–211 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Y. Wang, D. E. Silva, “Wave-front interpretation with Zernike polynomials,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1510–1518 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Glindemann, M. J. McCaughran, S. Hippler, C. Wagner, R.-R. Rohloff, “CHARM: a tip/tilt tertiary system for the Calar Alto 3.5m telescope,” presented at the OSA summer topical meeting on Adaptive Optics, Maui, 8–12 July 1996.
  6. J. Huang, D. P. Looze, N. Denis, D. Castanon, A. Wirth, “Modeling and identification of adaptive optics systems,” Int. J. Control (to be published).
  7. G. F. Franklin, J. D. Powell, A. Emami-Naeini, Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1988).
  8. G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, P.-Y. Madec, C. Boyer, J. P. Gaffard, J.-C. Richard, M. Vittot, P. Gigan, P. J. Lena, “Performance and results of the COME-ON+ adaptive optics system at the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 1088–1095 (1994).
  9. J. L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, L. Demailly, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, F. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, G. Rousset, “ADONIS: a user-friendly adaptive optics system for the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper MC1-1.
  10. VxWorks is a product of Wind River Systems, Inc., 1010 Atlantic Avenue, Alameda, Calif. 94501.
  11. EPICS is free to nonprofit and government sites from Los Alamos National Laboratories and is commercially available from Kinetic Systems Corp., 7308 South Alton Way, Bldg. 2, Engelwood, Colo. 80112.
  12. Both Tcl and Tk are freely available in the public domain. For further information on these languages, see B. B. Welsh, Practical Programming in Tcl and Tk (Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J., 1995).

1993 (1)

J. Beckers, “Adaptive optics for astronomy: principles, performance, and applications,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13–62 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1976 (1)

Beckers, J.

J. Beckers, “Adaptive optics for astronomy: principles, performance, and applications,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13–62 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Beuzit, J. L.

J. L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, L. Demailly, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, F. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, G. Rousset, “ADONIS: a user-friendly adaptive optics system for the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper MC1-1.

Beuzit, J.-L.

G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, P.-Y. Madec, C. Boyer, J. P. Gaffard, J.-C. Richard, M. Vittot, P. Gigan, P. J. Lena, “Performance and results of the COME-ON+ adaptive optics system at the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 1088–1095 (1994).

Boyer, C.

G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, P.-Y. Madec, C. Boyer, J. P. Gaffard, J.-C. Richard, M. Vittot, P. Gigan, P. J. Lena, “Performance and results of the COME-ON+ adaptive optics system at the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 1088–1095 (1994).

Bruno, T.

A. Wirth, F. Landers, B. Trvalik, J. Navetta, T. Bruno, “A laser guide star atmospheric compensation system for the 3.5m Calar Alto telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper MA3-1.

Castanon, D.

J. Huang, D. P. Looze, N. Denis, D. Castanon, A. Wirth, “Modeling and identification of adaptive optics systems,” Int. J. Control (to be published).

Chazallet, F.

J. L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, L. Demailly, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, F. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, G. Rousset, “ADONIS: a user-friendly adaptive optics system for the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper MC1-1.

Demailly, L.

J. L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, L. Demailly, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, F. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, G. Rousset, “ADONIS: a user-friendly adaptive optics system for the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper MC1-1.

Denis, N.

J. Huang, D. P. Looze, N. Denis, D. Castanon, A. Wirth, “Modeling and identification of adaptive optics systems,” Int. J. Control (to be published).

Emami-Naeini, A.

G. F. Franklin, J. D. Powell, A. Emami-Naeini, Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1988).

Franklin, G. F.

G. F. Franklin, J. D. Powell, A. Emami-Naeini, Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1988).

Gaffard, J. P.

G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, P.-Y. Madec, C. Boyer, J. P. Gaffard, J.-C. Richard, M. Vittot, P. Gigan, P. J. Lena, “Performance and results of the COME-ON+ adaptive optics system at the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 1088–1095 (1994).

Gendron, E.

G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, P.-Y. Madec, C. Boyer, J. P. Gaffard, J.-C. Richard, M. Vittot, P. Gigan, P. J. Lena, “Performance and results of the COME-ON+ adaptive optics system at the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 1088–1095 (1994).

J. L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, L. Demailly, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, F. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, G. Rousset, “ADONIS: a user-friendly adaptive optics system for the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper MC1-1.

Gigan, P.

J. L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, L. Demailly, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, F. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, G. Rousset, “ADONIS: a user-friendly adaptive optics system for the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper MC1-1.

G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, P.-Y. Madec, C. Boyer, J. P. Gaffard, J.-C. Richard, M. Vittot, P. Gigan, P. J. Lena, “Performance and results of the COME-ON+ adaptive optics system at the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 1088–1095 (1994).

Glindemann, A.

A. Glindemann, M. J. McCaughran, S. Hippler, C. Wagner, R.-R. Rohloff, “CHARM: a tip/tilt tertiary system for the Calar Alto 3.5m telescope,” presented at the OSA summer topical meeting on Adaptive Optics, Maui, 8–12 July 1996.

Hippler, S.

A. Glindemann, M. J. McCaughran, S. Hippler, C. Wagner, R.-R. Rohloff, “CHARM: a tip/tilt tertiary system for the Calar Alto 3.5m telescope,” presented at the OSA summer topical meeting on Adaptive Optics, Maui, 8–12 July 1996.

Huang, J.

J. Huang, D. P. Looze, N. Denis, D. Castanon, A. Wirth, “Modeling and identification of adaptive optics systems,” Int. J. Control (to be published).

Hubin, N.

G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, P.-Y. Madec, C. Boyer, J. P. Gaffard, J.-C. Richard, M. Vittot, P. Gigan, P. J. Lena, “Performance and results of the COME-ON+ adaptive optics system at the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 1088–1095 (1994).

J. L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, L. Demailly, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, F. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, G. Rousset, “ADONIS: a user-friendly adaptive optics system for the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper MC1-1.

Lacombe, F.

J. L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, L. Demailly, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, F. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, G. Rousset, “ADONIS: a user-friendly adaptive optics system for the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper MC1-1.

Landers, F.

A. Wirth, F. Landers, B. Trvalik, J. Navetta, T. Bruno, “A laser guide star atmospheric compensation system for the 3.5m Calar Alto telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper MA3-1.

Lena, P. J.

G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, P.-Y. Madec, C. Boyer, J. P. Gaffard, J.-C. Richard, M. Vittot, P. Gigan, P. J. Lena, “Performance and results of the COME-ON+ adaptive optics system at the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 1088–1095 (1994).

Looze, D. P.

J. Huang, D. P. Looze, N. Denis, D. Castanon, A. Wirth, “Modeling and identification of adaptive optics systems,” Int. J. Control (to be published).

Madec, P.-Y.

G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, P.-Y. Madec, C. Boyer, J. P. Gaffard, J.-C. Richard, M. Vittot, P. Gigan, P. J. Lena, “Performance and results of the COME-ON+ adaptive optics system at the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 1088–1095 (1994).

McCaughran, M. J.

A. Glindemann, M. J. McCaughran, S. Hippler, C. Wagner, R.-R. Rohloff, “CHARM: a tip/tilt tertiary system for the Calar Alto 3.5m telescope,” presented at the OSA summer topical meeting on Adaptive Optics, Maui, 8–12 July 1996.

Navetta, J.

A. Wirth, F. Landers, B. Trvalik, J. Navetta, T. Bruno, “A laser guide star atmospheric compensation system for the 3.5m Calar Alto telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper MA3-1.

Noll, R. J.

Powell, J. D.

G. F. Franklin, J. D. Powell, A. Emami-Naeini, Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1988).

Rabaud, D.

J. L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, L. Demailly, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, F. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, G. Rousset, “ADONIS: a user-friendly adaptive optics system for the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper MC1-1.

Richard, J.-C.

G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, P.-Y. Madec, C. Boyer, J. P. Gaffard, J.-C. Richard, M. Vittot, P. Gigan, P. J. Lena, “Performance and results of the COME-ON+ adaptive optics system at the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 1088–1095 (1994).

Rohloff, R.-R.

A. Glindemann, M. J. McCaughran, S. Hippler, C. Wagner, R.-R. Rohloff, “CHARM: a tip/tilt tertiary system for the Calar Alto 3.5m telescope,” presented at the OSA summer topical meeting on Adaptive Optics, Maui, 8–12 July 1996.

Rousset, G.

G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, P.-Y. Madec, C. Boyer, J. P. Gaffard, J.-C. Richard, M. Vittot, P. Gigan, P. J. Lena, “Performance and results of the COME-ON+ adaptive optics system at the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 1088–1095 (1994).

J. L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, L. Demailly, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, F. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, G. Rousset, “ADONIS: a user-friendly adaptive optics system for the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper MC1-1.

Silva, D. E.

Trvalik, B.

A. Wirth, F. Landers, B. Trvalik, J. Navetta, T. Bruno, “A laser guide star atmospheric compensation system for the 3.5m Calar Alto telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper MA3-1.

Vittot, M.

G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, P.-Y. Madec, C. Boyer, J. P. Gaffard, J.-C. Richard, M. Vittot, P. Gigan, P. J. Lena, “Performance and results of the COME-ON+ adaptive optics system at the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 1088–1095 (1994).

Wagner, C.

A. Glindemann, M. J. McCaughran, S. Hippler, C. Wagner, R.-R. Rohloff, “CHARM: a tip/tilt tertiary system for the Calar Alto 3.5m telescope,” presented at the OSA summer topical meeting on Adaptive Optics, Maui, 8–12 July 1996.

Wang, J. Y.

Welsh, B. B.

Both Tcl and Tk are freely available in the public domain. For further information on these languages, see B. B. Welsh, Practical Programming in Tcl and Tk (Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J., 1995).

Wirth, A.

A. Wirth, F. Landers, B. Trvalik, J. Navetta, T. Bruno, “A laser guide star atmospheric compensation system for the 3.5m Calar Alto telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper MA3-1.

J. Huang, D. P. Looze, N. Denis, D. Castanon, A. Wirth, “Modeling and identification of adaptive optics systems,” Int. J. Control (to be published).

Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (1)

J. Beckers, “Adaptive optics for astronomy: principles, performance, and applications,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13–62 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Other (9)

A. Wirth, F. Landers, B. Trvalik, J. Navetta, T. Bruno, “A laser guide star atmospheric compensation system for the 3.5m Calar Alto telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper MA3-1.

A. Glindemann, M. J. McCaughran, S. Hippler, C. Wagner, R.-R. Rohloff, “CHARM: a tip/tilt tertiary system for the Calar Alto 3.5m telescope,” presented at the OSA summer topical meeting on Adaptive Optics, Maui, 8–12 July 1996.

J. Huang, D. P. Looze, N. Denis, D. Castanon, A. Wirth, “Modeling and identification of adaptive optics systems,” Int. J. Control (to be published).

G. F. Franklin, J. D. Powell, A. Emami-Naeini, Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1988).

G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, P.-Y. Madec, C. Boyer, J. P. Gaffard, J.-C. Richard, M. Vittot, P. Gigan, P. J. Lena, “Performance and results of the COME-ON+ adaptive optics system at the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, M. A. Ealey, F. Merkle, eds., Proc. SPIE2201, 1088–1095 (1994).

J. L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, L. Demailly, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, F. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, G. Rousset, “ADONIS: a user-friendly adaptive optics system for the ESO 3.6m telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper MC1-1.

VxWorks is a product of Wind River Systems, Inc., 1010 Atlantic Avenue, Alameda, Calif. 94501.

EPICS is free to nonprofit and government sites from Los Alamos National Laboratories and is commercially available from Kinetic Systems Corp., 7308 South Alton Way, Bldg. 2, Engelwood, Colo. 80112.

Both Tcl and Tk are freely available in the public domain. For further information on these languages, see B. B. Welsh, Practical Programming in Tcl and Tk (Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J., 1995).

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