Abstract

Chromium aluminum oxide was chosen as a new candidate for use as an attenuated phase-shifting mask (Att-PSM) material. The compositions of films were correlated with optical properties. With the measured and the fitted data, we simulated the transmittance and the phase shift using the matrix method. Consequently, we acquired optimum parameters for Att-PSM’s, such as Al/Cr = 1.9–2.5 and d = 120 nm at a 193-nm wavelength, Al/Cr = 1.0–1.7 and d = 128 nm at a 248-nm wavelength, and Al/Cr = 0–0.1 and d = 170 nm at a 365-nm wavelength. This simulation was verified by transmittance measurement.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. F. Thompson, C. G. Willson, M. J. Bowden, Introduction to Microlithography, 2nd ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 78–81.
  2. M. D. Levenson, N. S. Viswanathan, R. A. Simpson, “Improving resolution in photolithography with a phase-shifting mask,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-29, 1828–1836 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. K. Shih, D. B. Dove, “Thin film materials for the preparation of attenuating phase shift masks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 32–36 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Pierrat, S. Vaidya, “Required optical characteristics of materials for phase-shifting masks,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4923–4928 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Z.-T. Jiang, S. Hong, E. Kim, B.-S. Bae, K. No, C. K. Hwangbo, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Optical property simulation of single-layer halftone phaseshifting masks for DUV microlithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1450–1455 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Ronse, R. Pforr, K.-H. Baik, R. Jonckheere, L. Ban den hove, “Optimization of the optical phase shift in attenuated PSM and application to quarter micrometer deep-UV lithography for logics,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 86–98 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Ito, H. Hazama, T. Kamo, H. Miyazaki, H. Sato, K. Hayashi, H. Shigemitsu, I. Mori, “Optimization of optical properties for single-layer halftone masks,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 99–110 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Nakajima, N. Yoshioka, J. Miyazaki, H. Kusunose, K. Hosono, H. Morimoto, W. Wakamiya, K. Murayama, Y. Watakabe, K. Tsukamoto, “Attenuated phase-shifting mask with a single-layer absorptive shifter of CrO, CrON, MoSiO, and MoSiON film,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 111–121 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Mikami, H. Mohri, H. Miyashita, N. Hayashi, H. Sano, “Development and evaluation of chromium-based attenuated phase shift masks for DUV exposure,” in Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, H. Yoshihara, ed., Proc. SPIE2512, 333–342 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Kawano, M. Asano, S. Tanaka, T. Iwamatsu, H. Sato, S. Ito, “Lithography performance of SiNx single-layer halftone mask,” in Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, H. Yoshihara, ed., Proc. SPIE2512, 348–355 (1995).
  11. H. Mohri, M. Takahashi, K. Mikami, H. Miyashita, N. Hayashi, H. Sano, “Chromium-based attenuated phase shifter for DUV exposure,” in 14th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, W. L. Brodsky, G. V. Sheldon, eds., Proc. SPIE2322, 288–298 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Iwabuchi, J. Ushioda, H. Tanabe, Y. Ogura, S. Kishida, “Monolayer halftone phase-shifting mask for KrF excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, Part 1 (12B), 5900–5902 (1993).
  13. H. Mitsui, H. Sakai, Y. Yamaguchi, “Development of the W/Si film for the single-layered attenuated phase shifting mask for 248-nm lithography,” in Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, H. Yoshihara, ed., Proc. SPIE2512, 343–347 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Callegari, A. T. Pomerene, H. J. Hovel, E. D. Babich, S. Purushothaman, J. M. Shaw, “Optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous-carbon film for attenuated phase-shift mask applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2697–2699 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Matsuo, K. Ohkubo, T. Haraguchi, K. Ueyama, “Zr-based films for attenuated phase shift mask,” in Digest of Abstracts, Photomask Japan ’97 (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 48–49.
  16. E. Kim, S. Hong, K.-S. Kim, Z.-T. Jiang, D.-W. Kim, S. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, K. No, “Simulation and fabrication of attenuated phase-shifting masks: CrFx,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7247–7256 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Kim, S. Hong, J. D. Gorman, S. Lim, S.-Y. Moon, D.-W. Kim, K. No, “Water-induced degradation of chromium fluoride films,” to be published in Thin Solid Films (1998).
  18. Y. Seki, J. Ushioda, T. Saito, K. Maeda, K. Nakano, S. Iwasa, T. Ohfuji, H. Tanabe, “ArF excimer laser exposure durability of chromium fluoride attenuated phase-shift masks,” in Digest of Abstracts, Photomask Japan ’97 (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 94–95.
  19. R. S. Roth, J. R. Dennis, H. F. McMurdie, Phase Diagrams for Ceramists (The American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 1964), Vol. 1, p. 121.
  20. S. Hong, E. Kim, Z.-T. Jiang, K. No, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Effects of gas ring position and mesh introduction on film quality and thickness uniformity,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 45, iss 1–3, 98–101 (1997).

1997 (2)

E. Kim, S. Hong, K.-S. Kim, Z.-T. Jiang, D.-W. Kim, S. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, K. No, “Simulation and fabrication of attenuated phase-shifting masks: CrFx,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7247–7256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Hong, E. Kim, Z.-T. Jiang, K. No, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Effects of gas ring position and mesh introduction on film quality and thickness uniformity,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 45, iss 1–3, 98–101 (1997).

1996 (1)

Z.-T. Jiang, S. Hong, E. Kim, B.-S. Bae, K. No, C. K. Hwangbo, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Optical property simulation of single-layer halftone phaseshifting masks for DUV microlithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1450–1455 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

K. K. Shih, D. B. Dove, “Thin film materials for the preparation of attenuating phase shift masks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 32–36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

Y. Iwabuchi, J. Ushioda, H. Tanabe, Y. Ogura, S. Kishida, “Monolayer halftone phase-shifting mask for KrF excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, Part 1 (12B), 5900–5902 (1993).

A. Callegari, A. T. Pomerene, H. J. Hovel, E. D. Babich, S. Purushothaman, J. M. Shaw, “Optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous-carbon film for attenuated phase-shift mask applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2697–2699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

M. D. Levenson, N. S. Viswanathan, R. A. Simpson, “Improving resolution in photolithography with a phase-shifting mask,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-29, 1828–1836 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Asano, M.

K. Kawano, M. Asano, S. Tanaka, T. Iwamatsu, H. Sato, S. Ito, “Lithography performance of SiNx single-layer halftone mask,” in Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, H. Yoshihara, ed., Proc. SPIE2512, 348–355 (1995).

Babich, E. D.

A. Callegari, A. T. Pomerene, H. J. Hovel, E. D. Babich, S. Purushothaman, J. M. Shaw, “Optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous-carbon film for attenuated phase-shift mask applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2697–2699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bae, B.-S.

Z.-T. Jiang, S. Hong, E. Kim, B.-S. Bae, K. No, C. K. Hwangbo, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Optical property simulation of single-layer halftone phaseshifting masks for DUV microlithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1450–1455 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baik, K.-H.

K. Ronse, R. Pforr, K.-H. Baik, R. Jonckheere, L. Ban den hove, “Optimization of the optical phase shift in attenuated PSM and application to quarter micrometer deep-UV lithography for logics,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 86–98 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ban den hove, L.

K. Ronse, R. Pforr, K.-H. Baik, R. Jonckheere, L. Ban den hove, “Optimization of the optical phase shift in attenuated PSM and application to quarter micrometer deep-UV lithography for logics,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 86–98 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, M. J.

L. F. Thompson, C. G. Willson, M. J. Bowden, Introduction to Microlithography, 2nd ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 78–81.

Callegari, A.

A. Callegari, A. T. Pomerene, H. J. Hovel, E. D. Babich, S. Purushothaman, J. M. Shaw, “Optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous-carbon film for attenuated phase-shift mask applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2697–2699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, J. R.

R. S. Roth, J. R. Dennis, H. F. McMurdie, Phase Diagrams for Ceramists (The American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 1964), Vol. 1, p. 121.

Dove, D. B.

K. K. Shih, D. B. Dove, “Thin film materials for the preparation of attenuating phase shift masks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 32–36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gorman, J. D.

E. Kim, S. Hong, J. D. Gorman, S. Lim, S.-Y. Moon, D.-W. Kim, K. No, “Water-induced degradation of chromium fluoride films,” to be published in Thin Solid Films (1998).

Haraguchi, T.

T. Matsuo, K. Ohkubo, T. Haraguchi, K. Ueyama, “Zr-based films for attenuated phase shift mask,” in Digest of Abstracts, Photomask Japan ’97 (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 48–49.

Hayashi, K.

S. Ito, H. Hazama, T. Kamo, H. Miyazaki, H. Sato, K. Hayashi, H. Shigemitsu, I. Mori, “Optimization of optical properties for single-layer halftone masks,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 99–110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, N.

H. Mohri, M. Takahashi, K. Mikami, H. Miyashita, N. Hayashi, H. Sano, “Chromium-based attenuated phase shifter for DUV exposure,” in 14th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, W. L. Brodsky, G. V. Sheldon, eds., Proc. SPIE2322, 288–298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Mikami, H. Mohri, H. Miyashita, N. Hayashi, H. Sano, “Development and evaluation of chromium-based attenuated phase shift masks for DUV exposure,” in Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, H. Yoshihara, ed., Proc. SPIE2512, 333–342 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hazama, H.

S. Ito, H. Hazama, T. Kamo, H. Miyazaki, H. Sato, K. Hayashi, H. Shigemitsu, I. Mori, “Optimization of optical properties for single-layer halftone masks,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 99–110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S.

E. Kim, S. Hong, K.-S. Kim, Z.-T. Jiang, D.-W. Kim, S. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, K. No, “Simulation and fabrication of attenuated phase-shifting masks: CrFx,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7247–7256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Hong, E. Kim, Z.-T. Jiang, K. No, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Effects of gas ring position and mesh introduction on film quality and thickness uniformity,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 45, iss 1–3, 98–101 (1997).

Z.-T. Jiang, S. Hong, E. Kim, B.-S. Bae, K. No, C. K. Hwangbo, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Optical property simulation of single-layer halftone phaseshifting masks for DUV microlithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1450–1455 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, S. Hong, J. D. Gorman, S. Lim, S.-Y. Moon, D.-W. Kim, K. No, “Water-induced degradation of chromium fluoride films,” to be published in Thin Solid Films (1998).

Hosono, K.

M. Nakajima, N. Yoshioka, J. Miyazaki, H. Kusunose, K. Hosono, H. Morimoto, W. Wakamiya, K. Murayama, Y. Watakabe, K. Tsukamoto, “Attenuated phase-shifting mask with a single-layer absorptive shifter of CrO, CrON, MoSiO, and MoSiON film,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 111–121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hovel, H. J.

A. Callegari, A. T. Pomerene, H. J. Hovel, E. D. Babich, S. Purushothaman, J. M. Shaw, “Optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous-carbon film for attenuated phase-shift mask applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2697–2699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hwangbo, C. K.

Z.-T. Jiang, S. Hong, E. Kim, B.-S. Bae, K. No, C. K. Hwangbo, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Optical property simulation of single-layer halftone phaseshifting masks for DUV microlithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1450–1455 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ito, S.

S. Ito, H. Hazama, T. Kamo, H. Miyazaki, H. Sato, K. Hayashi, H. Shigemitsu, I. Mori, “Optimization of optical properties for single-layer halftone masks,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 99–110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawano, M. Asano, S. Tanaka, T. Iwamatsu, H. Sato, S. Ito, “Lithography performance of SiNx single-layer halftone mask,” in Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, H. Yoshihara, ed., Proc. SPIE2512, 348–355 (1995).

Iwabuchi, Y.

Y. Iwabuchi, J. Ushioda, H. Tanabe, Y. Ogura, S. Kishida, “Monolayer halftone phase-shifting mask for KrF excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, Part 1 (12B), 5900–5902 (1993).

Iwamatsu, T.

K. Kawano, M. Asano, S. Tanaka, T. Iwamatsu, H. Sato, S. Ito, “Lithography performance of SiNx single-layer halftone mask,” in Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, H. Yoshihara, ed., Proc. SPIE2512, 348–355 (1995).

Iwasa, S.

Y. Seki, J. Ushioda, T. Saito, K. Maeda, K. Nakano, S. Iwasa, T. Ohfuji, H. Tanabe, “ArF excimer laser exposure durability of chromium fluoride attenuated phase-shift masks,” in Digest of Abstracts, Photomask Japan ’97 (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 94–95.

Jiang, Z.-T.

E. Kim, S. Hong, K.-S. Kim, Z.-T. Jiang, D.-W. Kim, S. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, K. No, “Simulation and fabrication of attenuated phase-shifting masks: CrFx,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7247–7256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Hong, E. Kim, Z.-T. Jiang, K. No, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Effects of gas ring position and mesh introduction on film quality and thickness uniformity,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 45, iss 1–3, 98–101 (1997).

Z.-T. Jiang, S. Hong, E. Kim, B.-S. Bae, K. No, C. K. Hwangbo, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Optical property simulation of single-layer halftone phaseshifting masks for DUV microlithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1450–1455 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jonckheere, R.

K. Ronse, R. Pforr, K.-H. Baik, R. Jonckheere, L. Ban den hove, “Optimization of the optical phase shift in attenuated PSM and application to quarter micrometer deep-UV lithography for logics,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 86–98 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kamo, T.

S. Ito, H. Hazama, T. Kamo, H. Miyazaki, H. Sato, K. Hayashi, H. Shigemitsu, I. Mori, “Optimization of optical properties for single-layer halftone masks,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 99–110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, K.

K. Kawano, M. Asano, S. Tanaka, T. Iwamatsu, H. Sato, S. Ito, “Lithography performance of SiNx single-layer halftone mask,” in Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, H. Yoshihara, ed., Proc. SPIE2512, 348–355 (1995).

Kim, D.-W.

E. Kim, S. Hong, K.-S. Kim, Z.-T. Jiang, D.-W. Kim, S. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, K. No, “Simulation and fabrication of attenuated phase-shifting masks: CrFx,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7247–7256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, S. Hong, J. D. Gorman, S. Lim, S.-Y. Moon, D.-W. Kim, K. No, “Water-induced degradation of chromium fluoride films,” to be published in Thin Solid Films (1998).

Kim, E.

S. Hong, E. Kim, Z.-T. Jiang, K. No, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Effects of gas ring position and mesh introduction on film quality and thickness uniformity,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 45, iss 1–3, 98–101 (1997).

E. Kim, S. Hong, K.-S. Kim, Z.-T. Jiang, D.-W. Kim, S. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, K. No, “Simulation and fabrication of attenuated phase-shifting masks: CrFx,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7247–7256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z.-T. Jiang, S. Hong, E. Kim, B.-S. Bae, K. No, C. K. Hwangbo, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Optical property simulation of single-layer halftone phaseshifting masks for DUV microlithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1450–1455 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, S. Hong, J. D. Gorman, S. Lim, S.-Y. Moon, D.-W. Kim, K. No, “Water-induced degradation of chromium fluoride films,” to be published in Thin Solid Films (1998).

Kim, K.-S.

Kishida, S.

Y. Iwabuchi, J. Ushioda, H. Tanabe, Y. Ogura, S. Kishida, “Monolayer halftone phase-shifting mask for KrF excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, Part 1 (12B), 5900–5902 (1993).

Koh, Y.-B.

E. Kim, S. Hong, K.-S. Kim, Z.-T. Jiang, D.-W. Kim, S. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, K. No, “Simulation and fabrication of attenuated phase-shifting masks: CrFx,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7247–7256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Hong, E. Kim, Z.-T. Jiang, K. No, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Effects of gas ring position and mesh introduction on film quality and thickness uniformity,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 45, iss 1–3, 98–101 (1997).

Z.-T. Jiang, S. Hong, E. Kim, B.-S. Bae, K. No, C. K. Hwangbo, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Optical property simulation of single-layer halftone phaseshifting masks for DUV microlithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1450–1455 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kusunose, H.

M. Nakajima, N. Yoshioka, J. Miyazaki, H. Kusunose, K. Hosono, H. Morimoto, W. Wakamiya, K. Murayama, Y. Watakabe, K. Tsukamoto, “Attenuated phase-shifting mask with a single-layer absorptive shifter of CrO, CrON, MoSiO, and MoSiON film,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 111–121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, M. D.

M. D. Levenson, N. S. Viswanathan, R. A. Simpson, “Improving resolution in photolithography with a phase-shifting mask,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-29, 1828–1836 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S.

E. Kim, S. Hong, K.-S. Kim, Z.-T. Jiang, D.-W. Kim, S. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, K. No, “Simulation and fabrication of attenuated phase-shifting masks: CrFx,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7247–7256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, S. Hong, J. D. Gorman, S. Lim, S.-Y. Moon, D.-W. Kim, K. No, “Water-induced degradation of chromium fluoride films,” to be published in Thin Solid Films (1998).

Lim, S.-C.

S. Hong, E. Kim, Z.-T. Jiang, K. No, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Effects of gas ring position and mesh introduction on film quality and thickness uniformity,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 45, iss 1–3, 98–101 (1997).

Z.-T. Jiang, S. Hong, E. Kim, B.-S. Bae, K. No, C. K. Hwangbo, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Optical property simulation of single-layer halftone phaseshifting masks for DUV microlithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1450–1455 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, K.

Y. Seki, J. Ushioda, T. Saito, K. Maeda, K. Nakano, S. Iwasa, T. Ohfuji, H. Tanabe, “ArF excimer laser exposure durability of chromium fluoride attenuated phase-shift masks,” in Digest of Abstracts, Photomask Japan ’97 (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 94–95.

Matsuo, T.

T. Matsuo, K. Ohkubo, T. Haraguchi, K. Ueyama, “Zr-based films for attenuated phase shift mask,” in Digest of Abstracts, Photomask Japan ’97 (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 48–49.

McMurdie, H. F.

R. S. Roth, J. R. Dennis, H. F. McMurdie, Phase Diagrams for Ceramists (The American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 1964), Vol. 1, p. 121.

Mikami, K.

H. Mohri, M. Takahashi, K. Mikami, H. Miyashita, N. Hayashi, H. Sano, “Chromium-based attenuated phase shifter for DUV exposure,” in 14th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, W. L. Brodsky, G. V. Sheldon, eds., Proc. SPIE2322, 288–298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Mikami, H. Mohri, H. Miyashita, N. Hayashi, H. Sano, “Development and evaluation of chromium-based attenuated phase shift masks for DUV exposure,” in Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, H. Yoshihara, ed., Proc. SPIE2512, 333–342 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mitsui, H.

H. Mitsui, H. Sakai, Y. Yamaguchi, “Development of the W/Si film for the single-layered attenuated phase shifting mask for 248-nm lithography,” in Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, H. Yoshihara, ed., Proc. SPIE2512, 343–347 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, H.

H. Mohri, M. Takahashi, K. Mikami, H. Miyashita, N. Hayashi, H. Sano, “Chromium-based attenuated phase shifter for DUV exposure,” in 14th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, W. L. Brodsky, G. V. Sheldon, eds., Proc. SPIE2322, 288–298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Mikami, H. Mohri, H. Miyashita, N. Hayashi, H. Sano, “Development and evaluation of chromium-based attenuated phase shift masks for DUV exposure,” in Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, H. Yoshihara, ed., Proc. SPIE2512, 333–342 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, H.

S. Ito, H. Hazama, T. Kamo, H. Miyazaki, H. Sato, K. Hayashi, H. Shigemitsu, I. Mori, “Optimization of optical properties for single-layer halftone masks,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 99–110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, J.

M. Nakajima, N. Yoshioka, J. Miyazaki, H. Kusunose, K. Hosono, H. Morimoto, W. Wakamiya, K. Murayama, Y. Watakabe, K. Tsukamoto, “Attenuated phase-shifting mask with a single-layer absorptive shifter of CrO, CrON, MoSiO, and MoSiON film,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 111–121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mohri, H.

K. Mikami, H. Mohri, H. Miyashita, N. Hayashi, H. Sano, “Development and evaluation of chromium-based attenuated phase shift masks for DUV exposure,” in Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, H. Yoshihara, ed., Proc. SPIE2512, 333–342 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Mohri, M. Takahashi, K. Mikami, H. Miyashita, N. Hayashi, H. Sano, “Chromium-based attenuated phase shifter for DUV exposure,” in 14th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, W. L. Brodsky, G. V. Sheldon, eds., Proc. SPIE2322, 288–298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moon, S.-Y.

E. Kim, S. Hong, J. D. Gorman, S. Lim, S.-Y. Moon, D.-W. Kim, K. No, “Water-induced degradation of chromium fluoride films,” to be published in Thin Solid Films (1998).

Mori, I.

S. Ito, H. Hazama, T. Kamo, H. Miyazaki, H. Sato, K. Hayashi, H. Shigemitsu, I. Mori, “Optimization of optical properties for single-layer halftone masks,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 99–110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, H.

M. Nakajima, N. Yoshioka, J. Miyazaki, H. Kusunose, K. Hosono, H. Morimoto, W. Wakamiya, K. Murayama, Y. Watakabe, K. Tsukamoto, “Attenuated phase-shifting mask with a single-layer absorptive shifter of CrO, CrON, MoSiO, and MoSiON film,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 111–121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murayama, K.

M. Nakajima, N. Yoshioka, J. Miyazaki, H. Kusunose, K. Hosono, H. Morimoto, W. Wakamiya, K. Murayama, Y. Watakabe, K. Tsukamoto, “Attenuated phase-shifting mask with a single-layer absorptive shifter of CrO, CrON, MoSiO, and MoSiON film,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 111–121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, M.

M. Nakajima, N. Yoshioka, J. Miyazaki, H. Kusunose, K. Hosono, H. Morimoto, W. Wakamiya, K. Murayama, Y. Watakabe, K. Tsukamoto, “Attenuated phase-shifting mask with a single-layer absorptive shifter of CrO, CrON, MoSiO, and MoSiON film,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 111–121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, K.

Y. Seki, J. Ushioda, T. Saito, K. Maeda, K. Nakano, S. Iwasa, T. Ohfuji, H. Tanabe, “ArF excimer laser exposure durability of chromium fluoride attenuated phase-shift masks,” in Digest of Abstracts, Photomask Japan ’97 (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 94–95.

No, K.

E. Kim, S. Hong, K.-S. Kim, Z.-T. Jiang, D.-W. Kim, S. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, K. No, “Simulation and fabrication of attenuated phase-shifting masks: CrFx,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7247–7256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Hong, E. Kim, Z.-T. Jiang, K. No, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Effects of gas ring position and mesh introduction on film quality and thickness uniformity,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 45, iss 1–3, 98–101 (1997).

Z.-T. Jiang, S. Hong, E. Kim, B.-S. Bae, K. No, C. K. Hwangbo, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Optical property simulation of single-layer halftone phaseshifting masks for DUV microlithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1450–1455 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, S. Hong, J. D. Gorman, S. Lim, S.-Y. Moon, D.-W. Kim, K. No, “Water-induced degradation of chromium fluoride films,” to be published in Thin Solid Films (1998).

Ogura, Y.

Y. Iwabuchi, J. Ushioda, H. Tanabe, Y. Ogura, S. Kishida, “Monolayer halftone phase-shifting mask for KrF excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, Part 1 (12B), 5900–5902 (1993).

Ohfuji, T.

Y. Seki, J. Ushioda, T. Saito, K. Maeda, K. Nakano, S. Iwasa, T. Ohfuji, H. Tanabe, “ArF excimer laser exposure durability of chromium fluoride attenuated phase-shift masks,” in Digest of Abstracts, Photomask Japan ’97 (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 94–95.

Ohkubo, K.

T. Matsuo, K. Ohkubo, T. Haraguchi, K. Ueyama, “Zr-based films for attenuated phase shift mask,” in Digest of Abstracts, Photomask Japan ’97 (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 48–49.

Pforr, R.

K. Ronse, R. Pforr, K.-H. Baik, R. Jonckheere, L. Ban den hove, “Optimization of the optical phase shift in attenuated PSM and application to quarter micrometer deep-UV lithography for logics,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 86–98 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pierrat, C.

Pomerene, A. T.

A. Callegari, A. T. Pomerene, H. J. Hovel, E. D. Babich, S. Purushothaman, J. M. Shaw, “Optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous-carbon film for attenuated phase-shift mask applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2697–2699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Purushothaman, S.

A. Callegari, A. T. Pomerene, H. J. Hovel, E. D. Babich, S. Purushothaman, J. M. Shaw, “Optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous-carbon film for attenuated phase-shift mask applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2697–2699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ronse, K.

K. Ronse, R. Pforr, K.-H. Baik, R. Jonckheere, L. Ban den hove, “Optimization of the optical phase shift in attenuated PSM and application to quarter micrometer deep-UV lithography for logics,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 86–98 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roth, R. S.

R. S. Roth, J. R. Dennis, H. F. McMurdie, Phase Diagrams for Ceramists (The American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 1964), Vol. 1, p. 121.

Saito, T.

Y. Seki, J. Ushioda, T. Saito, K. Maeda, K. Nakano, S. Iwasa, T. Ohfuji, H. Tanabe, “ArF excimer laser exposure durability of chromium fluoride attenuated phase-shift masks,” in Digest of Abstracts, Photomask Japan ’97 (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 94–95.

Sakai, H.

H. Mitsui, H. Sakai, Y. Yamaguchi, “Development of the W/Si film for the single-layered attenuated phase shifting mask for 248-nm lithography,” in Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, H. Yoshihara, ed., Proc. SPIE2512, 343–347 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sano, H.

H. Mohri, M. Takahashi, K. Mikami, H. Miyashita, N. Hayashi, H. Sano, “Chromium-based attenuated phase shifter for DUV exposure,” in 14th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, W. L. Brodsky, G. V. Sheldon, eds., Proc. SPIE2322, 288–298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Mikami, H. Mohri, H. Miyashita, N. Hayashi, H. Sano, “Development and evaluation of chromium-based attenuated phase shift masks for DUV exposure,” in Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, H. Yoshihara, ed., Proc. SPIE2512, 333–342 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

K. Kawano, M. Asano, S. Tanaka, T. Iwamatsu, H. Sato, S. Ito, “Lithography performance of SiNx single-layer halftone mask,” in Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, H. Yoshihara, ed., Proc. SPIE2512, 348–355 (1995).

S. Ito, H. Hazama, T. Kamo, H. Miyazaki, H. Sato, K. Hayashi, H. Shigemitsu, I. Mori, “Optimization of optical properties for single-layer halftone masks,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 99–110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Seki, Y.

Y. Seki, J. Ushioda, T. Saito, K. Maeda, K. Nakano, S. Iwasa, T. Ohfuji, H. Tanabe, “ArF excimer laser exposure durability of chromium fluoride attenuated phase-shift masks,” in Digest of Abstracts, Photomask Japan ’97 (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 94–95.

Shaw, J. M.

A. Callegari, A. T. Pomerene, H. J. Hovel, E. D. Babich, S. Purushothaman, J. M. Shaw, “Optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous-carbon film for attenuated phase-shift mask applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2697–2699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shigemitsu, H.

S. Ito, H. Hazama, T. Kamo, H. Miyazaki, H. Sato, K. Hayashi, H. Shigemitsu, I. Mori, “Optimization of optical properties for single-layer halftone masks,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 99–110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shih, K. K.

K. K. Shih, D. B. Dove, “Thin film materials for the preparation of attenuating phase shift masks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 32–36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, R. A.

M. D. Levenson, N. S. Viswanathan, R. A. Simpson, “Improving resolution in photolithography with a phase-shifting mask,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-29, 1828–1836 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

H. Mohri, M. Takahashi, K. Mikami, H. Miyashita, N. Hayashi, H. Sano, “Chromium-based attenuated phase shifter for DUV exposure,” in 14th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, W. L. Brodsky, G. V. Sheldon, eds., Proc. SPIE2322, 288–298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, H.

Y. Iwabuchi, J. Ushioda, H. Tanabe, Y. Ogura, S. Kishida, “Monolayer halftone phase-shifting mask for KrF excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, Part 1 (12B), 5900–5902 (1993).

Y. Seki, J. Ushioda, T. Saito, K. Maeda, K. Nakano, S. Iwasa, T. Ohfuji, H. Tanabe, “ArF excimer laser exposure durability of chromium fluoride attenuated phase-shift masks,” in Digest of Abstracts, Photomask Japan ’97 (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 94–95.

Tanaka, S.

K. Kawano, M. Asano, S. Tanaka, T. Iwamatsu, H. Sato, S. Ito, “Lithography performance of SiNx single-layer halftone mask,” in Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, H. Yoshihara, ed., Proc. SPIE2512, 348–355 (1995).

Thompson, L. F.

L. F. Thompson, C. G. Willson, M. J. Bowden, Introduction to Microlithography, 2nd ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 78–81.

Tsukamoto, K.

M. Nakajima, N. Yoshioka, J. Miyazaki, H. Kusunose, K. Hosono, H. Morimoto, W. Wakamiya, K. Murayama, Y. Watakabe, K. Tsukamoto, “Attenuated phase-shifting mask with a single-layer absorptive shifter of CrO, CrON, MoSiO, and MoSiON film,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 111–121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ueyama, K.

T. Matsuo, K. Ohkubo, T. Haraguchi, K. Ueyama, “Zr-based films for attenuated phase shift mask,” in Digest of Abstracts, Photomask Japan ’97 (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 48–49.

Ushioda, J.

Y. Iwabuchi, J. Ushioda, H. Tanabe, Y. Ogura, S. Kishida, “Monolayer halftone phase-shifting mask for KrF excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, Part 1 (12B), 5900–5902 (1993).

Y. Seki, J. Ushioda, T. Saito, K. Maeda, K. Nakano, S. Iwasa, T. Ohfuji, H. Tanabe, “ArF excimer laser exposure durability of chromium fluoride attenuated phase-shift masks,” in Digest of Abstracts, Photomask Japan ’97 (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 94–95.

Vaidya, S.

Viswanathan, N. S.

M. D. Levenson, N. S. Viswanathan, R. A. Simpson, “Improving resolution in photolithography with a phase-shifting mask,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-29, 1828–1836 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wakamiya, W.

M. Nakajima, N. Yoshioka, J. Miyazaki, H. Kusunose, K. Hosono, H. Morimoto, W. Wakamiya, K. Murayama, Y. Watakabe, K. Tsukamoto, “Attenuated phase-shifting mask with a single-layer absorptive shifter of CrO, CrON, MoSiO, and MoSiON film,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 111–121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Watakabe, Y.

M. Nakajima, N. Yoshioka, J. Miyazaki, H. Kusunose, K. Hosono, H. Morimoto, W. Wakamiya, K. Murayama, Y. Watakabe, K. Tsukamoto, “Attenuated phase-shifting mask with a single-layer absorptive shifter of CrO, CrON, MoSiO, and MoSiON film,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 111–121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Willson, C. G.

L. F. Thompson, C. G. Willson, M. J. Bowden, Introduction to Microlithography, 2nd ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 78–81.

Woo, S.-G.

E. Kim, S. Hong, K.-S. Kim, Z.-T. Jiang, D.-W. Kim, S. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, K. No, “Simulation and fabrication of attenuated phase-shifting masks: CrFx,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7247–7256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Hong, E. Kim, Z.-T. Jiang, K. No, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Effects of gas ring position and mesh introduction on film quality and thickness uniformity,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 45, iss 1–3, 98–101 (1997).

Z.-T. Jiang, S. Hong, E. Kim, B.-S. Bae, K. No, C. K. Hwangbo, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Optical property simulation of single-layer halftone phaseshifting masks for DUV microlithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1450–1455 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, Y.

H. Mitsui, H. Sakai, Y. Yamaguchi, “Development of the W/Si film for the single-layered attenuated phase shifting mask for 248-nm lithography,” in Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, H. Yoshihara, ed., Proc. SPIE2512, 343–347 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yoshioka, N.

M. Nakajima, N. Yoshioka, J. Miyazaki, H. Kusunose, K. Hosono, H. Morimoto, W. Wakamiya, K. Murayama, Y. Watakabe, K. Tsukamoto, “Attenuated phase-shifting mask with a single-layer absorptive shifter of CrO, CrON, MoSiO, and MoSiON film,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 111–121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (1)

M. D. Levenson, N. S. Viswanathan, R. A. Simpson, “Improving resolution in photolithography with a phase-shifting mask,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-29, 1828–1836 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

K. K. Shih, D. B. Dove, “Thin film materials for the preparation of attenuating phase shift masks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 32–36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Callegari, A. T. Pomerene, H. J. Hovel, E. D. Babich, S. Purushothaman, J. M. Shaw, “Optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous-carbon film for attenuated phase-shift mask applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2697–2699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Iwabuchi, J. Ushioda, H. Tanabe, Y. Ogura, S. Kishida, “Monolayer halftone phase-shifting mask for KrF excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, Part 1 (12B), 5900–5902 (1993).

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

S. Hong, E. Kim, Z.-T. Jiang, K. No, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Effects of gas ring position and mesh introduction on film quality and thickness uniformity,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 45, iss 1–3, 98–101 (1997).

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

Z.-T. Jiang, S. Hong, E. Kim, B.-S. Bae, K. No, C. K. Hwangbo, S.-C. Lim, S.-G. Woo, Y.-B. Koh, “Optical property simulation of single-layer halftone phaseshifting masks for DUV microlithography,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1450–1455 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

K. Ronse, R. Pforr, K.-H. Baik, R. Jonckheere, L. Ban den hove, “Optimization of the optical phase shift in attenuated PSM and application to quarter micrometer deep-UV lithography for logics,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 86–98 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Ito, H. Hazama, T. Kamo, H. Miyazaki, H. Sato, K. Hayashi, H. Shigemitsu, I. Mori, “Optimization of optical properties for single-layer halftone masks,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 99–110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakajima, N. Yoshioka, J. Miyazaki, H. Kusunose, K. Hosono, H. Morimoto, W. Wakamiya, K. Murayama, Y. Watakabe, K. Tsukamoto, “Attenuated phase-shifting mask with a single-layer absorptive shifter of CrO, CrON, MoSiO, and MoSiON film,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T. A. Brunner, ed., Proc. SPIE2197, 111–121 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Mikami, H. Mohri, H. Miyashita, N. Hayashi, H. Sano, “Development and evaluation of chromium-based attenuated phase shift masks for DUV exposure,” in Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, H. Yoshihara, ed., Proc. SPIE2512, 333–342 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawano, M. Asano, S. Tanaka, T. Iwamatsu, H. Sato, S. Ito, “Lithography performance of SiNx single-layer halftone mask,” in Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, H. Yoshihara, ed., Proc. SPIE2512, 348–355 (1995).

H. Mohri, M. Takahashi, K. Mikami, H. Miyashita, N. Hayashi, H. Sano, “Chromium-based attenuated phase shifter for DUV exposure,” in 14th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, W. L. Brodsky, G. V. Sheldon, eds., Proc. SPIE2322, 288–298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Mitsui, H. Sakai, Y. Yamaguchi, “Development of the W/Si film for the single-layered attenuated phase shifting mask for 248-nm lithography,” in Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology II, H. Yoshihara, ed., Proc. SPIE2512, 343–347 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, S. Hong, J. D. Gorman, S. Lim, S.-Y. Moon, D.-W. Kim, K. No, “Water-induced degradation of chromium fluoride films,” to be published in Thin Solid Films (1998).

Y. Seki, J. Ushioda, T. Saito, K. Maeda, K. Nakano, S. Iwasa, T. Ohfuji, H. Tanabe, “ArF excimer laser exposure durability of chromium fluoride attenuated phase-shift masks,” in Digest of Abstracts, Photomask Japan ’97 (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 94–95.

R. S. Roth, J. R. Dennis, H. F. McMurdie, Phase Diagrams for Ceramists (The American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 1964), Vol. 1, p. 121.

L. F. Thompson, C. G. Willson, M. J. Bowden, Introduction to Microlithography, 2nd ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 78–81.

T. Matsuo, K. Ohkubo, T. Haraguchi, K. Ueyama, “Zr-based films for attenuated phase shift mask,” in Digest of Abstracts, Photomask Japan ’97 (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 48–49.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Imaging through Att-PSM’s when the mask’s transmittance is (a) 5–10%, (b) less than 5%, and (c) more than 10%.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Imaging through an Att-PSM in the case of an isolated pattern.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagrams of the dc magnetron sputtering system: (a) all the equipment and (b) inside the chamber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the refractive index on the film composition at three different wavelengths: (a) 193, (b) 248, and (c) 365 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of the extinction coefficient on the film composition at three different wavelengths: (a) 193, (b) 248, and (c) 365 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulation of transmittance (labels on the curves) over film thickness and film composition at wavelengths of (a) 193, (b) 248, and (c) 365 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulation of phase shift (labels on the curves) over film thickness and film composition at wavelengths of (a) 193, (b) 248, and (c) 365 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulation of Att-PSM fabrication condition at wavelengths of (a) 193, (b) 248, and (c) 365 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Absorbance spectra with time at 100% relative humidity of (a) chromium fluoride (see Ref. 17) and (b) chromium aluminum oxide.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Depositon Parameters of Chromium Aluminum Oxide Films

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T = | t A | 2 | t B | 2 ,
ϕ = arg t A - arg t B × 180 π deg .

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