Abstract

We review existing experimental data and methods for calculating the Mueller matrix of ocean water for use as input in a simulation model applicable to laser remote sensing. Calculations of the Mueller matrix are made for scattering media of different refractive indices, shapes, and size distributions. Dependencies of the backscattering depolarization ratio as a function of the particle refractive index are presented, and we demonstrate the potential importance of polarization in bathymetric sensing.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1997 (1)

1996 (3)

G. Bryant, C. Abeynayake, J. C. Thomas, “Improved particle size distribution measurements using multiangle dynamic light scattering. 2. Refinements and applications,” Langmuir 12, 6224–6228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Farafonov, N. V. Voshchinnikov, V. V. Somsikov, “Light scattering by a core-mantle spheroidal particle,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5412–5426 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles—a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 55, 535–575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. Macke, M. I. Mishchenko, K. Muinonen, B. E. Carlson, “Scattering of light by large nonspherical particles: ray-tracing approximation versus T-matrix method,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1934–1936 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, “The variation in the inherent optical properties of phytoplankton near an absorption peak as determined by various models of cell structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 100 (C7), 13309–13320 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

D. B. Shapiro, P. G. Hull, Y. Shi, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, M. F. Maestre, J. E. Hearst, A. J. Hunt, “Toward a working theory of polarized light scattering from helices,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 146–157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering by polydispersions of randomly oriented spheroids with sizes comparable to wavelengths of observation,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7206–7225 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by large spheroidal particles,” Opt. Commun. 109, 16–21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1991 (2)

C. F. Bohren, S. B. Singham, “Backscattering by nonspherical particles: a review of methods and suggested new approaches,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5269–5271 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, “Light scattering by randomly oriented axially symmetric particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 871–882 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (2)

G. W. Kattawar, C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere–ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. P. Vasil’kov, T. V. Kondranin, E. V. Myasnikov, “Polarization characteristics of the backscattering signal for pulsed sensing of the ocean by a narrow light beam,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 24, 635–642 (1988).

1986 (4)

1985 (3)

A. Cohen, R. D. Haracz, L. D. Cohen, “Asymmetry factors for randomly oriented infinite cylinders,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1135–1140 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Haracz, L. D. Cohen, A. Cohen, “Scattering of linearly polarized light from randomly oriented cylinders and spheroids,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3322–3327 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Fry, K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322–1326 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1980 (2)

1979 (2)

1977 (1)

Y. A. Kadyshevich, “Light-scattering matrices of inshore waters of the Baltic Sea,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 13, 77–78 (1977).

1976 (1)

Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, G. V. Rozenberg, “Light-scattering matrices of Pacific and Atlantic Ocean waters,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 12, 106–111 (1976).

1975 (1)

1974 (1)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The determination of the index of refraction distribution of oceanic particulates,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4091–4095 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

E. M. Purcell, C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Brown, H. R. Gordon, “Two component Mie scattering models of Sargasso sea particles,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2461–2465 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, “A theoretical model of light scattering by Sargasso sea particulates,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 826–832 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, I. N. Plakhina, “Measurement of matrices for light scattered by seawater,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 7, 557–561 (1971).

P. C. Waterman, “Symmetry, unitarity, and geometry in electromagnetic scattering,” Phys. Rev. D 3, 825–839 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

1969 (1)

K. D. Abhyankar, A. L. Fymat, “Relations between the elements of the phase matrix for scattering,” J. Math. Phys. 10, 1935–1938 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (2)

G. F. Beardsley, “Mueller scattering matrix of seawater,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 52–57 (1968).
[CrossRef]

G. Kullenberg, “Scattering of light by Sargasso seawater,” Deep-Sea Res. 15, 423–432 (1968).

1965 (1)

P. C. Waterman, “Matrix formulation of electromagnetic scattering,” Proc. IEEE 53, 805–812 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

Abbot, R. H.

Abeynayake, C.

G. Bryant, C. Abeynayake, J. C. Thomas, “Improved particle size distribution measurements using multiangle dynamic light scattering. 2. Refinements and applications,” Langmuir 12, 6224–6228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abhyankar, K. D.

K. D. Abhyankar, A. L. Fymat, “Relations between the elements of the phase matrix for scattering,” J. Math. Phys. 10, 1935–1938 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Adams, C. N.

G. W. Kattawar, C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere–ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Adams, T. R.

Asano, S.

Barber, P. W.

P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, Light Scattering by Particles: Computational Methods (World Scientific, Singapore, 1990).

Beardsley, G. F.

Billard, B.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, S. B. Singham, “Backscattering by nonspherical particles: a review of methods and suggested new approaches,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5269–5271 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Bottiger, J. R.

Brennan, M.

M. Brennan, “A Monte-Carlo simulation of light propagation in seawater,” DSTO Rep. No. DSTO-TR-0500 (Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Salisbury, Australia, 1997).

Brown, O. B.

O. B. Brown, H. R. Gordon, “Two component Mie scattering models of Sargasso sea particles,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2461–2465 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, “A theoretical model of light scattering by Sargasso sea particulates,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 826–832 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, G.

G. Bryant, C. Abeynayake, J. C. Thomas, “Improved particle size distribution measurements using multiangle dynamic light scattering. 2. Refinements and applications,” Langmuir 12, 6224–6228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cariou, J.

Carlson, B. E.

Cartwright, D. G.

Cohen, A.

A. Cohen, R. D. Haracz, L. D. Cohen, “Asymmetry factors for randomly oriented infinite cylinders,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1135–1140 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Haracz, L. D. Cohen, A. Cohen, “Scattering of linearly polarized light from randomly oriented cylinders and spheroids,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3322–3327 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, L. D.

R. D. Haracz, L. D. Cohen, A. Cohen, “Scattering of linearly polarized light from randomly oriented cylinders and spheroids,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3322–3327 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Cohen, R. D. Haracz, L. D. Cohen, “Asymmetry factors for randomly oriented infinite cylinders,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1135–1140 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, D. D.

Druger, S. D.

Elliot, W. G.

Farafonov, V. G.

Faulkner, D. W.

Fry, E. S.

Fymat, A. L.

K. D. Abhyankar, A. L. Fymat, “Relations between the elements of the phase matrix for scattering,” J. Math. Phys. 10, 1935–1938 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Gagne, G.

Gordon, H. R.

Guern, Y.

Haracz, R. D.

R. D. Haracz, L. D. Cohen, A. Cohen, “Scattering of linearly polarized light from randomly oriented cylinders and spheroids,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3322–3327 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Cohen, R. D. Haracz, L. D. Cohen, “Asymmetry factors for randomly oriented infinite cylinders,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1135–1140 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hearst, J. E.

D. B. Shapiro, P. G. Hull, Y. Shi, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, M. F. Maestre, J. E. Hearst, A. J. Hunt, “Toward a working theory of polarized light scattering from helices,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 146–157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S. C.

P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, Light Scattering by Particles: Computational Methods (World Scientific, Singapore, 1990).

Holland, A. C.

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Hull, P. G.

D. B. Shapiro, P. G. Hull, Y. Shi, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, M. F. Maestre, J. E. Hearst, A. J. Hunt, “Toward a working theory of polarized light scattering from helices,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 146–157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Shapiro, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, M. F. Maestre, P. G. Hull, K. Kah-Eng, “A theoretical and experimental study of polarized light scattering by helices,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 56–72 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Hull, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, D. B. Shapiro, “Coupled-dipole approximation: predicting scattering by nonspherical marine organisms,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1537, 21–29 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Shapiro, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, P. G. Hull, “Circular polarization effects in the light scattering from single and suspensions of dinoflagellates,” in Underwater imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1537, 30–41 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, A. J.

D. B. Shapiro, P. G. Hull, Y. Shi, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, M. F. Maestre, J. E. Hearst, A. J. Hunt, “Toward a working theory of polarized light scattering from helices,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 146–157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, D. B. Shapiro, “Effects of lambda-dependent absorption on the polarization of light scattered from marine chlorella,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 269–280 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, “Effects of structure on scattering from marine organisms: Rayleigh–Debye and Mie predictions,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE925, 288–295 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Hull, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, D. B. Shapiro, “Coupled-dipole approximation: predicting scattering by nonspherical marine organisms,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1537, 21–29 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Shapiro, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, M. F. Maestre, P. G. Hull, K. Kah-Eng, “A theoretical and experimental study of polarized light scattering by helices,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 56–72 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Shapiro, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, P. G. Hull, “Circular polarization effects in the light scattering from single and suspensions of dinoflagellates,” in Underwater imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1537, 30–41 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Lofftus, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, F. Livolat, M. F. Maestre, “Immobilization of unicellular marine organisms for optical characterization: a new method,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE925, 334–341 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Shapiro, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, “Origin of the induced circular polarization in the light scattering from a dinoflagellate,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 281–289 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jeune, B. L.

Kadyshevich, Y. A.

Y. A. Kadyshevich, “Light-scattering matrices of inshore waters of the Baltic Sea,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 13, 77–78 (1977).

Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, G. V. Rozenberg, “Light-scattering matrices of Pacific and Atlantic Ocean waters,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 12, 106–111 (1976).

Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, I. N. Plakhina, “Measurement of matrices for light scattered by seawater,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 7, 557–561 (1971).

Kah-Eng, K.

D. B. Shapiro, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, M. F. Maestre, P. G. Hull, K. Kah-Eng, “A theoretical and experimental study of polarized light scattering by helices,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 56–72 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kattawar, G. W.

G. W. Kattawar, C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere–ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Fry, G. W. Kattawar, “Relationships between elements of the Stokes matrix,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2811–2814 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Kattawar, “Polarization of light in the ocean,” in Ocean Optics, K. L. C. Spinrad, M. J. P. R. W. Spinrad, eds. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1994), pp. 202–275.

Kerker, M.

S. D. Druger, M. Kerker, D.-S. Wang, D. D. Cooke, “Light scattering by inhomogeneous particles,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3888–3899 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1969).

Khong, M. P.

Kitchen, J. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, “The variation in the inherent optical properties of phytoplankton near an absorption peak as determined by various models of cell structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 100 (C7), 13309–13320 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kondranin, T. V.

A. P. Vasil’kov, T. V. Kondranin, E. V. Myasnikov, “Polarization characteristics of the backscattering signal for pulsed sensing of the ocean by a narrow light beam,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 24, 635–642 (1988).

E. V. Miasnikov, T. V. Kondranin, “Effectiveness of the polarization discrimination technique for underwater viewing systems,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 433–442 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kullenberg, G.

G. Kullenberg, “Scattering of light by Sargasso seawater,” Deep-Sea Res. 15, 423–432 (1968).

Livolat, F.

K. Lofftus, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, F. Livolat, M. F. Maestre, “Immobilization of unicellular marine organisms for optical characterization: a new method,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE925, 334–341 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lofftus, K.

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Lofftus, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, F. Livolat, M. F. Maestre, “Immobilization of unicellular marine organisms for optical characterization: a new method,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE925, 334–341 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lotrian, J.

Lyubovtseva, Y. S.

Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, G. V. Rozenberg, “Light-scattering matrices of Pacific and Atlantic Ocean waters,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 12, 106–111 (1976).

Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, I. N. Plakhina, “Measurement of matrices for light scattered by seawater,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 7, 557–561 (1971).

Macke, A.

A. Macke, M. I. Mishchenko, K. Muinonen, B. E. Carlson, “Scattering of light by large nonspherical particles: ray-tracing approximation versus T-matrix method,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1934–1936 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, A. Macke, “Light scattering by nonspherical particles in the atmosphere: an overview,” in International Radiation Symposium ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1996), pp. 801–807.

Mackowski, D. W.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles—a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 55, 535–575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maestre, M. F.

D. B. Shapiro, P. G. Hull, Y. Shi, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, M. F. Maestre, J. E. Hearst, A. J. Hunt, “Toward a working theory of polarized light scattering from helices,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 146–157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Shapiro, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, M. F. Maestre, P. G. Hull, K. Kah-Eng, “A theoretical and experimental study of polarized light scattering by helices,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 56–72 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Lofftus, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, F. Livolat, M. F. Maestre, “Immobilization of unicellular marine organisms for optical characterization: a new method,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE925, 334–341 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Miasnikov, E. V.

E. V. Miasnikov, T. V. Kondranin, “Effectiveness of the polarization discrimination technique for underwater viewing systems,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 433–442 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles—a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 55, 535–575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Macke, M. I. Mishchenko, K. Muinonen, B. E. Carlson, “Scattering of light by large nonspherical particles: ray-tracing approximation versus T-matrix method,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1934–1936 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by large spheroidal particles,” Opt. Commun. 109, 16–21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering by polydispersions of randomly oriented spheroids with sizes comparable to wavelengths of observation,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7206–7225 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Mishchenko, “Light scattering by size shape distributions of randomly oriented axially symmetric particles of a size comparable to a wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4652–4666 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Mishchenko, “Light scattering by randomly oriented axially symmetric particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 871–882 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, A. Macke, “Light scattering by nonspherical particles in the atmosphere: an overview,” in International Radiation Symposium ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1996), pp. 801–807.

Morgan, S. P.

Muinonen, K.

Myasnikov, E. V.

A. P. Vasil’kov, T. V. Kondranin, E. V. Myasnikov, “Polarization characteristics of the backscattering signal for pulsed sensing of the ocean by a narrow light beam,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 24, 635–642 (1988).

Pak, H.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The determination of the index of refraction distribution of oceanic particulates,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4091–4095 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Penny, M. F.

Pennypacker, C. R.

E. M. Purcell, C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Perry, G. J.

Petzold, T. J.

T. J. Petzold, Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).

Phillips, D. M.

Plakhina, I. N.

Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, I. N. Plakhina, “Measurement of matrices for light scattered by seawater,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 7, 557–561 (1971).

Pritchard, B. S.

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Quinby-Hunt, M. S.

D. B. Shapiro, P. G. Hull, Y. Shi, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, M. F. Maestre, J. E. Hearst, A. J. Hunt, “Toward a working theory of polarized light scattering from helices,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 146–157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Lofftus, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, F. Livolat, M. F. Maestre, “Immobilization of unicellular marine organisms for optical characterization: a new method,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE925, 334–341 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Shapiro, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, P. G. Hull, “Circular polarization effects in the light scattering from single and suspensions of dinoflagellates,” in Underwater imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1537, 30–41 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Shapiro, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, “Origin of the induced circular polarization in the light scattering from a dinoflagellate,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 281–289 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Hull, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, D. B. Shapiro, “Coupled-dipole approximation: predicting scattering by nonspherical marine organisms,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1537, 21–29 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Shapiro, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, M. F. Maestre, P. G. Hull, K. Kah-Eng, “A theoretical and experimental study of polarized light scattering by helices,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 56–72 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, D. B. Shapiro, “Effects of lambda-dependent absorption on the polarization of light scattered from marine chlorella,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 269–280 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, “Effects of structure on scattering from marine organisms: Rayleigh–Debye and Mie predictions,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE925, 288–295 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rees, D.

Richards, J.

Risovic, D.

D. Risovic, “2-component model of sea particle size distribution,” Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I Oceanogr. Res. Papers 40, 1459–1473 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roach, D. M.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The determination of the index of refraction distribution of oceanic particulates,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4091–4095 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rozenberg, G. V.

Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, G. V. Rozenberg, “Light-scattering matrices of Pacific and Atlantic Ocean waters,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 12, 106–111 (1976).

Salzman, G. C.

S. B. Singham, G. C. Salzman, “Evaluation of the scattering matrix of an arbitrary particle using the coupled-dipole approximation,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 2658–2667 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

Shapiro, D.

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, D. B.

D. B. Shapiro, P. G. Hull, Y. Shi, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, M. F. Maestre, J. E. Hearst, A. J. Hunt, “Toward a working theory of polarized light scattering from helices,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 146–157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Shapiro, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, M. F. Maestre, P. G. Hull, K. Kah-Eng, “A theoretical and experimental study of polarized light scattering by helices,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 56–72 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Hull, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, D. B. Shapiro, “Coupled-dipole approximation: predicting scattering by nonspherical marine organisms,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1537, 21–29 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Shapiro, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, “Origin of the induced circular polarization in the light scattering from a dinoflagellate,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 281–289 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Shapiro, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, P. G. Hull, “Circular polarization effects in the light scattering from single and suspensions of dinoflagellates,” in Underwater imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1537, 30–41 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, D. B. Shapiro, “Effects of lambda-dependent absorption on the polarization of light scattered from marine chlorella,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 269–280 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

D. B. Shapiro, P. G. Hull, Y. Shi, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, M. F. Maestre, J. E. Hearst, A. J. Hunt, “Toward a working theory of polarized light scattering from helices,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 146–157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Singham, S. B.

C. F. Bohren, S. B. Singham, “Backscattering by nonspherical particles: a review of methods and suggested new approaches,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5269–5271 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Singham, G. C. Salzman, “Evaluation of the scattering matrix of an arbitrary particle using the coupled-dipole approximation,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 2658–2667 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Somekh, M. G.

Somsikov, V. V.

Thomas, J. C.

G. Bryant, C. Abeynayake, J. C. Thomas, “Improved particle size distribution measurements using multiangle dynamic light scattering. 2. Refinements and applications,” Langmuir 12, 6224–6228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R. C.

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles—a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 55, 535–575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by large spheroidal particles,” Opt. Commun. 109, 16–21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering by polydispersions of randomly oriented spheroids with sizes comparable to wavelengths of observation,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7206–7225 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, A. Macke, “Light scattering by nonspherical particles in the atmosphere: an overview,” in International Radiation Symposium ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1996), pp. 801–807.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (New York, Wiley, 1957).

Vasil’kov, A. P.

A. P. Vasil’kov, T. V. Kondranin, E. V. Myasnikov, “Polarization characteristics of the backscattering signal for pulsed sensing of the ocean by a narrow light beam,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 24, 635–642 (1988).

Voshchinnikov, N. V.

Voss, K. J.

E. S. Fry, K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322–1326 (1985).
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K. J. Voss, E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984).
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K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Ph.D. thesis, (Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 1984).

Wang, D.-S.

Waterman, P. C.

P. C. Waterman, “Symmetry, unitarity, and geometry in electromagnetic scattering,” Phys. Rev. D 3, 825–839 (1971).
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P. C. Waterman, “Matrix formulation of electromagnetic scattering,” Proc. IEEE 53, 805–812 (1965).
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Wilsen, P. J.

Woodcock, B.

Yamamoto, G.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, “The variation in the inherent optical properties of phytoplankton near an absorption peak as determined by various models of cell structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 100 (C7), 13309–13320 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The determination of the index of refraction distribution of oceanic particulates,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4091–4095 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (18)

S. P. Morgan, M. P. Khong, M. G. Somekh, “Effects of polarization state and scatterer concentration on optical imaging through scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1560–1565 (1997).
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J. Cariou, B. L. Jeune, J. Lotrian, Y. Guern, “Polarization effects of seawater and underwater targets,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1689–1695 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Penny, R. H. Abbot, D. M. Phillips, B. Billard, D. Rees, D. W. Faulkner, D. G. Cartwright, B. Woodcock, G. J. Perry, P. J. Wilsen, T. R. Adams, J. Richards, “Airborne laser hydrography in Australia,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2046–2058 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Billard, R. H. Abbot, M. F. Penny, “Airborne estimation of sea turbidity parameters from the WRELADS laser airborne depth sounder,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2080–2088 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Billard, “Remote sensing of scattering coefficient for airborne laser hydrography,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2099–2108 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Interpretation of airborne oceanic lidar: effects of multiple scattering,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2996–3001 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Fry, G. W. Kattawar, “Relationships between elements of the Stokes matrix,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2811–2814 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Thompson, J. R. Bottiger, E. S. Fry, “Measurement of polarized light interactions via the Mueller matrix,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1323–1332 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Holland, G. Gagne, “The scattering of polarized light by polydisperse systems of irregular particles,” Appl. Opt. 9, 1113–1121 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Voss, E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. B. Brown, H. R. Gordon, “Two component Mie scattering models of Sargasso sea particles,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2461–2465 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Asano, G. Yamamoto, “Light scattering by a spheroidal particle,” Appl. Opt. 14, 29–49 (1975).
[PubMed]

S. Asano, “Light scattering properties of spheroidal particles,” Appl. Opt. 18, 712–723 (1979).
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S. Asano, M. Sato, “Light scattering by randomly oriented spheroidal particles,” Appl. Opt. 19, 962–974 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Farafonov, N. V. Voshchinnikov, V. V. Somsikov, “Light scattering by a core-mantle spheroidal particle,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5412–5426 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Druger, M. Kerker, D.-S. Wang, D. D. Cooke, “Light scattering by inhomogeneous particles,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3888–3899 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Mishchenko, “Light scattering by size shape distributions of randomly oriented axially symmetric particles of a size comparable to a wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4652–4666 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering by polydispersions of randomly oriented spheroids with sizes comparable to wavelengths of observation,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7206–7225 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astrophys. J. (1)

E. M. Purcell, C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. (1)

G. Kullenberg, “Scattering of light by Sargasso seawater,” Deep-Sea Res. 15, 423–432 (1968).

Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I Oceanogr. Res. Papers (1)

D. Risovic, “2-component model of sea particle size distribution,” Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I Oceanogr. Res. Papers 40, 1459–1473 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. (4)

Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, I. N. Plakhina, “Measurement of matrices for light scattered by seawater,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 7, 557–561 (1971).

Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, G. V. Rozenberg, “Light-scattering matrices of Pacific and Atlantic Ocean waters,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 12, 106–111 (1976).

Y. A. Kadyshevich, “Light-scattering matrices of inshore waters of the Baltic Sea,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 13, 77–78 (1977).

A. P. Vasil’kov, T. V. Kondranin, E. V. Myasnikov, “Polarization characteristics of the backscattering signal for pulsed sensing of the ocean by a narrow light beam,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 24, 635–642 (1988).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

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[CrossRef]

R. D. Haracz, L. D. Cohen, A. Cohen, “Scattering of linearly polarized light from randomly oriented cylinders and spheroids,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3322–3327 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

D. B. Shapiro, P. G. Hull, Y. Shi, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, M. F. Maestre, J. E. Hearst, A. J. Hunt, “Toward a working theory of polarized light scattering from helices,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 146–157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Singham, G. C. Salzman, “Evaluation of the scattering matrix of an arbitrary particle using the coupled-dipole approximation,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 2658–2667 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

C. F. Bohren, S. B. Singham, “Backscattering by nonspherical particles: a review of methods and suggested new approaches,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5269–5271 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, “The variation in the inherent optical properties of phytoplankton near an absorption peak as determined by various models of cell structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 100 (C7), 13309–13320 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The determination of the index of refraction distribution of oceanic particulates,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4091–4095 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Math. Phys. (1)

K. D. Abhyankar, A. L. Fymat, “Relations between the elements of the phase matrix for scattering,” J. Math. Phys. 10, 1935–1938 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles—a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 55, 535–575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

G. Bryant, C. Abeynayake, J. C. Thomas, “Improved particle size distribution measurements using multiangle dynamic light scattering. 2. Refinements and applications,” Langmuir 12, 6224–6228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (4)

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison between experimental data of Voss and Fry20 (gray curves) and computed data determined for a modified Gamma size distribution of spheres by use of the Mie theory (black curves).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Elements S 22 and S 44 of the Mueller matrix for different aspect ratios of spheroids. Relative refractive index, m = 1.15 + i0.02; log-normal size distribution with median radius, R g = 800 nm; standard deviation, σ2 = 0.2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Nonzero elements of the Mueller matrix for the power-law size distribution. The imaginary part of the refractive index is 0.02. R min = 100 nm; R max = 1500 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Nonzero elements of the Mueller matrix for log-normal size distribution. The imaginary part of the refractive index is 0.02. R g = 800 nm; σ2 = 0.2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Depolarization ratio versus the real part of the refractive index for different values of the imaginary part of the refractive index.

Equations (17)

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β θ = I s θ I i d v ,
b = 2 π   0 π   β θ sin   θ d θ .
P z = S 22 π exp - 2 α 1 - α 2 bz ,
α 1 - α 2 = 0 θ 0 1 - S 22 θ P θ d θ ,
I Q U V s = 1 k 2 r 2 M 11 M 12 M 13 M 14 M 21 M 22 M 23 M 24 M 31 M 32 M 33 M 34 M 41 M 42 M 43 M 44 I Q U V i ,
M 11 M 12 M 13 M 14 M 12 M 22 M 23 M 24 - M 13 - M 23 M 33 M 34 M 14 M 24 - M 34 M 44 .
M 11 M 12 0 0 M 12 M 22 0 0 0 0 M 33 M 34 0 0 - M 34 M 44 .
M 11 M 12 0 0 M 12 M 11 0 0 0 0 M 33 M 34 0 0 - M 34 M 33 .
1 S 12 S 13 S 14 S 21 S 22 S 23 S 24 S 31 S 32 S 33 S 34 S 41 S 42 S 43 S 44 ,
M 11 M 12 0 0 M 12 M 11 0 0 0 0 M 33 0 0 0 0 M 33
M 11 M 12 0 M 14 M 12 M 22 M 23 M 24 0 M 32 M 33 M 34 M 41 0 M 43 M 44 .
M 11 M 12 0 0 M 12 M 11 0 0 0 0 M 33 M 34 0 0 - M 34 M 44 ,
M 11 M 12 0 0 M 12 M 22 0 0 0 0 M 33 0 0 0 0 M 34 ,
d N d D = K D 4 ,
f R = C A R 2 exp - 52 R γ A + C B R 2 exp - 17 R γ B ,
X = 2 π an / λ ,
δ L = 1 - S 22 180 ° 1 + S 22 180 ° , δ C = 1 + S 44 180 ° 1 - S 44 180 ° .

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