Abstract

Over a period of 3 years a precision Sun photometer (SPM) operating between 300 and 1025 nm was calibrated four times at three different high-mountain sites in Switzerland, Germany, and the United States by means of the Langley-plot technique. We found that for atmospheric window wavelengths the total error (2σ—statistical plus systematic errors) of the calibration constants V 0 (λ), the SPM voltage in the absence of any attenuating atmosphere, can be kept below 1.6% in the UV-A and blue, 0.9% in the mid-visible, and 0.6% in the near-infrared spectral region. For SPM channels within strong water-vapor or ozone absorption bands a modified Langley-plot technique was used to determine V 0 (λ) with a lower accuracy. Within the same period of time, we calibrated the SPM five times using irradiance standard lamps in the optical labs of the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos and World Radiation Center, Switzerland, and of the Remote Sensing Group of the Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. The lab calibration method requires knowledge of the extraterrestrial spectral irradiance. When we refer the standard lamp results to the World Radiation Center extraterrestrial solar irradiance spectrum, they agree with the Langley results within 2% at 6 of 13 SPM wavelengths. The largest disagreement (4.4%) is found for the channel centered at 610 nm. The results of these intercomparisons change significantly when the lamp results are referred to two different extraterrestrial solar irradiance spectra that have become recently available.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1998 (1)

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The visible solar spectral irradiance from 350 to 850 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer during the ATLAS-1 mission,” Sol. Phys. 177, 41–61 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (4)

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, “Observation of the UV solar irradiance between 200 and 350 nm during the ATLAS-1 mission by the SOLSPEC spectrometer,” Sol. Phys. 171, 283–302 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Schmid, C. Mätzler, A. Heimo, N. Kämpfer, “Retrieval of optical depth and size distribution of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols by means of Sun photometry,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 35, 172–182 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. N. Halthore, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, B. L. Markham, “Sun photometric measurements of atmospheric water vapor column abundance in the 940-nm band,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4343–4352 (1997).
[Crossref]

U. Baltensperger, H. W. Gäggeler, D. T. Jost, M. Lugauer, M. Schwikowski, E. Weingartner, P. Seibert, “Aerosol climatology at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,707–19,715 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (5)

B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-μm region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. Crommelynck, A. Fichot, V. Domingo, R. Lee, “SOLCON solar constant observations from the ATLAS missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2293–2295 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. P. Cebula, G. O. Thuillier, M. E. VanHoosier, E. Hilsenrath, M. Herse, G. E. Brueckner, P. C. Simon, “Observations of the solar irradiance in the 200-350 nm interval during the ATLAS-1 mission: a comparison among three sets of measurements—SSBUV, SOLSPEC, and SUSIM,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2289–2292 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. J. Labow, L. E. Flynn, M. A. Rawlins, R. A. Beach, C. A. Simmons, C. N. Schubert, “Estimation of ozone with total ozone portable spectroradiometer instruments. I. Practical operation and comparisons,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6084–6089 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (5)

B. Schmid, C. Wehrli, “Comparison of Sun photometer calibration by Langley technique and standard lamp,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4500–4512 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.-C. Gao, R. Green, “Presence of terrestrial atmospheric gas absorption bands in standard extraterrestrial solar irradiance curves in the near-infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6263–6268 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Michalsky, J. C. Liljegren, L. C. Harrison, “A comparison of Sun photometer derivations of total column water vapor and ozone to standard measures of same at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25,995–26,003 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. Fröhlich, R. Philipona, J. Romero, C. Wehrli, “Radiometry at the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos and World Radiation Center,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2757–2766 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Stähelin, H. Schill, B. Högger, P. Viatte, G. Levrat, A. Gamma, “Total ozone observation by Sun photometry at Arosa, Switzerland,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1977–1986 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

R. T. Pinker, “Characteristic aerosol optical depths during the Harmattan season on sub-Sahara Africa,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 685–688 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

C. J. Bruegge, R. N. Halthore, B. Markham, M. Spanner, R. Wrigley, “Aerosol optical depth retrievals over the Konza Prairie,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 18,743–18,758 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

C. Wehrli, C. Fröhlich, “Solar spectral irradiance measurements at 386 nm, 500 nm and 778 nm,” Metrologia 28, 285–289 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

J. A. Reagan, P. A. Pilewskie, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, A. Ben-David, “Extrapolation of Earth-based solar irradiance measurements to exoatmospheric levels for broad-band and selected absorption-band observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 25, 647–653 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

R. M. Schotland, T. K. Lea, “Bias in a solar constant determination by the Langley method due to structured atmospheric aerosol,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2486–2491 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Reagan, L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. M. Palmer, “Assessment of atmospheric limitations on the determination of the solar spectral constant from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 24, 258–266 (1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The Solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

G. E. Shaw, “Sun photometry,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 64, 4–10 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

G. Brasseur, P. Simon, “Stratospheric and thermal response to long-term variability in solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7343–7362 (1981).
[Crossref]

1977 (3)

R. E. Basher, W. A. Matthews, “Problems in the use of interference filters for spectrophotometric determination of total ozone,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 795–802 (1977).
[Crossref]

R. D. Saunders, J. B. Shumaker, “The 1973 NBS scale of spectral irradiance,” Natl. Bur. Stand. Tech. Note 594–13 (1977).

R. E. Basher, “The effect of bandwidth on filter instrument total ozone accuracy,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 803–811 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (2)

G. E. Shaw, “Error analysis of multi-wavelength Sun photometry,” Pageoph. 114, 1–14 (1976).
[Crossref]

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, “A method for inferring total ozone content from the spectral variation of total optical depth obtained with a solar radiometer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2242–2251 (1976).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

P. B. Russell, G. E. Shaw, “Comments on: precision and accuracy of sunphotometry,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1206–1209 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

E. V. P. Smith, D. M. Gottlieb, “Solar flux and its variations,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 771–802 (1974).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

1965 (1)

F. Kasten, “A new table and approximation formula for relative optical air mass,” Arch. Meteorol. Geophysics. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 14, 206–223 (1965).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

Abreu, L. W.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 Model” (Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., (1996).

Acharaya, P.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 Model” (Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., (1996).

Allen, D.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[Crossref]

Anderson, F. M.

M. Morys, S. E. Mims, F. M. Anderson, “Design, calibration and performance of microtops II hand-held ozonometer,” presented at the 12th International Congress on Photobiology, Vienna, September 1996.

Anderson, G. P.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 Model” (Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., (1996).

Andrews, M. D.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
[Crossref]

Arvesen, J. C.

Baltensperger, U.

U. Baltensperger, H. W. Gäggeler, D. T. Jost, M. Lugauer, M. Schwikowski, E. Weingartner, P. Seibert, “Aerosol climatology at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,707–19,715 (1997).
[Crossref]

Basher, R. E.

R. E. Basher, “The effect of bandwidth on filter instrument total ozone accuracy,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 803–811 (1977).
[Crossref]

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F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 Model” (Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., (1996).

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J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, S. B. Hooker, J. T. McLean, S. F. Biggar, “The third SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-3), 19–30 September 1994,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 34, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.1996).

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R. P. Cebula, G. O. Thuillier, M. E. VanHoosier, E. Hilsenrath, M. Herse, G. E. Brueckner, P. C. Simon, “Observations of the solar irradiance in the 200-350 nm interval during the ATLAS-1 mission: a comparison among three sets of measurements—SSBUV, SOLSPEC, and SUSIM,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2289–2292 (1996).
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C. J. Bruegge, R. N. Halthore, B. Markham, M. Spanner, R. Wrigley, “Aerosol optical depth retrievals over the Konza Prairie,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 18,743–18,758 (1992).
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M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, “A method for inferring total ozone content from the spectral variation of total optical depth obtained with a solar radiometer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2242–2251 (1976).
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T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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R. P. Cebula, G. O. Thuillier, M. E. VanHoosier, E. Hilsenrath, M. Herse, G. E. Brueckner, P. C. Simon, “Observations of the solar irradiance in the 200-350 nm interval during the ATLAS-1 mission: a comparison among three sets of measurements—SSBUV, SOLSPEC, and SUSIM,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2289–2292 (1996).
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F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 Model” (Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., (1996).

Clough, S. A.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 Model” (Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., (1996).

Cooper, J. W.

J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, J. W. Cooper, J. T. McLean, S. B. Hooker, T. L. Westphal, “The second SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment, SIRREX-2, June 1993,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 16, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

Crane, P. C.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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Cromer, C. L.

J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, S. B. Hooker, J. T. McLean, S. F. Biggar, “The third SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-3), 19–30 September 1994,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 34, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.1996).

J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, J. W. Cooper, J. T. McLean, S. B. Hooker, T. L. Westphal, “The second SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment, SIRREX-2, June 1993,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 16, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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R. N. Halthore, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, B. L. Markham, “Sun photometric measurements of atmospheric water vapor column abundance in the 940-nm band,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4343–4352 (1997).
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Fichot, A.

D. Crommelynck, A. Fichot, V. Domingo, R. Lee, “SOLCON solar constant observations from the ATLAS missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2293–2295 (1996).
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T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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Forgan, B. W.

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G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The visible solar spectral irradiance from 350 to 850 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer during the ATLAS-1 mission,” Sol. Phys. 177, 41–61 (1998).
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Furenlid, I.

R. L. Kurucz, I. Furenlid, J. Brault, L. Testerman, “Solar Flux Atlas from 296 to 1300 nm,” (National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, N.M., 1984), pp. 1–2.

Gäggeler, H. W.

U. Baltensperger, H. W. Gäggeler, D. T. Jost, M. Lugauer, M. Schwikowski, E. Weingartner, P. Seibert, “Aerosol climatology at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,707–19,715 (1997).
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F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 Model” (Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., (1996).

Gamma, A.

J. Stähelin, H. Schill, B. Högger, P. Viatte, G. Levrat, A. Gamma, “Total ozone observation by Sun photometry at Arosa, Switzerland,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1977–1986 (1995).
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Gillotay, D.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The visible solar spectral irradiance from 350 to 850 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer during the ATLAS-1 mission,” Sol. Phys. 177, 41–61 (1998).
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G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, “Observation of the UV solar irradiance between 200 and 350 nm during the ATLAS-1 mission by the SOLSPEC spectrometer,” Sol. Phys. 171, 283–302 (1997).
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R. N. Halthore, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, B. L. Markham, “Sun photometric measurements of atmospheric water vapor column abundance in the 940-nm band,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4343–4352 (1997).
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C. J. Bruegge, R. N. Halthore, B. Markham, M. Spanner, R. Wrigley, “Aerosol optical depth retrievals over the Konza Prairie,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 18,743–18,758 (1992).
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B. Schmid, C. Mätzler, A. Heimo, N. Kämpfer, “Retrieval of optical depth and size distribution of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols by means of Sun photometry,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 35, 172–182 (1997).
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A. Heimo, C. Teévoz, P. Renaud, R. W. Brusa, J. Sekler, C. Fröhlich, “RASTA: Radiometer for Automatic Stations.” Working Report 183 of the Swiss Meteorological Institute. Available from Schweizerische Meteorologische Anstalt, Krähenbühlstrasse 58, Postfach, CH-8044 Zürich, Switzerland (1995).

Herman, B. M.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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J. A. Reagan, P. A. Pilewskie, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, A. Ben-David, “Extrapolation of Earth-based solar irradiance measurements to exoatmospheric levels for broad-band and selected absorption-band observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 25, 647–653 (1987).
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J. A. Reagan, L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. M. Palmer, “Assessment of atmospheric limitations on the determination of the solar spectral constant from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 24, 258–266 (1986).
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T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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R. P. Cebula, G. O. Thuillier, M. E. VanHoosier, E. Hilsenrath, M. Herse, G. E. Brueckner, P. C. Simon, “Observations of the solar irradiance in the 200-350 nm interval during the ATLAS-1 mission: a comparison among three sets of measurements—SSBUV, SOLSPEC, and SUSIM,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2289–2292 (1996).
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Hersé, M.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The visible solar spectral irradiance from 350 to 850 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer during the ATLAS-1 mission,” Sol. Phys. 177, 41–61 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, “Observation of the UV solar irradiance between 200 and 350 nm during the ATLAS-1 mission by the SOLSPEC spectrometer,” Sol. Phys. 171, 283–302 (1997).
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Hilsenrath, E.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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R. P. Cebula, G. O. Thuillier, M. E. VanHoosier, E. Hilsenrath, M. Herse, G. E. Brueckner, P. C. Simon, “Observations of the solar irradiance in the 200-350 nm interval during the ATLAS-1 mission: a comparison among three sets of measurements—SSBUV, SOLSPEC, and SUSIM,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2289–2292 (1996).
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Hofmann, D. J.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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Högger, B.

J. Stähelin, H. Schill, B. Högger, P. Viatte, G. Levrat, A. Gamma, “Total ozone observation by Sun photometry at Arosa, Switzerland,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1977–1986 (1995).
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Holben, B. N.

R. N. Halthore, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, B. L. Markham, “Sun photometric measurements of atmospheric water vapor column abundance in the 940-nm band,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4343–4352 (1997).
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Hooker, S. B.

J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, S. B. Hooker, J. T. McLean, S. F. Biggar, “The third SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-3), 19–30 September 1994,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 34, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.1996).

J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, J. W. Cooper, J. T. McLean, S. B. Hooker, T. L. Westphal, “The second SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment, SIRREX-2, June 1993,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 16, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

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J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, J. W. Cooper, J. T. McLean, S. B. Hooker, T. L. Westphal, “The second SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment, SIRREX-2, June 1993,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 16, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, S. B. Hooker, J. T. McLean, S. F. Biggar, “The third SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-3), 19–30 September 1994,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 34, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.1996).

Jost, D. T.

U. Baltensperger, H. W. Gäggeler, D. T. Jost, M. Lugauer, M. Schwikowski, E. Weingartner, P. Seibert, “Aerosol climatology at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,707–19,715 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kämpfer, N.

B. Schmid, C. Mätzler, A. Heimo, N. Kämpfer, “Retrieval of optical depth and size distribution of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols by means of Sun photometry,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 35, 172–182 (1997).
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Kinne, S. A.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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Knapp, B. G.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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Kneizys, F. X.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 Model” (Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., (1996).

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R. L. Kurucz, Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Mass. 02138. (personal communication, 1996).

R. L. Kurucz, I. Furenlid, J. Brault, L. Testerman, “Solar Flux Atlas from 296 to 1300 nm,” (National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, N.M., 1984), pp. 1–2.

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Labs, D.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The visible solar spectral irradiance from 350 to 850 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer during the ATLAS-1 mission,” Sol. Phys. 177, 41–61 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, “Observation of the UV solar irradiance between 200 and 350 nm during the ATLAS-1 mission by the SOLSPEC spectrometer,” Sol. Phys. 171, 283–302 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The Solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[Crossref]

Lea, T. K.

Lee, R.

D. Crommelynck, A. Fichot, V. Domingo, R. Lee, “SOLCON solar constant observations from the ATLAS missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2293–2295 (1996).
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Levrat, G.

J. Stähelin, H. Schill, B. Högger, P. Viatte, G. Levrat, A. Gamma, “Total ozone observation by Sun photometry at Arosa, Switzerland,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1977–1986 (1995).
[Crossref]

Liljegren, J. C.

J. J. Michalsky, J. C. Liljegren, L. C. Harrison, “A comparison of Sun photometer derivations of total column water vapor and ozone to standard measures of same at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25,995–26,003 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lissberger, P. H.

Livingston, J. M.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[Crossref]

London, J.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lugauer, M.

U. Baltensperger, H. W. Gäggeler, D. T. Jost, M. Lugauer, M. Schwikowski, E. Weingartner, P. Seibert, “Aerosol climatology at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,707–19,715 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mandel, H.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The visible solar spectral irradiance from 350 to 850 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer during the ATLAS-1 mission,” Sol. Phys. 177, 41–61 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, “Observation of the UV solar irradiance between 200 and 350 nm during the ATLAS-1 mission by the SOLSPEC spectrometer,” Sol. Phys. 171, 283–302 (1997).
[Crossref]

Markham, B.

C. J. Bruegge, R. N. Halthore, B. Markham, M. Spanner, R. Wrigley, “Aerosol optical depth retrievals over the Konza Prairie,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 18,743–18,758 (1992).
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Markham, B. L.

R. N. Halthore, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, B. L. Markham, “Sun photometric measurements of atmospheric water vapor column abundance in the 940-nm band,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4343–4352 (1997).
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R. E. Basher, W. A. Matthews, “Problems in the use of interference filters for spectrophotometric determination of total ozone,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 795–802 (1977).
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Mätzler, C.

B. Schmid, C. Mätzler, A. Heimo, N. Kämpfer, “Retrieval of optical depth and size distribution of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols by means of Sun photometry,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 35, 172–182 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-μm region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
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McLean, J. T.

J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, S. B. Hooker, J. T. McLean, S. F. Biggar, “The third SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-3), 19–30 September 1994,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 34, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.1996).

J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, J. W. Cooper, J. T. McLean, S. B. Hooker, T. L. Westphal, “The second SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment, SIRREX-2, June 1993,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 16, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

McSparron, D. A.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations,” NBS Measurement Services SP 250-20 (National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce, Gaithersburg, Md., 1987).

Michalsky, J. J.

J. J. Michalsky, J. C. Liljegren, L. C. Harrison, “A comparison of Sun photometer derivations of total column water vapor and ozone to standard measures of same at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25,995–26,003 (1995).
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Mims, S. E.

M. Morys, S. E. Mims, F. M. Anderson, “Design, calibration and performance of microtops II hand-held ozonometer,” presented at the 12th International Congress on Photobiology, Vienna, September 1996.

Morys, M.

M. Morys, S. E. Mims, F. M. Anderson, “Design, calibration and performance of microtops II hand-held ozonometer,” presented at the 12th International Congress on Photobiology, Vienna, September 1996.

Mueller, J. L.

J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, J. W. Cooper, J. T. McLean, S. B. Hooker, T. L. Westphal, “The second SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment, SIRREX-2, June 1993,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 16, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, S. B. Hooker, J. T. McLean, S. F. Biggar, “The third SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-3), 19–30 September 1994,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 34, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.1996).

Neckel, H.

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The Solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[Crossref]

Palmer, J. M.

J. A. Reagan, L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. M. Palmer, “Assessment of atmospheric limitations on the determination of the solar spectral constant from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 24, 258–266 (1986).
[Crossref]

Pankratz, C. K.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
[Crossref]

Pearson, B. D.

Peter, R.

B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-μm region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. Peter, B. Schmid, “Comparison of columnar water vapor determined from microwave emission and solar transmission measurements,” in Topical Symposium on Combined Optical-Microwave Earth and Atmosphere Sensing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N. J., 1993), pp. 193–197.
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Philipona, R.

C. Fröhlich, R. Philipona, J. Romero, C. Wehrli, “Radiometry at the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos and World Radiation Center,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2757–2766 (1995).
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Pilewski, P.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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Pilewskie, P. A.

J. A. Reagan, P. A. Pilewskie, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, A. Ben-David, “Extrapolation of Earth-based solar irradiance measurements to exoatmospheric levels for broad-band and selected absorption-band observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 25, 647–653 (1987).
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R. T. Pinker, “Characteristic aerosol optical depths during the Harmattan season on sub-Sahara Africa,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 685–688 (1994).
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T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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Puschel, R. F.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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Rawlins, M. A.

Reagan, J. A.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. A. Reagan, P. A. Pilewskie, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, A. Ben-David, “Extrapolation of Earth-based solar irradiance measurements to exoatmospheric levels for broad-band and selected absorption-band observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 25, 647–653 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. A. Reagan, L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. M. Palmer, “Assessment of atmospheric limitations on the determination of the solar spectral constant from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 24, 258–266 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. A. Reagan, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, “Recovery of spectral optical depth and zero-airmass solar spectral irradiance under conditions of temporally varying optical depth,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1984), pp. 455–459.

Reiser, P. A.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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Renaud, P.

A. Heimo, C. Teévoz, P. Renaud, R. W. Brusa, J. Sekler, C. Fröhlich, “RASTA: Radiometer for Automatic Stations.” Working Report 183 of the Swiss Meteorological Institute. Available from Schweizerische Meteorologische Anstalt, Krähenbühlstrasse 58, Postfach, CH-8044 Zürich, Switzerland (1995).

Robertson, D. C.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 Model” (Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., (1996).

Romero, J.

C. Fröhlich, R. Philipona, J. Romero, C. Wehrli, “Radiometry at the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos and World Radiation Center,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2757–2766 (1995).
[Crossref]

Rothmann, L. S.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 Model” (Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., (1996).

Rottman, G. J.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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Russell, P. B.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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P. B. Russell, G. E. Shaw, “Comments on: precision and accuracy of sunphotometry,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1206–1209 (1975).
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Saunders, R. D.

R. D. Saunders, J. B. Shumaker, “The 1973 NBS scale of spectral irradiance,” Natl. Bur. Stand. Tech. Note 594–13 (1977).

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations,” NBS Measurement Services SP 250-20 (National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce, Gaithersburg, Md., 1987).

Schill, H.

J. Stähelin, H. Schill, B. Högger, P. Viatte, G. Levrat, A. Gamma, “Total ozone observation by Sun photometry at Arosa, Switzerland,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1977–1986 (1995).
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Schmid, B.

B. Schmid, C. Mätzler, A. Heimo, N. Kämpfer, “Retrieval of optical depth and size distribution of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols by means of Sun photometry,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 35, 172–182 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-μm region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
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B. Schmid, C. Wehrli, “Comparison of Sun photometer calibration by Langley technique and standard lamp,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4500–4512 (1995).
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R. Peter, B. Schmid, “Comparison of columnar water vapor determined from microwave emission and solar transmission measurements,” in Topical Symposium on Combined Optical-Microwave Earth and Atmosphere Sensing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N. J., 1993), pp. 193–197.
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B. Schmid, C. Wehrli, “High precision calibration of a Sun photometer using Langley plots performed at Jungfraujoch (3580 m) and standard irradiance lamps,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, T. I. Stein, ed. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N. J., 1994), pp. 2314–2316.

Schotland, R. M.

R. M. Schotland, T. K. Lea, “Bias in a solar constant determination by the Langley method due to structured atmospheric aerosol,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2486–2491 (1986).
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J. A. Reagan, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, “Recovery of spectral optical depth and zero-airmass solar spectral irradiance under conditions of temporally varying optical depth,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1984), pp. 455–459.

Schubert, C. N.

Schwikowski, M.

U. Baltensperger, H. W. Gäggeler, D. T. Jost, M. Lugauer, M. Schwikowski, E. Weingartner, P. Seibert, “Aerosol climatology at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,707–19,715 (1997).
[Crossref]

Scott-Fleming, I. C.

J. A. Reagan, P. A. Pilewskie, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, A. Ben-David, “Extrapolation of Earth-based solar irradiance measurements to exoatmospheric levels for broad-band and selected absorption-band observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 25, 647–653 (1987).
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J. A. Reagan, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, “Recovery of spectral optical depth and zero-airmass solar spectral irradiance under conditions of temporally varying optical depth,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1984), pp. 455–459.

Seibert, P.

U. Baltensperger, H. W. Gäggeler, D. T. Jost, M. Lugauer, M. Schwikowski, E. Weingartner, P. Seibert, “Aerosol climatology at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,707–19,715 (1997).
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Sekler, J.

B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-μm region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
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A. Heimo, C. Teévoz, P. Renaud, R. W. Brusa, J. Sekler, C. Fröhlich, “RASTA: Radiometer for Automatic Stations.” Working Report 183 of the Swiss Meteorological Institute. Available from Schweizerische Meteorologische Anstalt, Krähenbühlstrasse 58, Postfach, CH-8044 Zürich, Switzerland (1995).

Selby, J. E. A.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 Model” (Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., (1996).

Shaw, G. E.

G. E. Shaw, “Sun photometry,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 64, 4–10 (1983).
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G. E. Shaw, “Solar spectral irradiance and atmospheric transmission at Mauna Loa Observatory,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2006–2011 (1982).
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G. E. Shaw, “Error analysis of multi-wavelength Sun photometry,” Pageoph. 114, 1–14 (1976).
[Crossref]

P. B. Russell, G. E. Shaw, “Comments on: precision and accuracy of sunphotometry,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1206–1209 (1975).
[Crossref]

Shettle, E. P.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 Model” (Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., (1996).

Shumaker, J. B.

R. D. Saunders, J. B. Shumaker, “The 1973 NBS scale of spectral irradiance,” Natl. Bur. Stand. Tech. Note 594–13 (1977).

Simmons, C. A.

Simon, P.

G. Brasseur, P. Simon, “Stratospheric and thermal response to long-term variability in solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7343–7362 (1981).
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Simon, P. C.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The visible solar spectral irradiance from 350 to 850 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer during the ATLAS-1 mission,” Sol. Phys. 177, 41–61 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, “Observation of the UV solar irradiance between 200 and 350 nm during the ATLAS-1 mission by the SOLSPEC spectrometer,” Sol. Phys. 171, 283–302 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. P. Cebula, G. O. Thuillier, M. E. VanHoosier, E. Hilsenrath, M. Herse, G. E. Brueckner, P. C. Simon, “Observations of the solar irradiance in the 200-350 nm interval during the ATLAS-1 mission: a comparison among three sets of measurements—SSBUV, SOLSPEC, and SUSIM,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2289–2292 (1996).
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Slater, P. N.

S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, “Preflight cross-calibration radiometer for Eos AM-1 platform visible and near-IR sources,” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE1939, 243–249 (1993).
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Smith, E. V. P.

E. V. P. Smith, D. M. Gottlieb, “Solar flux and its variations,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 771–802 (1974).
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Spanner, M.

C. J. Bruegge, R. N. Halthore, B. Markham, M. Spanner, R. Wrigley, “Aerosol optical depth retrievals over the Konza Prairie,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 18,743–18,758 (1992).
[Crossref]

Stähelin, J.

J. Stähelin, H. Schill, B. Högger, P. Viatte, G. Levrat, A. Gamma, “Total ozone observation by Sun photometry at Arosa, Switzerland,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1977–1986 (1995).
[Crossref]

Teévoz, C.

A. Heimo, C. Teévoz, P. Renaud, R. W. Brusa, J. Sekler, C. Fröhlich, “RASTA: Radiometer for Automatic Stations.” Working Report 183 of the Swiss Meteorological Institute. Available from Schweizerische Meteorologische Anstalt, Krähenbühlstrasse 58, Postfach, CH-8044 Zürich, Switzerland (1995).

Testerman, L.

R. L. Kurucz, I. Furenlid, J. Brault, L. Testerman, “Solar Flux Atlas from 296 to 1300 nm,” (National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, N.M., 1984), pp. 1–2.

Thomason, L. W.

J. A. Reagan, L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. M. Palmer, “Assessment of atmospheric limitations on the determination of the solar spectral constant from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 24, 258–266 (1986).
[Crossref]

Thome, K. J.

B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-μm region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
[Crossref]

Thuillier, G.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The visible solar spectral irradiance from 350 to 850 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer during the ATLAS-1 mission,” Sol. Phys. 177, 41–61 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, “Observation of the UV solar irradiance between 200 and 350 nm during the ATLAS-1 mission by the SOLSPEC spectrometer,” Sol. Phys. 171, 283–302 (1997).
[Crossref]

Thuillier, G. O.

R. P. Cebula, G. O. Thuillier, M. E. VanHoosier, E. Hilsenrath, M. Herse, G. E. Brueckner, P. C. Simon, “Observations of the solar irradiance in the 200-350 nm interval during the ATLAS-1 mission: a comparison among three sets of measurements—SSBUV, SOLSPEC, and SUSIM,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2289–2292 (1996).
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VanHoosier, M. E.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Stabilized temperature of the filter and detector assembly as a function of the ambient temperature as measured in a temperature- and humidity-controlled chamber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Out-of-band measurement of the 862-nm channel in SPM 15.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Out-of-band measurement of the 500-nm channel in SPM 15.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral transmittance of the six protective windows. Crown glass (BK-7) is used for the four SPM’s operating at the WMO standard wavelengths whereas quartz glass (Suprasil-II) is used for the two SPM’s operating in the UV. The dotted curve denotes the theoretical values obtained for a 6-mm BK-7 glass including internal and reflection losses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intercomparison results of SIRREX-3 for Optronic lamps F296 and F297 based on NIST lamp F269 and intercomparison of F296 and F330.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intercomparison of the indicated spectra. The SOLSPEC ATLAS-1 spectrum is from Thuillier et al.34,35 The WRC spectrum has been compiled by Wehrli,18 and the modtran 3.5 spectrum is based on a synthetic spectrum computed by Kurucz.31 All the spectra are degraded to a spectral resolution of 5 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Intercomparison of the indicated spectra. The curves labeled UARS are average spectra obtained from SUSIM and SOLSTICE simultaneously with the first two ATLAS missions.33 The average ATLAS-1 SOLSPEC/SSBUV/SUSIM spectrum is from Cebula et al.32 The SOLSPEC ATLAS-1 spectrum is from Thuillier et al.34,35 The WRC spectrum was compiled by Wehrli18 and the modtran 3.5 spectrum is based on a synthetic spectrum computed by Kurucz31 with a correction in the UV. All the spectra are degraded to a spectral resolution of 5 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relative changes of the calibration constants V 0(λ) of SPM 15 and SPM 20 derived from Langley-plot calibrations.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Difference in the calibration constants V 0(λ) derived from Langley calibrations and standard lamps. The error bars depict the uncertainty of the Langley-plot calibration method whereas the dashed curves indicate the error of the lamp calibration method. The lamp results are referred to the WRC extraterrestrial solar irradiance spectrum.18

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Same as Fig. 9 but the lamp results are referred to the modtran 3.5 version 1.2 extraterrestrial solar irradiance spectrum.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Same as Fig. 9 but the lamp results are referred to the SOLSPEC extraterrestrial solar irradiance spectrum measured during ATLAS-1.34,35

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Measurements of the solar spectral irradiance with SPM’s compared with the WRC spectrum.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Ratio of the solar irradiances at our SPM’s wavelengths derived in this research and by several other experiments with respect to the WRC spectrum.18 The curves labeled UARS are average spectra obtained from SUSIM and SOLSTICE simultaneously with the first two ATLAS missions.33 The average ATLAS-1 SSBUV/SOLSPEC/SUSIM spectrum is from Cebula et al.32 The SOLSPEC ATLAS-1 spectrum is from Thuillier et al.34,35

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Nominal and Measured Median Wavelengths and Bandwidths of the SPM’s Used in this Studya

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calibration Constants V0(λ) Derived from Lamp Calibration Runs with the Scaling Factors f(λ) and Protective Window Transmittances

Tables Icon

Table 3 Error Budget of Lamp Calibration Method as Applied to our SPM’s (percent)

Tables Icon

Table 4 Results of Langley-Plot Calibrationsa

Tables Icon

Table 5 Error Budget of the Langley-Plot Calibration as Applied to our SPM’s (percent)

Tables Icon

Table 6 Average Differences in the Retrieved Calibration Constants V0(λ) Obtained from One to Three Intercomparisons of the Langley Plot and the Standard Lamp Method (Percent)a

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V 0 λ = V L λ f λ ,
f λ = E ¯ 0 λ E ¯ L λ = λ 1 λ 2   E 0 λ S λ d λ λ 1 λ 2   E L λ S λ d λ .
V λ = V 0 λ R - 2 exp - m τ λ ,
ln   V λ = ln V 0 λ R - 2 - m τ λ .
τ λ = τ R λ + τ 3 λ + τ 2 λ + τ a λ ,
V λ = V 0 λ R - 2 exp - i   m i τ i λ ,
V λ = V 0 λ R - 2 exp - m R τ R λ - m 3 τ 3 λ - m 2 τ 2 λ - m a τ a λ .
ln   V λ + m R τ R λ + m 3 τ 3 λ + m 2 τ 2 λ = ln V 0 λ R - 2 - m a τ a λ .
V λ = V 0 λ R - 2 exp - i   m i τ i λ T w ,
T w = exp - a m w u b ,
ln   V λ + m a τ a λ + m R τ R λ + m 3 τ 3 λ = ln V 0 λ R - 2 - a m w u b .
Δ τ λ = ln 1 + Δ V 0 λ / V 0 λ m ,

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