Abstract

In a 1 × N wavelength division (de)multiplexer, N receiving (Rx-) gradient-index-rod lenses (GRIN’s) are connected to a common transmitting (Tx-) GRIN. All GRIN’s are a little longer (ΔZ 0 for the Tx- and ΔZ i with i = 1, 2, … , N for the Rx-GRIN’s) than the quarter-pitch. To reduce the average coupling loss and the deviations, ΔZ 0 and ΔZ i are optimized independently (unequally) or equally by computer programming for small N, such as N = 4 and 8. For a larger N (e.g., 16), a relay GRIN is required, which is a little (ΔZ r) longer than the half-pitch. The best position of the relay GRIN is located between the seventh and the eighth Rx-GRIN’s. Other parameters including ΔZ 0, ΔZ i, and ΔZ r are all optimized. As a result the (de)multiplexer has lower losses.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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