Abstract

We describe a balloonborne telescope devoted to millimeter observations of diffuse sky radiation and optimized with a custom set of baffles and shields. The basic idea of the shield design is to shape the surfaces as roof mirrors to redirect the stray radiation in the opposite direction of incidence. The baffles are used to stop radiation close to the field of view. In this way we are able to avoid most of the unwanted radiation. We successfully operated this telescope (ARGO) during two flights, in 1989 and 1993, while detecting the faint structures of the cosmic microwave background at degree scale.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Prescott, “Cassegrain baffle design,” Appl. Opt. 7, 479–481 (1968).
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  3. R. P. Breault, “Problems and techniques in stray radiation suppression,” in Stray Light Problems in Optical Systems, J. D. Lytle, H. Morrow, eds., Proc. SPIE107, 2–23 (1977).
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  5. W. LaVaughn Hales, “Optimum Cassegrain baffle system,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5341–5344 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. M. Lamarre, “Cold versus warm telescopes in space,” in Infrared and Submillimetric Astronomy from Space—International School of Space Science—I Course, P. Encrenaz, F. Melchiorri, eds. (Scuola Superiore G. Reiss Romoli, L’Aquila, Italy, 1991), pp. 360–405.
  7. J. M. Lamarre, P. Encrenaz, G. Serra, F. Pajot, G. Bellaiche, “Radio and infrared instruments in the submillimeter astronomy project PRONAOS,” J. Opt. 21, 141–149 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. S. Cheng, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program for measuring the CMBR anisotropy,” in J. L. Sanz, E. Martinez Gonzales, L. Cayon, eds., Present and Future of the Cosmic Microwave Background, Vol. 429 of Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994), pp. 76–79.
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. K. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Shaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).
  10. P. de Bernardis, A. De Luca, M. De Petris, M. Epifani, M. Gervasi, R. Maoli, S. Masi, “The ARGO project: scientific targets, first results and future perspectives,” Nuovo Cimento 15C, 993–1011 (1992).
  11. P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, S. Masi, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, L. Valenziano, “ARGO: a balloon-borne telescope for measurements of the millimeter diffuse sky emission,” Astron. Astrophys. 271, 683–696 (1993).
  12. P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, G. D’Andreta, M. Gervasi, E. Kreysa, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Degree-scale observations of cosmic microwave background anisotropies,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 422, L33–L36 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Masi, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “ARGO 1993 observations of interstellar dust emission,” Astrophys. J. 452, 253–261 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Masi, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, A. Boscaleri, E. Aquilini, L. Martinis, F. Scaramuzzi, “Foregrounds removal and CMB fluctuations in a multiband anisotropy experiment: ARGO 1993,” Astrophys. J. 463, L47–L50 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, F. Liberati, “New far infrared and millimetric telescopes for differential measurements with a large chopping angle in the sky,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1785–1792 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. Perciballi, G. Romeo, “A resonance wobbling secondary mirror for balloon borne IR telescopes,” Infrared Phys. 29, 1005–1012 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Masi, E. Aquilini, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Multi-band high throughput photometry of diffuse mm and sub-mm radiation,” in Infrared and Submillimetric Astronomy from Space—International School of Space Science—I Course, P. Encrenaz, F. Melchiorri eds. (Scuola Superiore G. Reiss Romoli, L’Aquila, Italy, 1991), pp. 319–341.
  18. P. Palumbo, E. Aquilini, P. Cardoni, P. de Bernardis, A. De Ninno, L. Martinis, S. Masi, F. Scaramuzzi, “Balloon-borne 3He cryostat for millimetre bolometric photometry,” Cryogenics 34, 1001–1005 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Epifani, M. Gervasi, G. Guarini, S. Masi, “A balloon borne millimetric telescope: experimental study of the thermal gradients on the primary mirror,” Infrared Phys. 28, 243–248 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. De Petris, E. Aquilini, M. Canonico, L. D’Addio, P. de Bernardis, G. Mainella, A. Mandiello, L. Martinis, S. Masi, B. Melchiorri, M. Perciballi, F. Scaramuzzi, “MITO: the 2.6 m millimetre telescope at Testa Grigia,” New Astron. 1, 121–132 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1996

S. Masi, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, A. Boscaleri, E. Aquilini, L. Martinis, F. Scaramuzzi, “Foregrounds removal and CMB fluctuations in a multiband anisotropy experiment: ARGO 1993,” Astrophys. J. 463, L47–L50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. De Petris, E. Aquilini, M. Canonico, L. D’Addio, P. de Bernardis, G. Mainella, A. Mandiello, L. Martinis, S. Masi, B. Melchiorri, M. Perciballi, F. Scaramuzzi, “MITO: the 2.6 m millimetre telescope at Testa Grigia,” New Astron. 1, 121–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “ARGO 1993 observations of interstellar dust emission,” Astrophys. J. 452, 253–261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. K. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Shaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

1994

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, G. D’Andreta, M. Gervasi, E. Kreysa, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Degree-scale observations of cosmic microwave background anisotropies,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 422, L33–L36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Palumbo, E. Aquilini, P. Cardoni, P. de Bernardis, A. De Ninno, L. Martinis, S. Masi, F. Scaramuzzi, “Balloon-borne 3He cryostat for millimetre bolometric photometry,” Cryogenics 34, 1001–1005 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, S. Masi, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, L. Valenziano, “ARGO: a balloon-borne telescope for measurements of the millimeter diffuse sky emission,” Astron. Astrophys. 271, 683–696 (1993).

1992

P. de Bernardis, A. De Luca, M. De Petris, M. Epifani, M. Gervasi, R. Maoli, S. Masi, “The ARGO project: scientific targets, first results and future perspectives,” Nuovo Cimento 15C, 993–1011 (1992).

W. LaVaughn Hales, “Optimum Cassegrain baffle system,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5341–5344 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. M. Lamarre, P. Encrenaz, G. Serra, F. Pajot, G. Bellaiche, “Radio and infrared instruments in the submillimeter astronomy project PRONAOS,” J. Opt. 21, 141–149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, F. Liberati, “New far infrared and millimetric telescopes for differential measurements with a large chopping angle in the sky,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1785–1792 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. Perciballi, G. Romeo, “A resonance wobbling secondary mirror for balloon borne IR telescopes,” Infrared Phys. 29, 1005–1012 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Epifani, M. Gervasi, G. Guarini, S. Masi, “A balloon borne millimetric telescope: experimental study of the thermal gradients on the primary mirror,” Infrared Phys. 28, 243–248 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1968

1967

Aquilini, E.

S. Masi, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, A. Boscaleri, E. Aquilini, L. Martinis, F. Scaramuzzi, “Foregrounds removal and CMB fluctuations in a multiband anisotropy experiment: ARGO 1993,” Astrophys. J. 463, L47–L50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. De Petris, E. Aquilini, M. Canonico, L. D’Addio, P. de Bernardis, G. Mainella, A. Mandiello, L. Martinis, S. Masi, B. Melchiorri, M. Perciballi, F. Scaramuzzi, “MITO: the 2.6 m millimetre telescope at Testa Grigia,” New Astron. 1, 121–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “ARGO 1993 observations of interstellar dust emission,” Astrophys. J. 452, 253–261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, G. D’Andreta, M. Gervasi, E. Kreysa, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Degree-scale observations of cosmic microwave background anisotropies,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 422, L33–L36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Palumbo, E. Aquilini, P. Cardoni, P. de Bernardis, A. De Ninno, L. Martinis, S. Masi, F. Scaramuzzi, “Balloon-borne 3He cryostat for millimetre bolometric photometry,” Cryogenics 34, 1001–1005 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, S. Masi, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, L. Valenziano, “ARGO: a balloon-borne telescope for measurements of the millimeter diffuse sky emission,” Astron. Astrophys. 271, 683–696 (1993).

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Multi-band high throughput photometry of diffuse mm and sub-mm radiation,” in Infrared and Submillimetric Astronomy from Space—International School of Space Science—I Course, P. Encrenaz, F. Melchiorri eds. (Scuola Superiore G. Reiss Romoli, L’Aquila, Italy, 1991), pp. 319–341.

Bellaiche, G.

J. M. Lamarre, P. Encrenaz, G. Serra, F. Pajot, G. Bellaiche, “Radio and infrared instruments in the submillimeter astronomy project PRONAOS,” J. Opt. 21, 141–149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Boscaleri, A.

S. Masi, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, A. Boscaleri, E. Aquilini, L. Martinis, F. Scaramuzzi, “Foregrounds removal and CMB fluctuations in a multiband anisotropy experiment: ARGO 1993,” Astrophys. J. 463, L47–L50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “ARGO 1993 observations of interstellar dust emission,” Astrophys. J. 452, 253–261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, G. D’Andreta, M. Gervasi, E. Kreysa, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Degree-scale observations of cosmic microwave background anisotropies,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 422, L33–L36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, S. Masi, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, L. Valenziano, “ARGO: a balloon-borne telescope for measurements of the millimeter diffuse sky emission,” Astron. Astrophys. 271, 683–696 (1993).

Breault, R. P.

R. P. Breault, “Problems and techniques in stray radiation suppression,” in Stray Light Problems in Optical Systems, J. D. Lytle, H. Morrow, eds., Proc. SPIE107, 2–23 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Canonico, M.

M. De Petris, E. Aquilini, M. Canonico, L. D’Addio, P. de Bernardis, G. Mainella, A. Mandiello, L. Martinis, S. Masi, B. Melchiorri, M. Perciballi, F. Scaramuzzi, “MITO: the 2.6 m millimetre telescope at Testa Grigia,” New Astron. 1, 121–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cardoni, P.

P. Palumbo, E. Aquilini, P. Cardoni, P. de Bernardis, A. De Ninno, L. Martinis, S. Masi, F. Scaramuzzi, “Balloon-borne 3He cryostat for millimetre bolometric photometry,” Cryogenics 34, 1001–1005 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, E. S.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. K. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Shaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

E. S. Cheng, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program for measuring the CMBR anisotropy,” in J. L. Sanz, E. Martinez Gonzales, L. Cayon, eds., Present and Future of the Cosmic Microwave Background, Vol. 429 of Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994), pp. 76–79.
[CrossRef]

Cottingham, D. A.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. K. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Shaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

D’Addio, L.

M. De Petris, E. Aquilini, M. Canonico, L. D’Addio, P. de Bernardis, G. Mainella, A. Mandiello, L. Martinis, S. Masi, B. Melchiorri, M. Perciballi, F. Scaramuzzi, “MITO: the 2.6 m millimetre telescope at Testa Grigia,” New Astron. 1, 121–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D’Andreta, G.

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, G. D’Andreta, M. Gervasi, E. Kreysa, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Degree-scale observations of cosmic microwave background anisotropies,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 422, L33–L36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

de Bernardis, P.

S. Masi, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, A. Boscaleri, E. Aquilini, L. Martinis, F. Scaramuzzi, “Foregrounds removal and CMB fluctuations in a multiband anisotropy experiment: ARGO 1993,” Astrophys. J. 463, L47–L50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. De Petris, E. Aquilini, M. Canonico, L. D’Addio, P. de Bernardis, G. Mainella, A. Mandiello, L. Martinis, S. Masi, B. Melchiorri, M. Perciballi, F. Scaramuzzi, “MITO: the 2.6 m millimetre telescope at Testa Grigia,” New Astron. 1, 121–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “ARGO 1993 observations of interstellar dust emission,” Astrophys. J. 452, 253–261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, G. D’Andreta, M. Gervasi, E. Kreysa, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Degree-scale observations of cosmic microwave background anisotropies,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 422, L33–L36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Palumbo, E. Aquilini, P. Cardoni, P. de Bernardis, A. De Ninno, L. Martinis, S. Masi, F. Scaramuzzi, “Balloon-borne 3He cryostat for millimetre bolometric photometry,” Cryogenics 34, 1001–1005 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, S. Masi, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, L. Valenziano, “ARGO: a balloon-borne telescope for measurements of the millimeter diffuse sky emission,” Astron. Astrophys. 271, 683–696 (1993).

P. de Bernardis, A. De Luca, M. De Petris, M. Epifani, M. Gervasi, R. Maoli, S. Masi, “The ARGO project: scientific targets, first results and future perspectives,” Nuovo Cimento 15C, 993–1011 (1992).

P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. Perciballi, G. Romeo, “A resonance wobbling secondary mirror for balloon borne IR telescopes,” Infrared Phys. 29, 1005–1012 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Epifani, M. Gervasi, G. Guarini, S. Masi, “A balloon borne millimetric telescope: experimental study of the thermal gradients on the primary mirror,” Infrared Phys. 28, 243–248 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Multi-band high throughput photometry of diffuse mm and sub-mm radiation,” in Infrared and Submillimetric Astronomy from Space—International School of Space Science—I Course, P. Encrenaz, F. Melchiorri eds. (Scuola Superiore G. Reiss Romoli, L’Aquila, Italy, 1991), pp. 319–341.

De Luca, A.

P. de Bernardis, A. De Luca, M. De Petris, M. Epifani, M. Gervasi, R. Maoli, S. Masi, “The ARGO project: scientific targets, first results and future perspectives,” Nuovo Cimento 15C, 993–1011 (1992).

De Ninno, A.

P. Palumbo, E. Aquilini, P. Cardoni, P. de Bernardis, A. De Ninno, L. Martinis, S. Masi, F. Scaramuzzi, “Balloon-borne 3He cryostat for millimetre bolometric photometry,” Cryogenics 34, 1001–1005 (1994).
[CrossRef]

De Petris, M.

M. De Petris, E. Aquilini, M. Canonico, L. D’Addio, P. de Bernardis, G. Mainella, A. Mandiello, L. Martinis, S. Masi, B. Melchiorri, M. Perciballi, F. Scaramuzzi, “MITO: the 2.6 m millimetre telescope at Testa Grigia,” New Astron. 1, 121–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Masi, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, A. Boscaleri, E. Aquilini, L. Martinis, F. Scaramuzzi, “Foregrounds removal and CMB fluctuations in a multiband anisotropy experiment: ARGO 1993,” Astrophys. J. 463, L47–L50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “ARGO 1993 observations of interstellar dust emission,” Astrophys. J. 452, 253–261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, G. D’Andreta, M. Gervasi, E. Kreysa, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Degree-scale observations of cosmic microwave background anisotropies,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 422, L33–L36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, S. Masi, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, L. Valenziano, “ARGO: a balloon-borne telescope for measurements of the millimeter diffuse sky emission,” Astron. Astrophys. 271, 683–696 (1993).

P. de Bernardis, A. De Luca, M. De Petris, M. Epifani, M. Gervasi, R. Maoli, S. Masi, “The ARGO project: scientific targets, first results and future perspectives,” Nuovo Cimento 15C, 993–1011 (1992).

M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, F. Liberati, “New far infrared and millimetric telescopes for differential measurements with a large chopping angle in the sky,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1785–1792 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Epifani, M. Gervasi, G. Guarini, S. Masi, “A balloon borne millimetric telescope: experimental study of the thermal gradients on the primary mirror,” Infrared Phys. 28, 243–248 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Multi-band high throughput photometry of diffuse mm and sub-mm radiation,” in Infrared and Submillimetric Astronomy from Space—International School of Space Science—I Course, P. Encrenaz, F. Melchiorri eds. (Scuola Superiore G. Reiss Romoli, L’Aquila, Italy, 1991), pp. 319–341.

Encrenaz, P.

J. M. Lamarre, P. Encrenaz, G. Serra, F. Pajot, G. Bellaiche, “Radio and infrared instruments in the submillimeter astronomy project PRONAOS,” J. Opt. 21, 141–149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Epifani, M.

P. de Bernardis, A. De Luca, M. De Petris, M. Epifani, M. Gervasi, R. Maoli, S. Masi, “The ARGO project: scientific targets, first results and future perspectives,” Nuovo Cimento 15C, 993–1011 (1992).

P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Epifani, M. Gervasi, G. Guarini, S. Masi, “A balloon borne millimetric telescope: experimental study of the thermal gradients on the primary mirror,” Infrared Phys. 28, 243–248 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Farooqui, K.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. K. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Shaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Fixen, D. K.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. K. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Shaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Ganga, K.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. K. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Shaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Gervasi, M.

S. Masi, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, A. Boscaleri, E. Aquilini, L. Martinis, F. Scaramuzzi, “Foregrounds removal and CMB fluctuations in a multiband anisotropy experiment: ARGO 1993,” Astrophys. J. 463, L47–L50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “ARGO 1993 observations of interstellar dust emission,” Astrophys. J. 452, 253–261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, G. D’Andreta, M. Gervasi, E. Kreysa, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Degree-scale observations of cosmic microwave background anisotropies,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 422, L33–L36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, S. Masi, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, L. Valenziano, “ARGO: a balloon-borne telescope for measurements of the millimeter diffuse sky emission,” Astron. Astrophys. 271, 683–696 (1993).

P. de Bernardis, A. De Luca, M. De Petris, M. Epifani, M. Gervasi, R. Maoli, S. Masi, “The ARGO project: scientific targets, first results and future perspectives,” Nuovo Cimento 15C, 993–1011 (1992).

M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, F. Liberati, “New far infrared and millimetric telescopes for differential measurements with a large chopping angle in the sky,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1785–1792 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Epifani, M. Gervasi, G. Guarini, S. Masi, “A balloon borne millimetric telescope: experimental study of the thermal gradients on the primary mirror,” Infrared Phys. 28, 243–248 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Multi-band high throughput photometry of diffuse mm and sub-mm radiation,” in Infrared and Submillimetric Astronomy from Space—International School of Space Science—I Course, P. Encrenaz, F. Melchiorri eds. (Scuola Superiore G. Reiss Romoli, L’Aquila, Italy, 1991), pp. 319–341.

Greynolds, A. W.

A. W. Greynolds, “Computer-assisted design of well-baffled axially symmetric optical systems,” in Optical Systems Engineering, P. R. Yoder, ed. Proc. SPIE193, 129–140 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Guarini, G.

P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Epifani, M. Gervasi, G. Guarini, S. Masi, “A balloon borne millimetric telescope: experimental study of the thermal gradients on the primary mirror,” Infrared Phys. 28, 243–248 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Inman, C. A.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. K. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Shaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Kowitt, M. S.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. K. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Shaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Kreysa, E.

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, G. D’Andreta, M. Gervasi, E. Kreysa, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Degree-scale observations of cosmic microwave background anisotropies,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 422, L33–L36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lamarre, J. M.

J. M. Lamarre, P. Encrenaz, G. Serra, F. Pajot, G. Bellaiche, “Radio and infrared instruments in the submillimeter astronomy project PRONAOS,” J. Opt. 21, 141–149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lamarre, “Cold versus warm telescopes in space,” in Infrared and Submillimetric Astronomy from Space—International School of Space Science—I Course, P. Encrenaz, F. Melchiorri, eds. (Scuola Superiore G. Reiss Romoli, L’Aquila, Italy, 1991), pp. 360–405.

LaVaughn Hales, W.

Liberati, F.

Mainella, G.

M. De Petris, E. Aquilini, M. Canonico, L. D’Addio, P. de Bernardis, G. Mainella, A. Mandiello, L. Martinis, S. Masi, B. Melchiorri, M. Perciballi, F. Scaramuzzi, “MITO: the 2.6 m millimetre telescope at Testa Grigia,” New Astron. 1, 121–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mandiello, A.

M. De Petris, E. Aquilini, M. Canonico, L. D’Addio, P. de Bernardis, G. Mainella, A. Mandiello, L. Martinis, S. Masi, B. Melchiorri, M. Perciballi, F. Scaramuzzi, “MITO: the 2.6 m millimetre telescope at Testa Grigia,” New Astron. 1, 121–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maoli, R.

P. de Bernardis, A. De Luca, M. De Petris, M. Epifani, M. Gervasi, R. Maoli, S. Masi, “The ARGO project: scientific targets, first results and future perspectives,” Nuovo Cimento 15C, 993–1011 (1992).

Martinis, L.

S. Masi, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, A. Boscaleri, E. Aquilini, L. Martinis, F. Scaramuzzi, “Foregrounds removal and CMB fluctuations in a multiband anisotropy experiment: ARGO 1993,” Astrophys. J. 463, L47–L50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. De Petris, E. Aquilini, M. Canonico, L. D’Addio, P. de Bernardis, G. Mainella, A. Mandiello, L. Martinis, S. Masi, B. Melchiorri, M. Perciballi, F. Scaramuzzi, “MITO: the 2.6 m millimetre telescope at Testa Grigia,” New Astron. 1, 121–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “ARGO 1993 observations of interstellar dust emission,” Astrophys. J. 452, 253–261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, G. D’Andreta, M. Gervasi, E. Kreysa, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Degree-scale observations of cosmic microwave background anisotropies,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 422, L33–L36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Palumbo, E. Aquilini, P. Cardoni, P. de Bernardis, A. De Ninno, L. Martinis, S. Masi, F. Scaramuzzi, “Balloon-borne 3He cryostat for millimetre bolometric photometry,” Cryogenics 34, 1001–1005 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, S. Masi, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, L. Valenziano, “ARGO: a balloon-borne telescope for measurements of the millimeter diffuse sky emission,” Astron. Astrophys. 271, 683–696 (1993).

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Multi-band high throughput photometry of diffuse mm and sub-mm radiation,” in Infrared and Submillimetric Astronomy from Space—International School of Space Science—I Course, P. Encrenaz, F. Melchiorri eds. (Scuola Superiore G. Reiss Romoli, L’Aquila, Italy, 1991), pp. 319–341.

Masi, S.

M. De Petris, E. Aquilini, M. Canonico, L. D’Addio, P. de Bernardis, G. Mainella, A. Mandiello, L. Martinis, S. Masi, B. Melchiorri, M. Perciballi, F. Scaramuzzi, “MITO: the 2.6 m millimetre telescope at Testa Grigia,” New Astron. 1, 121–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Masi, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, A. Boscaleri, E. Aquilini, L. Martinis, F. Scaramuzzi, “Foregrounds removal and CMB fluctuations in a multiband anisotropy experiment: ARGO 1993,” Astrophys. J. 463, L47–L50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “ARGO 1993 observations of interstellar dust emission,” Astrophys. J. 452, 253–261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, G. D’Andreta, M. Gervasi, E. Kreysa, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Degree-scale observations of cosmic microwave background anisotropies,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 422, L33–L36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Palumbo, E. Aquilini, P. Cardoni, P. de Bernardis, A. De Ninno, L. Martinis, S. Masi, F. Scaramuzzi, “Balloon-borne 3He cryostat for millimetre bolometric photometry,” Cryogenics 34, 1001–1005 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, S. Masi, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, L. Valenziano, “ARGO: a balloon-borne telescope for measurements of the millimeter diffuse sky emission,” Astron. Astrophys. 271, 683–696 (1993).

P. de Bernardis, A. De Luca, M. De Petris, M. Epifani, M. Gervasi, R. Maoli, S. Masi, “The ARGO project: scientific targets, first results and future perspectives,” Nuovo Cimento 15C, 993–1011 (1992).

P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. Perciballi, G. Romeo, “A resonance wobbling secondary mirror for balloon borne IR telescopes,” Infrared Phys. 29, 1005–1012 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Epifani, M. Gervasi, G. Guarini, S. Masi, “A balloon borne millimetric telescope: experimental study of the thermal gradients on the primary mirror,” Infrared Phys. 28, 243–248 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Multi-band high throughput photometry of diffuse mm and sub-mm radiation,” in Infrared and Submillimetric Astronomy from Space—International School of Space Science—I Course, P. Encrenaz, F. Melchiorri eds. (Scuola Superiore G. Reiss Romoli, L’Aquila, Italy, 1991), pp. 319–341.

Melchiorri, B.

M. De Petris, E. Aquilini, M. Canonico, L. D’Addio, P. de Bernardis, G. Mainella, A. Mandiello, L. Martinis, S. Masi, B. Melchiorri, M. Perciballi, F. Scaramuzzi, “MITO: the 2.6 m millimetre telescope at Testa Grigia,” New Astron. 1, 121–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, S. S.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. K. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Shaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Natale, V.

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “ARGO 1993 observations of interstellar dust emission,” Astrophys. J. 452, 253–261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, S. Masi, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, L. Valenziano, “ARGO: a balloon-borne telescope for measurements of the millimeter diffuse sky emission,” Astron. Astrophys. 271, 683–696 (1993).

Page, L. A.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. K. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Shaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Pajot, F.

J. M. Lamarre, P. Encrenaz, G. Serra, F. Pajot, G. Bellaiche, “Radio and infrared instruments in the submillimeter astronomy project PRONAOS,” J. Opt. 21, 141–149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Palumbo, P.

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “ARGO 1993 observations of interstellar dust emission,” Astrophys. J. 452, 253–261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, G. D’Andreta, M. Gervasi, E. Kreysa, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Degree-scale observations of cosmic microwave background anisotropies,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 422, L33–L36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Palumbo, E. Aquilini, P. Cardoni, P. de Bernardis, A. De Ninno, L. Martinis, S. Masi, F. Scaramuzzi, “Balloon-borne 3He cryostat for millimetre bolometric photometry,” Cryogenics 34, 1001–1005 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, S. Masi, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, L. Valenziano, “ARGO: a balloon-borne telescope for measurements of the millimeter diffuse sky emission,” Astron. Astrophys. 271, 683–696 (1993).

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Multi-band high throughput photometry of diffuse mm and sub-mm radiation,” in Infrared and Submillimetric Astronomy from Space—International School of Space Science—I Course, P. Encrenaz, F. Melchiorri eds. (Scuola Superiore G. Reiss Romoli, L’Aquila, Italy, 1991), pp. 319–341.

Perciballi, M.

M. De Petris, E. Aquilini, M. Canonico, L. D’Addio, P. de Bernardis, G. Mainella, A. Mandiello, L. Martinis, S. Masi, B. Melchiorri, M. Perciballi, F. Scaramuzzi, “MITO: the 2.6 m millimetre telescope at Testa Grigia,” New Astron. 1, 121–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. Perciballi, G. Romeo, “A resonance wobbling secondary mirror for balloon borne IR telescopes,” Infrared Phys. 29, 1005–1012 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Piccirillo, L.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. K. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Shaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Prescott, R.

Puchalla, J. L.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. K. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Shaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Romeo, G.

P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. Perciballi, G. Romeo, “A resonance wobbling secondary mirror for balloon borne IR telescopes,” Infrared Phys. 29, 1005–1012 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ruhl, J.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. K. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Shaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Scaramuzzi, F.

S. Masi, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, A. Boscaleri, E. Aquilini, L. Martinis, F. Scaramuzzi, “Foregrounds removal and CMB fluctuations in a multiband anisotropy experiment: ARGO 1993,” Astrophys. J. 463, L47–L50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. De Petris, E. Aquilini, M. Canonico, L. D’Addio, P. de Bernardis, G. Mainella, A. Mandiello, L. Martinis, S. Masi, B. Melchiorri, M. Perciballi, F. Scaramuzzi, “MITO: the 2.6 m millimetre telescope at Testa Grigia,” New Astron. 1, 121–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “ARGO 1993 observations of interstellar dust emission,” Astrophys. J. 452, 253–261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, G. D’Andreta, M. Gervasi, E. Kreysa, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Degree-scale observations of cosmic microwave background anisotropies,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 422, L33–L36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Palumbo, E. Aquilini, P. Cardoni, P. de Bernardis, A. De Ninno, L. Martinis, S. Masi, F. Scaramuzzi, “Balloon-borne 3He cryostat for millimetre bolometric photometry,” Cryogenics 34, 1001–1005 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, S. Masi, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, L. Valenziano, “ARGO: a balloon-borne telescope for measurements of the millimeter diffuse sky emission,” Astron. Astrophys. 271, 683–696 (1993).

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Multi-band high throughput photometry of diffuse mm and sub-mm radiation,” in Infrared and Submillimetric Astronomy from Space—International School of Space Science—I Course, P. Encrenaz, F. Melchiorri eds. (Scuola Superiore G. Reiss Romoli, L’Aquila, Italy, 1991), pp. 319–341.

Serra, G.

J. M. Lamarre, P. Encrenaz, G. Serra, F. Pajot, G. Bellaiche, “Radio and infrared instruments in the submillimeter astronomy project PRONAOS,” J. Opt. 21, 141–149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shaefer, R. K.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. K. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Shaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Silverberg, R. F.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. K. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Shaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Timbie, P. T.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. K. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Shaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Valenziano, L.

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, S. Masi, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, L. Valenziano, “ARGO: a balloon-borne telescope for measurements of the millimeter diffuse sky emission,” Astron. Astrophys. 271, 683–696 (1993).

Wilson, G.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. K. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Shaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Young, A. T.

Zhou, J. W.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. K. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Shaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, S. Masi, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, L. Valenziano, “ARGO: a balloon-borne telescope for measurements of the millimeter diffuse sky emission,” Astron. Astrophys. 271, 683–696 (1993).

Astrophys. J.

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, V. Natale, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “ARGO 1993 observations of interstellar dust emission,” Astrophys. J. 452, 253–261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Masi, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, A. Boscaleri, E. Aquilini, L. Martinis, F. Scaramuzzi, “Foregrounds removal and CMB fluctuations in a multiband anisotropy experiment: ARGO 1993,” Astrophys. J. 463, L47–L50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. Lett.

P. de Bernardis, E. Aquilini, A. Boscaleri, M. De Petris, G. D’Andreta, M. Gervasi, E. Kreysa, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Degree-scale observations of cosmic microwave background anisotropies,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 422, L33–L36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. Lett. Commun.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. K. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Shaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Cryogenics

P. Palumbo, E. Aquilini, P. Cardoni, P. de Bernardis, A. De Ninno, L. Martinis, S. Masi, F. Scaramuzzi, “Balloon-borne 3He cryostat for millimetre bolometric photometry,” Cryogenics 34, 1001–1005 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys.

P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Epifani, M. Gervasi, G. Guarini, S. Masi, “A balloon borne millimetric telescope: experimental study of the thermal gradients on the primary mirror,” Infrared Phys. 28, 243–248 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. Perciballi, G. Romeo, “A resonance wobbling secondary mirror for balloon borne IR telescopes,” Infrared Phys. 29, 1005–1012 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

J. M. Lamarre, P. Encrenaz, G. Serra, F. Pajot, G. Bellaiche, “Radio and infrared instruments in the submillimeter astronomy project PRONAOS,” J. Opt. 21, 141–149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

New Astron.

M. De Petris, E. Aquilini, M. Canonico, L. D’Addio, P. de Bernardis, G. Mainella, A. Mandiello, L. Martinis, S. Masi, B. Melchiorri, M. Perciballi, F. Scaramuzzi, “MITO: the 2.6 m millimetre telescope at Testa Grigia,” New Astron. 1, 121–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nuovo Cimento

P. de Bernardis, A. De Luca, M. De Petris, M. Epifani, M. Gervasi, R. Maoli, S. Masi, “The ARGO project: scientific targets, first results and future perspectives,” Nuovo Cimento 15C, 993–1011 (1992).

Other

S. Masi, E. Aquilini, P. de Bernardis, M. De Petris, M. Gervasi, L. Martinis, P. Palumbo, F. Scaramuzzi, “Multi-band high throughput photometry of diffuse mm and sub-mm radiation,” in Infrared and Submillimetric Astronomy from Space—International School of Space Science—I Course, P. Encrenaz, F. Melchiorri eds. (Scuola Superiore G. Reiss Romoli, L’Aquila, Italy, 1991), pp. 319–341.

E. S. Cheng, “The MSAM/Top Hat Program for measuring the CMBR anisotropy,” in J. L. Sanz, E. Martinez Gonzales, L. Cayon, eds., Present and Future of the Cosmic Microwave Background, Vol. 429 of Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994), pp. 76–79.
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lamarre, “Cold versus warm telescopes in space,” in Infrared and Submillimetric Astronomy from Space—International School of Space Science—I Course, P. Encrenaz, F. Melchiorri, eds. (Scuola Superiore G. Reiss Romoli, L’Aquila, Italy, 1991), pp. 360–405.

R. P. Breault, “Problems and techniques in stray radiation suppression,” in Stray Light Problems in Optical Systems, J. D. Lytle, H. Morrow, eds., Proc. SPIE107, 2–23 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Greynolds, “Computer-assisted design of well-baffled axially symmetric optical systems,” in Optical Systems Engineering, P. R. Yoder, ed. Proc. SPIE193, 129–140 (1979).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

ARGO telescope. The primary (PM) and secondary (SM) mirrors are shown, together with the two baffles (B1 and B2), the main shield and its vanes (V), and the modulation system (M). The telescope is mounted on a balloon payload and is pointing at a fixed elevation angle of 45°. The primary baffle shown (B1) is the first, absorbing, version.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometry of the vanes present on the main shield. In the upper part of the shield (910 mm long) the reflecting vanes are 45° off the optical axis. In the lower side of the shield (590 mm long) the reflecting surfaces are placed at 30° and 60° from the axis of the telescope. The extreme rays (A, B, and C, D) of the fans that are completely rejected are also shown. The optical axis is 45° from the zenith.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured angular response of the ARGO telescope. The curve with diamonds represents the response with the baffles, described in the text; the curve with crosses is the same measurement without baffles. It is evident that the sidelobes at ∼3° from the optical axis, which are due to spurious reflections at the hole on the primary, are efficiently reduced by the baffles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Improved reflecting baffle (B) located between the photometer window (W) and the hole of the primary mirror (M). The baffle works by shielding the radiation coming from the rear side of the primary mirror and rejecting the out-of-field radiation collected by primary and secondary mirrors (an example is shown). The entrance aperture of the parabolic concentrator (C) is also shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Rejection factor of the reflecting primary baffle: ratio of the number of rays going into the photometer aperture, after reflection on the baffle, over the total number of rays impinging upon the baffle, as a function of the angle with respect to the optical axis. The solid curve is for the baffle with vane steps with constant depth; the dotted curve is for the solution in which vane steps are increasing toward the photometer side. (b) Evaluated geometrical angular response of the telescope. The out-of-field rays introduced by the baffle are stressed (dotted curve). The angular response of the telescope complete with baffle and parabolic concentrator (solid curve) is free from these unwanted rays. Only the results for the baffle with constant vane steps are shown. For the other solution the results are similar.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Three possible beam shapes of the photometer to be coupled with the ARGO telescope: a Gaussian beam shape f/4.5 (dashed curve); a Gaussian beam shape f/3 (dotted curve); a squarelike beam shape with a Gaussian f/9.5 tail (solid curve). The solid curve is the best fit of one of the four channels of the photometer operated on the last flight (4 August 1993).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Signals δT Generated by the Primary Conical Baffle (μK)

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