Abstract

We report a new method for microscopic imaging of an object embedded in a turbid medium, based on the differential polarization-gating mechanism. It is demonstrated that with this method, image resolution through optically thick milk suspensions can be improved by as much as 30% compared with no-gating methods. An image resolution of tens of micrometers is achieved in an optically thick turbid medium, which is approximately 10 times better than that achieved in transillumination imaging in a similar medium.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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1997 (5)

B. Tromberg, A. Yodh, E. Sevick, D. Pine, “Diffusing photons in turbid media: introduction to the feature,” App. Opt. 36, 9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, R. R. Alfano, “Optical polarization imaging,” App. Opt. 36, 150–163 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Morgan, M. P. Khong, M. G. Somekh, “Effects of polarization state and scatter concentration on optical imaging through scattering media,” App. Opt. 36, 1560–1565 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Gan, S. P. Schilders, M. Gu, “Combination of annular aperture and polarization gating methods for efficient microscopic imaging through a turbid medium: theoretical analysis,” Microsc. Microanal. 3, 495–503 (1997).

H. Hielscher, J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, “Influence of particle size and concentration on the diffuse backscattering of polarized light from tissue phantoms and biological cell suspensions,” App. Opt. 36, 125–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

Alfano, R. R.

Bigio, I. J.

H. Hielscher, J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, “Influence of particle size and concentration on the diffuse backscattering of polarized light from tissue phantoms and biological cell suspensions,” App. Opt. 36, 125–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W. S.

Chiang, H. P.

Cho, Y.

Demos, S. G.

S. G. Demos, R. R. Alfano, “Optical polarization imaging,” App. Opt. 36, 150–163 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gan, X. S.

X. S. Gan, S. P. Schilders, M. Gu, “Combination of annular aperture and polarization gating methods for efficient microscopic imaging through a turbid medium: theoretical analysis,” Microsc. Microanal. 3, 495–503 (1997).

Gu, M.

X. S. Gan, S. P. Schilders, M. Gu, “Combination of annular aperture and polarization gating methods for efficient microscopic imaging through a turbid medium: theoretical analysis,” Microsc. Microanal. 3, 495–503 (1997).

M. Gu, T. Tannous, C. J. R. Sheppard, “Effect of an annular pupil on confocal imaging through highly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 21, 312–314 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hashimoto, K.

Hee, M. R.

Hielscher, H.

H. Hielscher, J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, “Influence of particle size and concentration on the diffuse backscattering of polarized light from tissue phantoms and biological cell suspensions,” App. Opt. 36, 125–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Horinaka, H.

Izatt, A.

Khong, M. P.

S. P. Morgan, M. P. Khong, M. G. Somekh, “Effects of polarization state and scatter concentration on optical imaging through scattering media,” App. Opt. 36, 1560–1565 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kniittel, A.

Morgan, S. P.

S. P. Morgan, M. P. Khong, M. G. Somekh, “Effects of polarization state and scatter concentration on optical imaging through scattering media,” App. Opt. 36, 1560–1565 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mourant, J. R.

H. Hielscher, J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, “Influence of particle size and concentration on the diffuse backscattering of polarized light from tissue phantoms and biological cell suspensions,” App. Opt. 36, 125–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Osawa, M.

Owen, G. M.

Pine, D.

B. Tromberg, A. Yodh, E. Sevick, D. Pine, “Diffusing photons in turbid media: introduction to the feature,” App. Opt. 36, 9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schilders, S. P.

X. S. Gan, S. P. Schilders, M. Gu, “Combination of annular aperture and polarization gating methods for efficient microscopic imaging through a turbid medium: theoretical analysis,” Microsc. Microanal. 3, 495–503 (1997).

Schmitt, M.

Sevick, E.

B. Tromberg, A. Yodh, E. Sevick, D. Pine, “Diffusing photons in turbid media: introduction to the feature,” App. Opt. 36, 9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Somekh, M. G.

S. P. Morgan, M. P. Khong, M. G. Somekh, “Effects of polarization state and scatter concentration on optical imaging through scattering media,” App. Opt. 36, 1560–1565 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

Tannous, T.

Tromberg, B.

B. Tromberg, A. Yodh, E. Sevick, D. Pine, “Diffusing photons in turbid media: introduction to the feature,” App. Opt. 36, 9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K.

Wang, J.

Xing, Q.

Yadlowsky, M.

Yodh, A.

B. Tromberg, A. Yodh, E. Sevick, D. Pine, “Diffusing photons in turbid media: introduction to the feature,” App. Opt. 36, 9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, K. M.

App. Opt. (4)

B. Tromberg, A. Yodh, E. Sevick, D. Pine, “Diffusing photons in turbid media: introduction to the feature,” App. Opt. 36, 9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, R. R. Alfano, “Optical polarization imaging,” App. Opt. 36, 150–163 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Morgan, M. P. Khong, M. G. Somekh, “Effects of polarization state and scatter concentration on optical imaging through scattering media,” App. Opt. 36, 1560–1565 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Hielscher, J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, “Influence of particle size and concentration on the diffuse backscattering of polarized light from tissue phantoms and biological cell suspensions,” App. Opt. 36, 125–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Microsc. Microanal. (1)

X. S. Gan, S. P. Schilders, M. Gu, “Combination of annular aperture and polarization gating methods for efficient microscopic imaging through a turbid medium: theoretical analysis,” Microsc. Microanal. 3, 495–503 (1997).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (1)

Jandel Scientific Software, TableCurve™ 2D, Automated curve fitting and equation discovery, Version 4, Jandel Scientific Software, 2591 Kerner Boulevard, San Rafael, Calif. 94901, 1996.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a reflection optical microscope. O’s, objectives; L’s, lenses; LP’s, polarizers; D’s, detectors; P, pinhole; B’s, beam splitters; A, aperture; 3D, three-dimensional.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured transverse resolution as a function of the optical thickness for different gating mechanisms.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Resolution improvement and degree of polarization as a function of the optical thickness.

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