Abstract

The efficient, low-threshold operation of a 946-nm Nd:YAG laser pumped by an injection-locked broad-area diode laser is reported. The implications of pump-beam quality for efficient, low-threshold operation, particularly with intrinsically inefficient transitions, are discussed in the context of previously published models. Results are presented showing that the M 2 = 1.3 pump beam of the injection-locked diode laser enabled a cw slope efficiency of 48% and a threshold of 52 mW to be attained. When Q-switched, 335 mW of pump power gave 27-ns, 5.2-μJ pulses. These were frequency doubled to obtain 19-ns, 1-μJ pulses at 473 nm. These results represent significant improvements over similar systems pumped by free-running broad-area diode lasers or arrays.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, “Room-temperature, continuous-wave, 946-nm Nd:YAG laser pumped by laser-diode arrays and intracavity frequency doubling to 473 nm,” Opt. Lett. 12, 993–995 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. P. Risk, R. Pon, W. Lenth, “Diode laser pumped blue-light source at 473 nm using intracavity frequency doubling of a 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1625–1627 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. A. Clarkson, R. Koch, D. C. Hanna, “Room-temperature diode-bar-pumped Nd:YAG laser at 946 nm,” Opt. Lett. 21, 737–739 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, D. R. Scifres, “Injection locking of coupled-stripe diode laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 236–238 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. L. Abbas, S. Yang, V. W. S. Chan, J. G. Fujimoto, “Injection behaviour and modeling of 100 mW broad area diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 609–617 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Beier, J.-P. Meyn, R. Knappe, K.-J. Boller, G. Huber, R. Wallenstein, “A 180 mW Nd:LaSc3(BO3)4 single-frequency TEM00 microchip laser pumped by an injection-locked diode-laser array,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 381–388 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. K. Chun, L. Goldberg, J. F. Weller, “Second-harmonic generation at 421 nm using injection-locked GaAlAs laser array and KNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1170–1171 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Knappe, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, “Single-mode continuous-wave Cr3+:LiSAF ring laser pumped by an injection-locked 670-nm broad-area diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1988–1990 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 895–912 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Hong, B. D. Sinclair, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Frequency-doubled and Q-switched 946-nm Nd:YAG laser pumped by a diode-laser array,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1318–1321 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).
  24. B. Zysset, I. Biaggio, P. Günter, “Refractive indices of orthorhombic KNbO3. I. Dispersion and temperature dependence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 380–386 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  25. I. Biaggio, P. Kerkoc, L.-S. Wu, P. Günter, B. Zysset, “Refractive indices of orthorhombic KNbO3. II. Phase-matching configurations for nonlinear-optical interactions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 507–517 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interactions of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3637 (1968).
    [CrossRef]

1996

1995

1994

B. Beier, J.-P. Meyn, R. Knappe, K.-J. Boller, G. Huber, R. Wallenstein, “A 180 mW Nd:LaSc3(BO3)4 single-frequency TEM00 microchip laser pumped by an injection-locked diode-laser array,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 381–388 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, “Aperture guiding in quasi-three-level lasers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 554–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

1991

P. Laporta, M. Brussard, “Design criteria for mode size optimization in diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2319–2326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

W. P. Risk, R. Pon, W. Lenth, “Diode laser pumped blue-light source at 473 nm using intracavity frequency doubling of a 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1625–1627 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

G. L. Abbas, S. Yang, V. W. S. Chan, J. G. Fujimoto, “Injection behaviour and modeling of 100 mW broad area diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 609–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Chun, L. Goldberg, J. F. Weller, “Second-harmonic generation at 421 nm using injection-locked GaAlAs laser array and KNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1170–1171 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 895–912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Risk, “Modeling of longitudinally pumped solid-state lasers exhibiting reabsorption losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1412–1423 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, “Room-temperature, continuous-wave, 946-nm Nd:YAG laser pumped by laser-diode arrays and intracavity frequency doubling to 473 nm,” Opt. Lett. 12, 993–995 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 605–612 (1987).

1985

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, D. R. Scifres, “Injection locking of coupled-stripe diode laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 236–238 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. J. F. Digonnet, C. J. Gaeta, “Theoretical analysis of optical fiber laser amplifiers and oscillators,” Appl. Opt. 24, 333–342 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

B. F. Aull, H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 925–930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

1968

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interactions of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3637 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966

H. Kogelnik, T. Li, “Laser beams and resonators,” Proc. IEEE 54, 1312–1329 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Abbas, G. L.

G. L. Abbas, S. Yang, V. W. S. Chan, J. G. Fujimoto, “Injection behaviour and modeling of 100 mW broad area diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 609–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Aull, B. F.

B. F. Aull, H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 925–930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Beier, B.

M. Scheidt, B. Beier, R. Knappe, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, “Diode-laser-pumped continuous-wave KTP optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2087–2094 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Beier, J.-P. Meyn, R. Knappe, K.-J. Boller, G. Huber, R. Wallenstein, “A 180 mW Nd:LaSc3(BO3)4 single-frequency TEM00 microchip laser pumped by an injection-locked diode-laser array,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 381–388 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

Boller, K.-J.

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interactions of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3637 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Brussard, M.

P. Laporta, M. Brussard, “Design criteria for mode size optimization in diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2319–2326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 895–912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 605–612 (1987).

Chan, V. W. S.

G. L. Abbas, S. Yang, V. W. S. Chan, J. G. Fujimoto, “Injection behaviour and modeling of 100 mW broad area diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 609–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chun, M. K.

M. K. Chun, L. Goldberg, J. F. Weller, “Second-harmonic generation at 421 nm using injection-locked GaAlAs laser array and KNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1170–1171 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

Digonnet, M. J. F.

Dunn, M. H.

J. Hong, B. D. Sinclair, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Frequency-doubled and Q-switched 946-nm Nd:YAG laser pumped by a diode-laser array,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1318–1321 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Lindsay, M. H. Dunn, M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Efficient 946-nm Nd:YAG laser pumped by injection-locked broad-area diode laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 482.

Ebrahimzadeh, M.

I. D. Lindsay, M. H. Dunn, M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Efficient 946-nm Nd:YAG laser pumped by injection-locked broad-area diode laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 482.

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, “Aperture guiding in quasi-three-level lasers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 554–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 895–912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 605–612 (1987).

Fields, R. A.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fincher, C. L.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. L. Abbas, S. Yang, V. W. S. Chan, J. G. Fujimoto, “Injection behaviour and modeling of 100 mW broad area diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 609–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, C. J.

Goldberg, L.

M. K. Chun, L. Goldberg, J. F. Weller, “Second-harmonic generation at 421 nm using injection-locked GaAlAs laser array and KNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1170–1171 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, D. R. Scifres, “Injection locking of coupled-stripe diode laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 236–238 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

Hall, D. G.

Hanna, D. C.

Hong, J.

Huber, G.

B. Beier, J.-P. Meyn, R. Knappe, K.-J. Boller, G. Huber, R. Wallenstein, “A 180 mW Nd:LaSc3(BO3)4 single-frequency TEM00 microchip laser pumped by an injection-locked diode-laser array,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 381–388 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Innocenzi, M. E.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jenssen, H. P.

B. F. Aull, H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 925–930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kerkoc, P.

Kleinman, D. A.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interactions of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3637 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Knappe, R.

Koch, R.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, T. Li, “Laser beams and resonators,” Proc. IEEE 54, 1312–1329 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

P. Laporta, M. Brussard, “Design criteria for mode size optimization in diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2319–2326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lenth, W.

W. P. Risk, R. Pon, W. Lenth, “Diode laser pumped blue-light source at 473 nm using intracavity frequency doubling of a 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1625–1627 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, “Room-temperature, continuous-wave, 946-nm Nd:YAG laser pumped by laser-diode arrays and intracavity frequency doubling to 473 nm,” Opt. Lett. 12, 993–995 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, T.

H. Kogelnik, T. Li, “Laser beams and resonators,” Proc. IEEE 54, 1312–1329 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Lindsay, I. D.

I. D. Lindsay, M. H. Dunn, M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Efficient 946-nm Nd:YAG laser pumped by injection-locked broad-area diode laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 482.

Meyn, J.-P.

B. Beier, J.-P. Meyn, R. Knappe, K.-J. Boller, G. Huber, R. Wallenstein, “A 180 mW Nd:LaSc3(BO3)4 single-frequency TEM00 microchip laser pumped by an injection-locked diode-laser array,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 381–388 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pon, R.

W. P. Risk, R. Pon, W. Lenth, “Diode laser pumped blue-light source at 473 nm using intracavity frequency doubling of a 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1625–1627 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rice, R. R.

Risk, W. P.

Salin, F.

Scheidt, M.

Scifres, D. R.

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, D. R. Scifres, “Injection locking of coupled-stripe diode laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 236–238 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

Sinclair, B. D.

Smith, R. J.

Squier, J.

Taylor, H. F.

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, D. R. Scifres, “Injection locking of coupled-stripe diode laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 236–238 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wallenstein, R.

Weller, J. F.

M. K. Chun, L. Goldberg, J. F. Weller, “Second-harmonic generation at 421 nm using injection-locked GaAlAs laser array and KNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1170–1171 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, D. R. Scifres, “Injection locking of coupled-stripe diode laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 236–238 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L.-S.

Yang, S.

G. L. Abbas, S. Yang, V. W. S. Chan, J. G. Fujimoto, “Injection behaviour and modeling of 100 mW broad area diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 609–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yura, H. T.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zysset, B.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

B. Beier, J.-P. Meyn, R. Knappe, K.-J. Boller, G. Huber, R. Wallenstein, “A 180 mW Nd:LaSc3(BO3)4 single-frequency TEM00 microchip laser pumped by an injection-locked diode-laser array,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 381–388 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. K. Chun, L. Goldberg, J. F. Weller, “Second-harmonic generation at 421 nm using injection-locked GaAlAs laser array and KNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1170–1171 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Risk, R. Pon, W. Lenth, “Diode laser pumped blue-light source at 473 nm using intracavity frequency doubling of a 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1625–1627 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, D. R. Scifres, “Injection locking of coupled-stripe diode laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 236–238 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

G. L. Abbas, S. Yang, V. W. S. Chan, J. G. Fujimoto, “Injection behaviour and modeling of 100 mW broad area diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 609–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Laporta, M. Brussard, “Design criteria for mode size optimization in diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2319–2326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 605–612 (1987).

B. F. Aull, H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 925–930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 895–912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interactions of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3637 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

H. Kogelnik, T. Li, “Laser beams and resonators,” Proc. IEEE 54, 1312–1329 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

I. D. Lindsay, M. H. Dunn, M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Efficient 946-nm Nd:YAG laser pumped by injection-locked broad-area diode laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 482.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ratio of average pump-beam radius P to minimum average laser-mode radius L,min versus a = w p /w L,opt for a range of values of pump-beam quality factor M P 2 and λ P = 808 nm and λ L = 946 nm. Dashed curve is for λ P = λ L and M P 2 = 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental arrangement for injection-locked broad-area laser diode and a 946-nm Nd:YAG laser. Cyl., cylindrical lens; Sph., spherical lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Far-field profiles of the broad-area laser diode in the plane of the junction: (a) free running and (b) injection locked.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Radius of injection-locked broad-area laser diode beam through the focus in the plane of the junction. The dashed curve is a fitted parabola giving an M 2 value of 1.3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output spectrum of the broad-area laser diode: (a) free running (measured with an optical spectrum analyzer) and (b) injection locked (measured with a scanning interferometer with ≈30-MHz resolution).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Output power at 946 nm versus input pump power. Dashed curve is a linear fit to the experimental data points; solid curve is calculated by use of Eq. (2).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated thermal lens focal length for a range of pump powers and corresponding laser-mode waist radius and threshold-to-pump-power ratio. The laser cavity length was assumed to be set to compensate the thermal lens induced at maximum pump power.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured 946-nm Q-switched pulses at a range of input pump-power levels.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Q-switched pulse parameters plotted against appropriate functions or r, the pump rate relative to threshold.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Pulse at 946 nm (upper trace, vertical scale 4.5 W/mV) and second-harmonic pulse at 473 nm (lower trace, no vertical calibration). The respective pulse widths are shown on the right-hand side.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P th = π h ν p 4 σ τ 1 - exp - α L w L 2 + w P 2 δ + 2 α l L ,
P 1 - exp - α L h ν P = δ 2 L - α l S 0 2 S ln 1 + 2 S S 0 × π w P 2 L 2 σ f b + f a τ × 0 exp - x 1 + w L 2 w P 2 1 + 2   S S 0 exp - x ,
x = 2 r 2 w L 2 ,
S 0 = n π w L 2 L f b + f a c σ τ
w ¯ 2 = w 0 2 + 1 3 M 2 λ L π nw 0 2 ,
w 0 , opt = 1 3 M 2 λ L π n 1 / 2 .
w ¯ min = 2 3 M 2 λ L π n 1 / 2 = 2   w 0 , opt .
w ¯ p w ¯ L , min = 1 2 a 2 + 1 a 2 M P 2 λ P 2 λ L 2 1 / 2 ,
t b = A τ c r - 1 ,
Δ t = r η r r - 1 - ln   r   τ c ,
P pk = ch ν L n th f a + f b 2 L r - 1 - ln   r T ,

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