Abstract

We report on our systematic and detailed study of fabrication and characterization of polycarbonate thin-film optical waveguides. Various waveguide properties, such as refractive index, optical loss, waveguide thickness, dispersion as a function of temperature of waveguides and substrates, and the effect of thickness gradient on optical guiding losses, have been reported. A comparative study of the properties of waveguides fabricated with dioxane and tetrahydrofuran as solvents is also presented.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985).
  2. G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, “Nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 57–78 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. N. Tripathi, V. K. Sharma, A. Kapoor, “Polymeric optical waveguide polarizer/mode filter with low index dielectric buffer layer,” Int. Electromag. Compatibility Symp. 173, 92–95 (1992).
  4. K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalma, R. B. Conizzoli, H. E. Hatz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. K. Kapoor, C. D. Pandey, J. C. Joshi, A. L. Dawar, K. N. Tripathi, V. L. Gupta, “Polyurethane coating for integrated optic applications,” Thin Solid Films 161, 79–81 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. V. Tomme, P. P. V. Daele, R. G. Baets, P. E. Lagasse, “Integrated optic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 778–787 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. R. Mohlmann, “Developments of optically nonlinear polymers and devices,” Synth. Metals 37, 207–221 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Zyss, ed., Molecular Non-Linear Optics (Academic, New York, 1994).
  9. J. T. Ives, W. M. Reichert, “Polymer thin film integrated optics: fabrication and characterization of polystyrene waveguides,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 36, 429–443 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. A. Hornak, Polymers for Light Waves and Integrated Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993).
  11. S. Musikant, Optical Materials: an Introduction to Selection and Application (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986).
  12. M. Gupta, V. K. Sharma, A. Kapoor, K. N. Tripathi, “Fabrication and characterization of polycarbonate thin film optical waveguides,” J. Opt. 28, 37–40 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Kogelnik, V. Ramaswamy, “Scaling rules for thin-film optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1857–1862 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Singh, K. N. Tripathi, N. K. Bishambhu, J. C. Joshi, S. K. Kapoor, A. L. Dawar, “Fabrication of low-loss optical waveguides of polystyrene,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 11, 382–385 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Gupta, V. K. Sharma, A. Kapoor, K. N. Tripathi, “Effect of thickness gradient on optical waveguide modes,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15, 643–644 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Gupta, V. K. Sharma, A. Kapoor, K. N. Tripathi, “Fabrication and characterization of polycarbonate thin film optical waveguides,” J. Opt. 28, 37–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Gupta, V. K. Sharma, A. Kapoor, K. N. Tripathi, “Effect of thickness gradient on optical waveguide modes,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15, 643–644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

B. Singh, K. N. Tripathi, N. K. Bishambhu, J. C. Joshi, S. K. Kapoor, A. L. Dawar, “Fabrication of low-loss optical waveguides of polystyrene,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 11, 382–385 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Tripathi, V. K. Sharma, A. Kapoor, “Polymeric optical waveguide polarizer/mode filter with low index dielectric buffer layer,” Int. Electromag. Compatibility Symp. 173, 92–95 (1992).

1991 (1)

E. V. Tomme, P. P. V. Daele, R. G. Baets, P. E. Lagasse, “Integrated optic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 778–787 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

G. R. Mohlmann, “Developments of optically nonlinear polymers and devices,” Synth. Metals 37, 207–221 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

J. T. Ives, W. M. Reichert, “Polymer thin film integrated optics: fabrication and characterization of polystyrene waveguides,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 36, 429–443 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalma, R. B. Conizzoli, H. E. Hatz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kapoor, C. D. Pandey, J. C. Joshi, A. L. Dawar, K. N. Tripathi, V. L. Gupta, “Polyurethane coating for integrated optic applications,” Thin Solid Films 161, 79–81 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, “Nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 57–78 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

Baets, R. G.

E. V. Tomme, P. P. V. Daele, R. G. Baets, P. E. Lagasse, “Integrated optic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 778–787 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bishambhu, N. K.

B. Singh, K. N. Tripathi, N. K. Bishambhu, J. C. Joshi, S. K. Kapoor, A. L. Dawar, “Fabrication of low-loss optical waveguides of polystyrene,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 11, 382–385 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Conizzoli, R. B.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalma, R. B. Conizzoli, H. E. Hatz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Daele, P. P. V.

E. V. Tomme, P. P. V. Daele, R. G. Baets, P. E. Lagasse, “Integrated optic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 778–787 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dawar, A. L.

B. Singh, K. N. Tripathi, N. K. Bishambhu, J. C. Joshi, S. K. Kapoor, A. L. Dawar, “Fabrication of low-loss optical waveguides of polystyrene,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 11, 382–385 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kapoor, C. D. Pandey, J. C. Joshi, A. L. Dawar, K. N. Tripathi, V. L. Gupta, “Polyurethane coating for integrated optic applications,” Thin Solid Films 161, 79–81 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M.

M. Gupta, V. K. Sharma, A. Kapoor, K. N. Tripathi, “Fabrication and characterization of polycarbonate thin film optical waveguides,” J. Opt. 28, 37–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Gupta, V. K. Sharma, A. Kapoor, K. N. Tripathi, “Effect of thickness gradient on optical waveguide modes,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15, 643–644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, V. L.

S. K. Kapoor, C. D. Pandey, J. C. Joshi, A. L. Dawar, K. N. Tripathi, V. L. Gupta, “Polyurethane coating for integrated optic applications,” Thin Solid Films 161, 79–81 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Haruna, M.

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985).

Hatz, H. E.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalma, R. B. Conizzoli, H. E. Hatz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Holland, W. R.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalma, R. B. Conizzoli, H. E. Hatz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hornak, L. A.

L. A. Hornak, Polymers for Light Waves and Integrated Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993).

Ives, J. T.

J. T. Ives, W. M. Reichert, “Polymer thin film integrated optics: fabrication and characterization of polystyrene waveguides,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 36, 429–443 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, J. C.

B. Singh, K. N. Tripathi, N. K. Bishambhu, J. C. Joshi, S. K. Kapoor, A. L. Dawar, “Fabrication of low-loss optical waveguides of polystyrene,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 11, 382–385 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kapoor, C. D. Pandey, J. C. Joshi, A. L. Dawar, K. N. Tripathi, V. L. Gupta, “Polyurethane coating for integrated optic applications,” Thin Solid Films 161, 79–81 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kapoor, A.

M. Gupta, V. K. Sharma, A. Kapoor, K. N. Tripathi, “Fabrication and characterization of polycarbonate thin film optical waveguides,” J. Opt. 28, 37–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Gupta, V. K. Sharma, A. Kapoor, K. N. Tripathi, “Effect of thickness gradient on optical waveguide modes,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15, 643–644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Tripathi, V. K. Sharma, A. Kapoor, “Polymeric optical waveguide polarizer/mode filter with low index dielectric buffer layer,” Int. Electromag. Compatibility Symp. 173, 92–95 (1992).

Kapoor, S. K.

B. Singh, K. N. Tripathi, N. K. Bishambhu, J. C. Joshi, S. K. Kapoor, A. L. Dawar, “Fabrication of low-loss optical waveguides of polystyrene,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 11, 382–385 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kapoor, C. D. Pandey, J. C. Joshi, A. L. Dawar, K. N. Tripathi, V. L. Gupta, “Polyurethane coating for integrated optic applications,” Thin Solid Films 161, 79–81 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

Kuzyk, M. G.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalma, R. B. Conizzoli, H. E. Hatz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lagasse, P. E.

E. V. Tomme, P. P. V. Daele, R. G. Baets, P. E. Lagasse, “Integrated optic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 778–787 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lalma, S. J.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalma, R. B. Conizzoli, H. E. Hatz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mohlmann, G. R.

G. R. Mohlmann, “Developments of optically nonlinear polymers and devices,” Synth. Metals 37, 207–221 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Musikant, S.

S. Musikant, Optical Materials: an Introduction to Selection and Application (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986).

Nishihara, H.

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985).

Pandey, C. D.

S. K. Kapoor, C. D. Pandey, J. C. Joshi, A. L. Dawar, K. N. Tripathi, V. L. Gupta, “Polyurethane coating for integrated optic applications,” Thin Solid Films 161, 79–81 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, V.

Reichert, W. M.

J. T. Ives, W. M. Reichert, “Polymer thin film integrated optics: fabrication and characterization of polystyrene waveguides,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 36, 429–443 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, M. L.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalma, R. B. Conizzoli, H. E. Hatz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Seaton, C. T.

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, “Nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 57–78 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, V. K.

M. Gupta, V. K. Sharma, A. Kapoor, K. N. Tripathi, “Fabrication and characterization of polycarbonate thin film optical waveguides,” J. Opt. 28, 37–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Gupta, V. K. Sharma, A. Kapoor, K. N. Tripathi, “Effect of thickness gradient on optical waveguide modes,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15, 643–644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Tripathi, V. K. Sharma, A. Kapoor, “Polymeric optical waveguide polarizer/mode filter with low index dielectric buffer layer,” Int. Electromag. Compatibility Symp. 173, 92–95 (1992).

Singer, K. D.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalma, R. B. Conizzoli, H. E. Hatz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Singh, B.

B. Singh, K. N. Tripathi, N. K. Bishambhu, J. C. Joshi, S. K. Kapoor, A. L. Dawar, “Fabrication of low-loss optical waveguides of polystyrene,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 11, 382–385 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, J. E.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalma, R. B. Conizzoli, H. E. Hatz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, “Nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 57–78 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985).

Tomme, E. V.

E. V. Tomme, P. P. V. Daele, R. G. Baets, P. E. Lagasse, “Integrated optic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 778–787 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tripathi, K. N.

M. Gupta, V. K. Sharma, A. Kapoor, K. N. Tripathi, “Fabrication and characterization of polycarbonate thin film optical waveguides,” J. Opt. 28, 37–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Gupta, V. K. Sharma, A. Kapoor, K. N. Tripathi, “Effect of thickness gradient on optical waveguide modes,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15, 643–644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Singh, K. N. Tripathi, N. K. Bishambhu, J. C. Joshi, S. K. Kapoor, A. L. Dawar, “Fabrication of low-loss optical waveguides of polystyrene,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 11, 382–385 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Tripathi, V. K. Sharma, A. Kapoor, “Polymeric optical waveguide polarizer/mode filter with low index dielectric buffer layer,” Int. Electromag. Compatibility Symp. 173, 92–95 (1992).

S. K. Kapoor, C. D. Pandey, J. C. Joshi, A. L. Dawar, K. N. Tripathi, V. L. Gupta, “Polyurethane coating for integrated optic applications,” Thin Solid Films 161, 79–81 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalma, R. B. Conizzoli, H. E. Hatz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. V. Tomme, P. P. V. Daele, R. G. Baets, P. E. Lagasse, “Integrated optic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 778–787 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Int. Electromag. Compatibility Symp. (1)

K. N. Tripathi, V. K. Sharma, A. Kapoor, “Polymeric optical waveguide polarizer/mode filter with low index dielectric buffer layer,” Int. Electromag. Compatibility Symp. 173, 92–95 (1992).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, “Nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 57–78 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

J. T. Ives, W. M. Reichert, “Polymer thin film integrated optics: fabrication and characterization of polystyrene waveguides,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 36, 429–443 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Lett. (2)

B. Singh, K. N. Tripathi, N. K. Bishambhu, J. C. Joshi, S. K. Kapoor, A. L. Dawar, “Fabrication of low-loss optical waveguides of polystyrene,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 11, 382–385 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Gupta, V. K. Sharma, A. Kapoor, K. N. Tripathi, “Effect of thickness gradient on optical waveguide modes,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15, 643–644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

M. Gupta, V. K. Sharma, A. Kapoor, K. N. Tripathi, “Fabrication and characterization of polycarbonate thin film optical waveguides,” J. Opt. 28, 37–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Metals (1)

G. R. Mohlmann, “Developments of optically nonlinear polymers and devices,” Synth. Metals 37, 207–221 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

S. K. Kapoor, C. D. Pandey, J. C. Joshi, A. L. Dawar, K. N. Tripathi, V. L. Gupta, “Polyurethane coating for integrated optic applications,” Thin Solid Films 161, 79–81 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985).

J. Zyss, ed., Molecular Non-Linear Optics (Academic, New York, 1994).

L. A. Hornak, Polymers for Light Waves and Integrated Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993).

S. Musikant, Optical Materials: an Introduction to Selection and Application (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plot of n eff 2 versus p 2 for the support of (a) two (b) four, and (c) five modes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical dispersion curves for the TE modes for n eff = 1.587. The experimental values are shown by dots.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Film thicknesses as a function of distance between prisms for (a) guide 1, (b) guide 2, (c) guide 3. The numbers in parentheses indicate the number of modes supported.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Variations of Optical Waveguide Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 Waveguide Losses

Tables Icon

Table 3 Thickness Gradients for Three Guides

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n eff = n p   sin α + sin - 1 sin   ϕ n p ,
n eff 2 = n sur 2 - λ 2 × p 2 4 d 2 ,
V 1 - b 1 / 2 = m π + a   tan b 1 - b 1 / 2 + a   tan b + a 1 - b 1 / 2 ,
a = n s 2 - n c 2 / n f 2 - n s 2
b = n eff 2 - n s 2 / n f 2 - n s 2
V = 2 π λ d n f 2 - n s 2 1 / 2

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