Abstract

We use numerical calculations to examine the relation between adaptive optics (AO) turbulence compensation and power coupled through a spectrometer slit for both laser and natural guide-star AO systems. The AO system and observing parameters used are relevant to the Gemini-North 8-m telescope. For this study, we separate residual tilt from residual higher-order aberrations to isolate their relative effects under a variety of operating conditions. Our results demonstrate that slit-coupled intensity is not uniquely determined by system Strehl alone; we show that this is due to the differing effects of higher-order and tilt aberrations on the shape of the compensated point-spread function. For the Gemini spectrometer and AO system, the wider point-spread function halo associated with an added residual higher-order aberration reduces slit-coupled intensity more rapidly than a broad point-spread function core induced by residual tilt.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. F. Diego, “Toward total transmission: the confocal image slicer,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 525–532 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Woolf, J. R. P. Angel, J. Ge, B. Jacobsen, M. Lloyd-Hart, R. Fugate, “High-resolution spectroscopy with an adaptive optics telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 170–171.
  3. B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Van Loan, N. P. Pitsianis, R. J. Plemmons, “Optimizing closed-loop adaptive optics performance with use of multiple control bandwidths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2871–2886 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Rigaut, B. L. Ellerbroek, M. Northcutt, “Comparison of curvature-based and Shack–Hartmann-based adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2856–2868 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. L. Ellerbroek, D. W. Tyler, “Adaptive optics sky coverage calculations for the Gemini-North telescope,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 165–185 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Racine, B. L. Ellerbroek, “Profiles of nighttime above Mauna Kea and isoplanatism extension in adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE1111, 248–262 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Roddier, Report on the Seeing on Mauna Kea (U. Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1992).
  8. P. Bely, “Weather and seeing on Mauna Kea,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 560–571 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. L. Ellerbroek, “First-order performance evaluation of adaptive optics systems for atmospheric turbulence compensation in extended-field-of-view telescopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 783–805 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. C. Johnston, B. M. Welsh, “Analysis of multiconjugate adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 394–408 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Tessier, “Image quality with current adaptive optics instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 125, 581 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. W. Goodman, “Imaging through randomly inhomogeneous media,” in Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), p. 374.
  13. R. J. Noll, “Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 207–211 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Lena, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, F. Merkle, “Adaptive optics prototype system for infrared astronomy I: system description,” in Amplitude and Spatial Interferometry, J. J. Schultein-den-Baeumen, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE1271, 243–251 (1990).
  15. A qualitative comparison of LGS and NGS systems (“Of some scientific impacts of the laser guide stars in adaptive optics”) was presented by F. Rigaut, D. Bonaccini, G. Monet at a recent European Southern Observatory conference on LGS AO. Unfortunately, the proceedings were not available at the time of this printing.

1997

F. Rigaut, B. L. Ellerbroek, M. Northcutt, “Comparison of curvature-based and Shack–Hartmann-based adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2856–2868 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Ellerbroek, D. W. Tyler, “Adaptive optics sky coverage calculations for the Gemini-North telescope,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 165–185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Tessier, “Image quality with current adaptive optics instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 125, 581 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

1987

P. Bely, “Weather and seeing on Mauna Kea,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 560–571 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1976

Angel, J. R. P.

N. Woolf, J. R. P. Angel, J. Ge, B. Jacobsen, M. Lloyd-Hart, R. Fugate, “High-resolution spectroscopy with an adaptive optics telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 170–171.

Bely, P.

P. Bely, “Weather and seeing on Mauna Kea,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 560–571 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, C.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Lena, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, F. Merkle, “Adaptive optics prototype system for infrared astronomy I: system description,” in Amplitude and Spatial Interferometry, J. J. Schultein-den-Baeumen, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE1271, 243–251 (1990).

Diego, F.

F. Diego, “Toward total transmission: the confocal image slicer,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 525–532 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B. L.

Fontanella, J. C.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Lena, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, F. Merkle, “Adaptive optics prototype system for infrared astronomy I: system description,” in Amplitude and Spatial Interferometry, J. J. Schultein-den-Baeumen, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE1271, 243–251 (1990).

Fugate, R.

N. Woolf, J. R. P. Angel, J. Ge, B. Jacobsen, M. Lloyd-Hart, R. Fugate, “High-resolution spectroscopy with an adaptive optics telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 170–171.

Gaffard, J. P.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Lena, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, F. Merkle, “Adaptive optics prototype system for infrared astronomy I: system description,” in Amplitude and Spatial Interferometry, J. J. Schultein-den-Baeumen, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE1271, 243–251 (1990).

Ge, J.

N. Woolf, J. R. P. Angel, J. Ge, B. Jacobsen, M. Lloyd-Hart, R. Fugate, “High-resolution spectroscopy with an adaptive optics telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 170–171.

Gigan, P.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Lena, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, F. Merkle, “Adaptive optics prototype system for infrared astronomy I: system description,” in Amplitude and Spatial Interferometry, J. J. Schultein-den-Baeumen, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE1271, 243–251 (1990).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, “Imaging through randomly inhomogeneous media,” in Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), p. 374.

Jacobsen, B.

N. Woolf, J. R. P. Angel, J. Ge, B. Jacobsen, M. Lloyd-Hart, R. Fugate, “High-resolution spectroscopy with an adaptive optics telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 170–171.

Jagourel, P.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Lena, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, F. Merkle, “Adaptive optics prototype system for infrared astronomy I: system description,” in Amplitude and Spatial Interferometry, J. J. Schultein-den-Baeumen, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE1271, 243–251 (1990).

Johnston, D. C.

Kern, P.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Lena, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, F. Merkle, “Adaptive optics prototype system for infrared astronomy I: system description,” in Amplitude and Spatial Interferometry, J. J. Schultein-den-Baeumen, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE1271, 243–251 (1990).

Lena, P.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Lena, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, F. Merkle, “Adaptive optics prototype system for infrared astronomy I: system description,” in Amplitude and Spatial Interferometry, J. J. Schultein-den-Baeumen, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE1271, 243–251 (1990).

Lloyd-Hart, M.

N. Woolf, J. R. P. Angel, J. Ge, B. Jacobsen, M. Lloyd-Hart, R. Fugate, “High-resolution spectroscopy with an adaptive optics telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 170–171.

Merkle, F.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Lena, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, F. Merkle, “Adaptive optics prototype system for infrared astronomy I: system description,” in Amplitude and Spatial Interferometry, J. J. Schultein-den-Baeumen, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE1271, 243–251 (1990).

Noll, R. J.

Northcutt, M.

Pitsianis, N. P.

Plemmons, R. J.

Racine, R.

R. Racine, B. L. Ellerbroek, “Profiles of nighttime above Mauna Kea and isoplanatism extension in adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE1111, 248–262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

F. Rigaut, B. L. Ellerbroek, M. Northcutt, “Comparison of curvature-based and Shack–Hartmann-based adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2856–2868 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Lena, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, F. Merkle, “Adaptive optics prototype system for infrared astronomy I: system description,” in Amplitude and Spatial Interferometry, J. J. Schultein-den-Baeumen, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE1271, 243–251 (1990).

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, Report on the Seeing on Mauna Kea (U. Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1992).

Rousset, G.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Lena, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, F. Merkle, “Adaptive optics prototype system for infrared astronomy I: system description,” in Amplitude and Spatial Interferometry, J. J. Schultein-den-Baeumen, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE1271, 243–251 (1990).

Tessier, E.

E. Tessier, “Image quality with current adaptive optics instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 125, 581 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, D. W.

B. L. Ellerbroek, D. W. Tyler, “Adaptive optics sky coverage calculations for the Gemini-North telescope,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 165–185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Van Loan, C.

Welsh, B. M.

Woolf, N.

N. Woolf, J. R. P. Angel, J. Ge, B. Jacobsen, M. Lloyd-Hart, R. Fugate, “High-resolution spectroscopy with an adaptive optics telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 170–171.

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl.

E. Tessier, “Image quality with current adaptive optics instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 125, 581 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac.

P. Bely, “Weather and seeing on Mauna Kea,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 560–571 (1987).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ellerbroek, D. W. Tyler, “Adaptive optics sky coverage calculations for the Gemini-North telescope,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 165–185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Racine, B. L. Ellerbroek, “Profiles of nighttime above Mauna Kea and isoplanatism extension in adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE1111, 248–262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Roddier, Report on the Seeing on Mauna Kea (U. Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1992).

F. Diego, “Toward total transmission: the confocal image slicer,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 525–532 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Woolf, J. R. P. Angel, J. Ge, B. Jacobsen, M. Lloyd-Hart, R. Fugate, “High-resolution spectroscopy with an adaptive optics telescope,” in Adaptive Optics, Vol. 23 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 170–171.

J. W. Goodman, “Imaging through randomly inhomogeneous media,” in Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), p. 374.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Lena, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, F. Merkle, “Adaptive optics prototype system for infrared astronomy I: system description,” in Amplitude and Spatial Interferometry, J. J. Schultein-den-Baeumen, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE1271, 243–251 (1990).

A qualitative comparison of LGS and NGS systems (“Of some scientific impacts of the laser guide stars in adaptive optics”) was presented by F. Rigaut, D. Bonaccini, G. Monet at a recent European Southern Observatory conference on LGS AO. Unfortunately, the proceedings were not available at the time of this printing.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Guide-star and aperture stop geometry for nonzero AO conjugate range.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

LGS AO slit-coupled power with the DM conjugate to the pupil, zenith pointing, and median seeing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LGS AO slit-coupled power with the DM conjugate to the seeing layer, zenith pointing, and median seeing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LGS AO slit-coupled power with the DM conjugate to the seeing layer, zenith pointing, and 90-percentile seeing.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

LGS AO slit-coupled power with the DM conjugate to the seeing layer, 45° zenith angle, and median seeing.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

LGS AO slit-coupled power with the DM conjugate to the seeing layer, 45° zenith angle, and 90-percentile seeing.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

J- and K-band PSF cross-sections corresponding to the conditions given in Fig. 2. The size of the spectrometer slit relative to the PSF’s is shown with 0–1 weighting functions for the slit cross section. Note that the field-angle units are wavelength dependent.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

NGS AO slit-coupled power with the DM conjugate to the pupil, zenith pointing, and median seeing for J-band observing and NGS R-band magnitudes of 12, 14, 16, and 18. An LGS coupled-power curve is shown for reference. Error bars are used to indicate the coupled power for a NGS science object offset parallel to (upper bound) and normal to (lower bound) the spectrometer slit long axis.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

NGS AO slit-coupled power with the DM conjugate to the pupil, zenith pointing, and median seeing for the H-band observing and NGS R-band magnitudes of 12, 14, 16, and 18.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

NGS AO slit-coupled power with the DM conjugate to the pupil, zenith pointing, and median seeing for K-band observing and NGS R-band magnitudes of 12, 14, 16, and 18.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

J-band PSF cross sections for (solid curve) NGS AO with no tilt and a NGS R magnitude of 18 and (dashed curve) LGS AO with tilt added to yield Strehl = 0.12. The slit cross section is shown with a 0–1 weighting function.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

H-band PSF cross sections for (solid curve) NGS AO with no tilt and a NGS R magnitude of 18 and (dashed curve) LGS AO with tilt added to yield Strehl = 0.28. The slit cross section is shown with a 0–1 weighting function.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F =   d 2 xI x W x   d 2 xI x
F = I f * W f I f | f | = 0 ,
F =   d f 1 d f 2 I f 1 ,   f 2 W 1 f 1 - f 1 W 2 f 2 - f 2 I f 1 ,   f 2 f 1 , f 2 = 0
F =   d f 1 I f 1 ,   0 W f 1 - f 1 I f 1 ,   f 2 f 1 , f 2 = 0 ,
F =   d 2 xI x W x   d 2 xI x =   d f 1 H f 1 ,   0 W 1 f 1 ,
H t f = exp - 1 / 2 | f | 2 σ 2 ,
H f = H t f H HOA f ,
s x = exp - σ 2 s 0 x + s h x ,
s h x = - 1 exp - σ 2 exp σ 2 γ u ,   v - 1 .
F h =   d 2 xs h x
F h = exp - σ 2 exp σ 2 γ u ,   v - 1 | u = 0 , v = 0 = 1 - exp - σ 2 .
R = exp - σ 2 1 - exp - σ 2 = 1 exp σ 2 - 1 .
σ 2 = 0.3   S N e 1 / 2 r 0 5 / 3 ,
σ 2 = 0.3 D N 1 / 2 r 0 5 / 3 ,

Metrics