Abstract

Generalized spin filters, including several directional filters such as the directional median filter and the directional binary filter, are proposed for removal of the noise of fringe patterns and the extraction of fringe skeletons with the help of fringe-orientation maps (FOM’s). The generalized spin filters can filter off noise on fringe patterns and binary fringe patterns efficiently, without distortion of fringe features. A quadrantal angle filter is developed to filter off the FOM. With these new filters, the derivative-sign binary image (DSBI) method for extraction of fringe skeletons is improved considerably. The improved DSBI method can extract high-density skeletons as well as common density skeletons.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Q. Yu, “Spin filtering processes and automatic extraction of fringe center lines in the digital image of interferometric fringes,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3782–3784 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Winter, S. Unger, W. Osten, “The application of adaptive and anisotropic filtering for the extraction of fringe pattern skeletons,” in Fringe ’89: Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Osten, R. J. Pryputniewicz, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 158–166.
  3. Q. Yu, X. Liu, K. Andresen, “New spin filters for interferometric fringe patterns and grating patterns,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3705–3711 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Q. Yu, “Calculation of strain from a single moiré by filtering and normalizing an interferogram,” Ph.D. dissertation (Bremen University, Germany, 1996).
  5. T. Kreis, “Digital holographic interference-phase measurement using the Fourier transform method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 847–855 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Yu, K. Andresen, W. Osten, W. Jueptner, “Noise-free normalized fringe patterns and local pixel transform for strain extraction,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3783–3790 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Creath, “Phase-measurement interferometry techniques,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1988), Vol. 26, pp. 351–393.
    [CrossRef]
  8. Q. Yu, K. Andresen, “Fringe-orientation maps and 2-D derivative-sign binary image methods for extraction of fringe skeletons,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6873–6878 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1994 (2)

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

Andresen, K.

Creath, K.

K. Creath, “Phase-measurement interferometry techniques,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1988), Vol. 26, pp. 351–393.
[CrossRef]

Jueptner, W.

Kreis, T.

Liu, X.

Osten, W.

Q. Yu, K. Andresen, W. Osten, W. Jueptner, “Noise-free normalized fringe patterns and local pixel transform for strain extraction,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3783–3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Winter, S. Unger, W. Osten, “The application of adaptive and anisotropic filtering for the extraction of fringe pattern skeletons,” in Fringe ’89: Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Osten, R. J. Pryputniewicz, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 158–166.

Unger, S.

H. Winter, S. Unger, W. Osten, “The application of adaptive and anisotropic filtering for the extraction of fringe pattern skeletons,” in Fringe ’89: Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Osten, R. J. Pryputniewicz, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 158–166.

Winter, H.

H. Winter, S. Unger, W. Osten, “The application of adaptive and anisotropic filtering for the extraction of fringe pattern skeletons,” in Fringe ’89: Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Osten, R. J. Pryputniewicz, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 158–166.

Yu, Q.

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Other (3)

H. Winter, S. Unger, W. Osten, “The application of adaptive and anisotropic filtering for the extraction of fringe pattern skeletons,” in Fringe ’89: Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Osten, R. J. Pryputniewicz, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 158–166.

Q. Yu, “Calculation of strain from a single moiré by filtering and normalizing an interferogram,” Ph.D. dissertation (Bremen University, Germany, 1996).

K. Creath, “Phase-measurement interferometry techniques,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1988), Vol. 26, pp. 351–393.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Step chart for the DSBI algorithm. (a) An intensity distribution of a cross section of a fringe pattern. (b) The intensity distribution of the DSBI of (a). (c) The fringe skeletons or boundaries of the binary fringes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Direction definition for fringe orientation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Practical hologram with high-density fringes (courtesy of Dr. Osten, Bremen Institute of Applied Beam Technology, Bremen, Germany).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FOM of Fig. 3 obtained by means of spin filtering with a window size of 5 × 5 pixels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

FOM of Fig. 4 obtained by means of quadrantal angle filtering showing a smooth, sharp directional jump line and a smoother FOM main area.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

DSBI of Fig. 3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

DSBI of Fig. 6 obtained by means of directional binary filtering twice.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Final result for the fringe skeletons or boundaries of the binary fringes of Fig. 7 extracted with a neighbor-differentiation technique.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Practical photoelastic isochromatic pattern.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Final extracted fringe skeletons of Fig. 9 extracted by the improved DSBI method and shown on a background of the original fringes of Fig. 9.

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