Abstract

A novel approach to inset superimposition in a high-resolution head-mounted display (HMD) is presented. The approach is innovative in its use of optoelectronic, nonmechanical devices in place of scanning mechanical devices commonly adopted previously. A paraxial layout of the overall HMD system is presented, and the benefit of employing hybrid refractive-diffractive optics for the optical component that generates the inset is discussed. A potential overall HMD design is finally presented to show the integrated system. The practical limitations of the designed system are discussed and an alternative approach is presented to compare the advantages and the limitations of these systems.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. S. Fisher, “Virtual interface environments,” in The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design, B. Laurel ed. (Addison-Wesley, Menlo Park, Calif., 1990), 423–438.
  2. D. Foley, “Interfaces for Advanced Computing,” Sci. Am. 257(4), 126–135 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. C. Chung, M. R. Harris, F. P. Brooks, H. Fuchs, M. T. Kelley, J. Hughes, M. Ouh-Young, C. Cheung, R. L. Holloway, M. Pique, “Exploring virtual worlds with head-mounted displays,” in Three-Dimensional Visualization and Display Technologies, S. S. Fisher, W. E. Robbins, eds., Proc. SPIE1083, 42–52 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Burdea, P. Coiffet, Virtual Reality Technology (Wiley, New York, 1994).
  5. R. E. Cole, C. Ikehara, J. O. Merritt, “A low cost helmet-mounted camera/display system for field testing teleoperator tasks,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications III, J. O. Merritt, S. S. Fisher, eds., Proc. SPIE1669, 228–235 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. S. Fisher, M. McGreevy, J. Humphries, W. Robinett, “Virtual environment display system,” presented at the Association for Computing Machinery Workshop on Interactive 3D Graphics, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 23–24 Oct. 1986.
  7. S. S. Fisher, M. W. McGreevy, J. Humphries, W. Robinett, “Virtual interface environment for telepresence applications,” in Proceedings of the American Nuclear Society International Topical Meeting on Remote Systems and Robotics in Hostile Environments, J. D. Berger, ed. (American Nuclear Society, Lagrange Park, Ill., 1987).
  8. C. Herot, “Spatial management of data,” ACM Trans. Database Systems 5(4), 493–514 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Thalmann, “Using virtual reality techniques in the animation process,” in Virtual Reality Systems, R. A. Earnshaw, M. A. Gigante, H. Jones, eds. (Academic, Reading, Mass., 1993).
  10. E. M. Howlett, “High-resolution inserts in wide-angle head-mounted stereoscopic displays,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications III, J. O. Merritt, S. S. Fisher, eds., Proc. SPIE1669, 193–203 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Davson, Physiology of the Eye, 5th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1990).
  12. R. A. Moses, Adlers Physiology of the Eye (Mosby, St. Louis, Mo., 1970).
  13. G. Westheimer, “The eye as an optical instrument,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance1(4) (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1986), Vol. 1, Chap. 4.
  14. F. J. Ferrin, “Survey of helmet tracking technologies,” in Large Screen Projection, Avionic, and Helmet-Mounted Displays, H. M. Assenheim, R. A. Flasck, T. M. Lippert, J. Bentz, W. Groves, eds., Proc. SPIE1456, 86–94 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. A. Bolt, “Gaze-orchestrated dynamic windows,” Comput. Graphics, 15(3), 109–119 (1981).
  16. S. Bryson, “Interaction of objects in a virtual environment: a two-point paradigm,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Application II, J. O. Merritt, S. S. Fisher, eds., Proc. SPIE1457, 180–187 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Jacoby, S. R. Ellis, “Using virtual menus in a virtual environment,” Proc. SPIE 1668, 39–47 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. P. Colgate, “Reaction and response time of individuals reacting to auditory, visual, and tactile stimuli,” Research Quarterly 39, 783–784 (1968).
  19. P. J. Oster, J. A. Stern, “Measurement of Eye Movement,” in Techniques of Psychophysiology, I. Martin, P. H. Venables, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1980).
  20. H. Girolamo, “Notional helmet concepts: a survey of near-term and future technologies,” U.S. Army NATICK Technical Report NATIK/TR-91/017 (U.S. Army, 1991).
  21. R. Dodge, “Five types of eye movement in the horizontal meridian plane of the field of regard,” Am. J. Phys. 8, 307–329 (1903).
  22. F. Volkman, L. A. Riggs, K. D. White, R. K. Moore, “Contrast sensitivity during saccadic eye movements,” Vis. Res. 18, 1193–1199 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. Volkman “Human visual suppression,” Vis. Res. 26, 1401–1416 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. Burbidge, P. M. Murray, “Hardware improvement to the helmet-mounted projector on the visual display research tool at the Naval Training Systems Center,” in Helmet-Mounted Displays, J. T. Carollo, ed., Proc. SPIE1116, 52–60 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. L. Thomas, W. P. Siegmund, S. E. Antos, R. M. Robinson, “Fiber optic development for use on the fiber optic helmet-mounted display,” in Helmet-Mounted Displays, J. T. Carollo, ed., Proc. SPIE1116, 90–101 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Yoshida, J. P. Rolland, J. H. Reif, “Design and applications of a high-resolution insert head-mounted-display,” Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), 84–93.
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Yoshida, J. P. Rolland, J. H. Reif, “Optical design and analysis of a head-mounted display with a high-resolution insert,” in Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization, J. M. Sasian, ed., Proc. SPIE2537, 71–82 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Applied Science Laboratories , Eye Tracking Systems Handbook (Applied Science Laboratories, Waltham, Mass., 1992).
  29. L. Young, D. Sheena, “Survey of eye movement recording methods,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 7, 397–429 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  30. G. Sharp, Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc., 1898 South Flatiron Court, Boulder, Colo. 80301 (personal communication, 1997).
  31. P. K. Doenges, Evans and Sutherland, 600 Komas Drive, P.O. Box 58700, Salt Lake City, Utah 84158 (personal communication, 1997).
  32. J. P. Salerno, “Single crystal silicon AMLCDs,” presented at the International Workshop on Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays, 14th International Display Research Conference, Monterey, Calif., 1–7 September 1994.
  33. J. Jahns, “Diffractive optical elements for optical computers,” in Optical Computing Hardware, J. Jahns, S. H. Lee, ed. (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1994).
  34. M. E. Goldberg, H. M. Eggers, P. Gouras, “The Ocular Motor System,” in Principles of Neural Science, 3rd ed, E. R. Kandel, J. H. Schwartz, T. M. Jessell, ed. (Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, Conn., 1991).
  35. J. Borah, Applied Science Laboratories, 175 Middlesex Turnpike, Bedford, Mass. 01730-1428 (personal communication, 1997).
  36. M. A. Wiedl, “Some Practical Consideration in Eye Movement Recording Methodologies” (Pacific Missile Test Center, Point Mugu, Calif., 1977).

1992 (1)

H. Jacoby, S. R. Ellis, “Using virtual menus in a virtual environment,” Proc. SPIE 1668, 39–47 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

D. Foley, “Interfaces for Advanced Computing,” Sci. Am. 257(4), 126–135 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

F. Volkman “Human visual suppression,” Vis. Res. 26, 1401–1416 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. A. Bolt, “Gaze-orchestrated dynamic windows,” Comput. Graphics, 15(3), 109–119 (1981).

1980 (1)

C. Herot, “Spatial management of data,” ACM Trans. Database Systems 5(4), 493–514 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

F. Volkman, L. A. Riggs, K. D. White, R. K. Moore, “Contrast sensitivity during saccadic eye movements,” Vis. Res. 18, 1193–1199 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

L. Young, D. Sheena, “Survey of eye movement recording methods,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 7, 397–429 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

T. P. Colgate, “Reaction and response time of individuals reacting to auditory, visual, and tactile stimuli,” Research Quarterly 39, 783–784 (1968).

1903 (1)

R. Dodge, “Five types of eye movement in the horizontal meridian plane of the field of regard,” Am. J. Phys. 8, 307–329 (1903).

Antos, S. E.

M. L. Thomas, W. P. Siegmund, S. E. Antos, R. M. Robinson, “Fiber optic development for use on the fiber optic helmet-mounted display,” in Helmet-Mounted Displays, J. T. Carollo, ed., Proc. SPIE1116, 90–101 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bolt, R. A.

R. A. Bolt, “Gaze-orchestrated dynamic windows,” Comput. Graphics, 15(3), 109–119 (1981).

Borah, J.

J. Borah, Applied Science Laboratories, 175 Middlesex Turnpike, Bedford, Mass. 01730-1428 (personal communication, 1997).

Brooks, F. P.

J. C. Chung, M. R. Harris, F. P. Brooks, H. Fuchs, M. T. Kelley, J. Hughes, M. Ouh-Young, C. Cheung, R. L. Holloway, M. Pique, “Exploring virtual worlds with head-mounted displays,” in Three-Dimensional Visualization and Display Technologies, S. S. Fisher, W. E. Robbins, eds., Proc. SPIE1083, 42–52 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bryson, S.

S. Bryson, “Interaction of objects in a virtual environment: a two-point paradigm,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Application II, J. O. Merritt, S. S. Fisher, eds., Proc. SPIE1457, 180–187 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Burbidge, R.

R. Burbidge, P. M. Murray, “Hardware improvement to the helmet-mounted projector on the visual display research tool at the Naval Training Systems Center,” in Helmet-Mounted Displays, J. T. Carollo, ed., Proc. SPIE1116, 52–60 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Burdea, G.

G. Burdea, P. Coiffet, Virtual Reality Technology (Wiley, New York, 1994).

Cheung, C.

J. C. Chung, M. R. Harris, F. P. Brooks, H. Fuchs, M. T. Kelley, J. Hughes, M. Ouh-Young, C. Cheung, R. L. Holloway, M. Pique, “Exploring virtual worlds with head-mounted displays,” in Three-Dimensional Visualization and Display Technologies, S. S. Fisher, W. E. Robbins, eds., Proc. SPIE1083, 42–52 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chung, J. C.

J. C. Chung, M. R. Harris, F. P. Brooks, H. Fuchs, M. T. Kelley, J. Hughes, M. Ouh-Young, C. Cheung, R. L. Holloway, M. Pique, “Exploring virtual worlds with head-mounted displays,” in Three-Dimensional Visualization and Display Technologies, S. S. Fisher, W. E. Robbins, eds., Proc. SPIE1083, 42–52 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Coiffet, P.

G. Burdea, P. Coiffet, Virtual Reality Technology (Wiley, New York, 1994).

Cole, R. E.

R. E. Cole, C. Ikehara, J. O. Merritt, “A low cost helmet-mounted camera/display system for field testing teleoperator tasks,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications III, J. O. Merritt, S. S. Fisher, eds., Proc. SPIE1669, 228–235 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Colgate, T. P.

T. P. Colgate, “Reaction and response time of individuals reacting to auditory, visual, and tactile stimuli,” Research Quarterly 39, 783–784 (1968).

Davson, H.

H. Davson, Physiology of the Eye, 5th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1990).

Dodge, R.

R. Dodge, “Five types of eye movement in the horizontal meridian plane of the field of regard,” Am. J. Phys. 8, 307–329 (1903).

Doenges, P. K.

P. K. Doenges, Evans and Sutherland, 600 Komas Drive, P.O. Box 58700, Salt Lake City, Utah 84158 (personal communication, 1997).

Eggers, H. M.

M. E. Goldberg, H. M. Eggers, P. Gouras, “The Ocular Motor System,” in Principles of Neural Science, 3rd ed, E. R. Kandel, J. H. Schwartz, T. M. Jessell, ed. (Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, Conn., 1991).

Ellis, S. R.

H. Jacoby, S. R. Ellis, “Using virtual menus in a virtual environment,” Proc. SPIE 1668, 39–47 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ferrin, F. J.

F. J. Ferrin, “Survey of helmet tracking technologies,” in Large Screen Projection, Avionic, and Helmet-Mounted Displays, H. M. Assenheim, R. A. Flasck, T. M. Lippert, J. Bentz, W. Groves, eds., Proc. SPIE1456, 86–94 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, S. S.

S. S. Fisher, M. W. McGreevy, J. Humphries, W. Robinett, “Virtual interface environment for telepresence applications,” in Proceedings of the American Nuclear Society International Topical Meeting on Remote Systems and Robotics in Hostile Environments, J. D. Berger, ed. (American Nuclear Society, Lagrange Park, Ill., 1987).

S. S. Fisher, M. McGreevy, J. Humphries, W. Robinett, “Virtual environment display system,” presented at the Association for Computing Machinery Workshop on Interactive 3D Graphics, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 23–24 Oct. 1986.

S. S. Fisher, “Virtual interface environments,” in The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design, B. Laurel ed. (Addison-Wesley, Menlo Park, Calif., 1990), 423–438.

Foley, D.

D. Foley, “Interfaces for Advanced Computing,” Sci. Am. 257(4), 126–135 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, H.

J. C. Chung, M. R. Harris, F. P. Brooks, H. Fuchs, M. T. Kelley, J. Hughes, M. Ouh-Young, C. Cheung, R. L. Holloway, M. Pique, “Exploring virtual worlds with head-mounted displays,” in Three-Dimensional Visualization and Display Technologies, S. S. Fisher, W. E. Robbins, eds., Proc. SPIE1083, 42–52 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Girolamo, H.

H. Girolamo, “Notional helmet concepts: a survey of near-term and future technologies,” U.S. Army NATICK Technical Report NATIK/TR-91/017 (U.S. Army, 1991).

Goldberg, M. E.

M. E. Goldberg, H. M. Eggers, P. Gouras, “The Ocular Motor System,” in Principles of Neural Science, 3rd ed, E. R. Kandel, J. H. Schwartz, T. M. Jessell, ed. (Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, Conn., 1991).

Gouras, P.

M. E. Goldberg, H. M. Eggers, P. Gouras, “The Ocular Motor System,” in Principles of Neural Science, 3rd ed, E. R. Kandel, J. H. Schwartz, T. M. Jessell, ed. (Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, Conn., 1991).

Harris, M. R.

J. C. Chung, M. R. Harris, F. P. Brooks, H. Fuchs, M. T. Kelley, J. Hughes, M. Ouh-Young, C. Cheung, R. L. Holloway, M. Pique, “Exploring virtual worlds with head-mounted displays,” in Three-Dimensional Visualization and Display Technologies, S. S. Fisher, W. E. Robbins, eds., Proc. SPIE1083, 42–52 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Herot, C.

C. Herot, “Spatial management of data,” ACM Trans. Database Systems 5(4), 493–514 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Holloway, R. L.

J. C. Chung, M. R. Harris, F. P. Brooks, H. Fuchs, M. T. Kelley, J. Hughes, M. Ouh-Young, C. Cheung, R. L. Holloway, M. Pique, “Exploring virtual worlds with head-mounted displays,” in Three-Dimensional Visualization and Display Technologies, S. S. Fisher, W. E. Robbins, eds., Proc. SPIE1083, 42–52 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Howlett, E. M.

E. M. Howlett, “High-resolution inserts in wide-angle head-mounted stereoscopic displays,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications III, J. O. Merritt, S. S. Fisher, eds., Proc. SPIE1669, 193–203 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, J.

J. C. Chung, M. R. Harris, F. P. Brooks, H. Fuchs, M. T. Kelley, J. Hughes, M. Ouh-Young, C. Cheung, R. L. Holloway, M. Pique, “Exploring virtual worlds with head-mounted displays,” in Three-Dimensional Visualization and Display Technologies, S. S. Fisher, W. E. Robbins, eds., Proc. SPIE1083, 42–52 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Humphries, J.

S. S. Fisher, M. W. McGreevy, J. Humphries, W. Robinett, “Virtual interface environment for telepresence applications,” in Proceedings of the American Nuclear Society International Topical Meeting on Remote Systems and Robotics in Hostile Environments, J. D. Berger, ed. (American Nuclear Society, Lagrange Park, Ill., 1987).

S. S. Fisher, M. McGreevy, J. Humphries, W. Robinett, “Virtual environment display system,” presented at the Association for Computing Machinery Workshop on Interactive 3D Graphics, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 23–24 Oct. 1986.

Ikehara, C.

R. E. Cole, C. Ikehara, J. O. Merritt, “A low cost helmet-mounted camera/display system for field testing teleoperator tasks,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications III, J. O. Merritt, S. S. Fisher, eds., Proc. SPIE1669, 228–235 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jacoby, H.

H. Jacoby, S. R. Ellis, “Using virtual menus in a virtual environment,” Proc. SPIE 1668, 39–47 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

J. Jahns, “Diffractive optical elements for optical computers,” in Optical Computing Hardware, J. Jahns, S. H. Lee, ed. (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1994).

Kelley, M. T.

J. C. Chung, M. R. Harris, F. P. Brooks, H. Fuchs, M. T. Kelley, J. Hughes, M. Ouh-Young, C. Cheung, R. L. Holloway, M. Pique, “Exploring virtual worlds with head-mounted displays,” in Three-Dimensional Visualization and Display Technologies, S. S. Fisher, W. E. Robbins, eds., Proc. SPIE1083, 42–52 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McGreevy, M.

S. S. Fisher, M. McGreevy, J. Humphries, W. Robinett, “Virtual environment display system,” presented at the Association for Computing Machinery Workshop on Interactive 3D Graphics, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 23–24 Oct. 1986.

McGreevy, M. W.

S. S. Fisher, M. W. McGreevy, J. Humphries, W. Robinett, “Virtual interface environment for telepresence applications,” in Proceedings of the American Nuclear Society International Topical Meeting on Remote Systems and Robotics in Hostile Environments, J. D. Berger, ed. (American Nuclear Society, Lagrange Park, Ill., 1987).

Merritt, J. O.

R. E. Cole, C. Ikehara, J. O. Merritt, “A low cost helmet-mounted camera/display system for field testing teleoperator tasks,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications III, J. O. Merritt, S. S. Fisher, eds., Proc. SPIE1669, 228–235 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moore, R. K.

F. Volkman, L. A. Riggs, K. D. White, R. K. Moore, “Contrast sensitivity during saccadic eye movements,” Vis. Res. 18, 1193–1199 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Moses, R. A.

R. A. Moses, Adlers Physiology of the Eye (Mosby, St. Louis, Mo., 1970).

Murray, P. M.

R. Burbidge, P. M. Murray, “Hardware improvement to the helmet-mounted projector on the visual display research tool at the Naval Training Systems Center,” in Helmet-Mounted Displays, J. T. Carollo, ed., Proc. SPIE1116, 52–60 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Oster, P. J.

P. J. Oster, J. A. Stern, “Measurement of Eye Movement,” in Techniques of Psychophysiology, I. Martin, P. H. Venables, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1980).

Ouh-Young, M.

J. C. Chung, M. R. Harris, F. P. Brooks, H. Fuchs, M. T. Kelley, J. Hughes, M. Ouh-Young, C. Cheung, R. L. Holloway, M. Pique, “Exploring virtual worlds with head-mounted displays,” in Three-Dimensional Visualization and Display Technologies, S. S. Fisher, W. E. Robbins, eds., Proc. SPIE1083, 42–52 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pique, M.

J. C. Chung, M. R. Harris, F. P. Brooks, H. Fuchs, M. T. Kelley, J. Hughes, M. Ouh-Young, C. Cheung, R. L. Holloway, M. Pique, “Exploring virtual worlds with head-mounted displays,” in Three-Dimensional Visualization and Display Technologies, S. S. Fisher, W. E. Robbins, eds., Proc. SPIE1083, 42–52 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Reif, J. H.

A. Yoshida, J. P. Rolland, J. H. Reif, “Design and applications of a high-resolution insert head-mounted-display,” Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), 84–93.
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshida, J. P. Rolland, J. H. Reif, “Optical design and analysis of a head-mounted display with a high-resolution insert,” in Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization, J. M. Sasian, ed., Proc. SPIE2537, 71–82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Riggs, L. A.

F. Volkman, L. A. Riggs, K. D. White, R. K. Moore, “Contrast sensitivity during saccadic eye movements,” Vis. Res. 18, 1193–1199 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Robinett, W.

S. S. Fisher, M. McGreevy, J. Humphries, W. Robinett, “Virtual environment display system,” presented at the Association for Computing Machinery Workshop on Interactive 3D Graphics, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 23–24 Oct. 1986.

S. S. Fisher, M. W. McGreevy, J. Humphries, W. Robinett, “Virtual interface environment for telepresence applications,” in Proceedings of the American Nuclear Society International Topical Meeting on Remote Systems and Robotics in Hostile Environments, J. D. Berger, ed. (American Nuclear Society, Lagrange Park, Ill., 1987).

Robinson, R. M.

M. L. Thomas, W. P. Siegmund, S. E. Antos, R. M. Robinson, “Fiber optic development for use on the fiber optic helmet-mounted display,” in Helmet-Mounted Displays, J. T. Carollo, ed., Proc. SPIE1116, 90–101 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, J. P.

A. Yoshida, J. P. Rolland, J. H. Reif, “Design and applications of a high-resolution insert head-mounted-display,” Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), 84–93.
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshida, J. P. Rolland, J. H. Reif, “Optical design and analysis of a head-mounted display with a high-resolution insert,” in Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization, J. M. Sasian, ed., Proc. SPIE2537, 71–82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Salerno, J. P.

J. P. Salerno, “Single crystal silicon AMLCDs,” presented at the International Workshop on Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays, 14th International Display Research Conference, Monterey, Calif., 1–7 September 1994.

Sharp, G.

G. Sharp, Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc., 1898 South Flatiron Court, Boulder, Colo. 80301 (personal communication, 1997).

Sheena, D.

L. Young, D. Sheena, “Survey of eye movement recording methods,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 7, 397–429 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Siegmund, W. P.

M. L. Thomas, W. P. Siegmund, S. E. Antos, R. M. Robinson, “Fiber optic development for use on the fiber optic helmet-mounted display,” in Helmet-Mounted Displays, J. T. Carollo, ed., Proc. SPIE1116, 90–101 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stern, J. A.

P. J. Oster, J. A. Stern, “Measurement of Eye Movement,” in Techniques of Psychophysiology, I. Martin, P. H. Venables, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1980).

Thalmann, D.

D. Thalmann, “Using virtual reality techniques in the animation process,” in Virtual Reality Systems, R. A. Earnshaw, M. A. Gigante, H. Jones, eds. (Academic, Reading, Mass., 1993).

Thomas, M. L.

M. L. Thomas, W. P. Siegmund, S. E. Antos, R. M. Robinson, “Fiber optic development for use on the fiber optic helmet-mounted display,” in Helmet-Mounted Displays, J. T. Carollo, ed., Proc. SPIE1116, 90–101 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Volkman, F.

F. Volkman “Human visual suppression,” Vis. Res. 26, 1401–1416 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. Volkman, L. A. Riggs, K. D. White, R. K. Moore, “Contrast sensitivity during saccadic eye movements,” Vis. Res. 18, 1193–1199 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, “The eye as an optical instrument,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance1(4) (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1986), Vol. 1, Chap. 4.

White, K. D.

F. Volkman, L. A. Riggs, K. D. White, R. K. Moore, “Contrast sensitivity during saccadic eye movements,” Vis. Res. 18, 1193–1199 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wiedl, M. A.

M. A. Wiedl, “Some Practical Consideration in Eye Movement Recording Methodologies” (Pacific Missile Test Center, Point Mugu, Calif., 1977).

Yoshida, A.

A. Yoshida, J. P. Rolland, J. H. Reif, “Design and applications of a high-resolution insert head-mounted-display,” Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1995), 84–93.
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshida, J. P. Rolland, J. H. Reif, “Optical design and analysis of a head-mounted display with a high-resolution insert,” in Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization, J. M. Sasian, ed., Proc. SPIE2537, 71–82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Young, L.

L. Young, D. Sheena, “Survey of eye movement recording methods,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 7, 397–429 (1975).
[CrossRef]

ACM Trans. Database Systems (1)

C. Herot, “Spatial management of data,” ACM Trans. Database Systems 5(4), 493–514 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

R. Dodge, “Five types of eye movement in the horizontal meridian plane of the field of regard,” Am. J. Phys. 8, 307–329 (1903).

Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. (1)

L. Young, D. Sheena, “Survey of eye movement recording methods,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 7, 397–429 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Graphics (1)

R. A. Bolt, “Gaze-orchestrated dynamic windows,” Comput. Graphics, 15(3), 109–119 (1981).

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Jacoby, S. R. Ellis, “Using virtual menus in a virtual environment,” Proc. SPIE 1668, 39–47 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Research Quarterly (1)

T. P. Colgate, “Reaction and response time of individuals reacting to auditory, visual, and tactile stimuli,” Research Quarterly 39, 783–784 (1968).

Sci. Am. (1)

D. Foley, “Interfaces for Advanced Computing,” Sci. Am. 257(4), 126–135 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res. (2)

F. Volkman, L. A. Riggs, K. D. White, R. K. Moore, “Contrast sensitivity during saccadic eye movements,” Vis. Res. 18, 1193–1199 (1978).
[CrossRef]

F. Volkman “Human visual suppression,” Vis. Res. 26, 1401–1416 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (27)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the OHRI HMD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Superimposition of the inset display: (a) simple insertion and (b) complex insertion with subinset resolution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Paraxial layout of the inset optical path, unfolded with respect to the beam splitter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Ideal two-lens duplicator and (b) single-lens duplicator with vignetting.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mapping of the inset on the background.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Duplicator layout with binary optics.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Duplicator rayfan.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Duplicator MTF.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Possible design and geometric configuration of the OHRI HMD.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Entire system rayfan at several inset positions.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Typical MTF performance of the entire system.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Basic Design Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 Design Value Parameters (mm)

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f 1 = l o = l 1 ,
l 0   tan   t e = ka 2 / 2 ,
f 2 = f 3 = l 2 ,
l 2   tan   t o = a 2 / 2 ,
f 4 = l 4 ,
l 4   tan   t o = a 5 / 2 ,
a 0 / a 3 = l 1 / l 2 ,
a 3 = a 2 ,
p = λ m 1 + 4 f # 2 ,

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