Abstract

A small three-wavelength (355-, 532-, and 1064-nm) lidar system at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, has been used since 1992 to make measurements on stratospheric aerosols. The data have been processed to study the decay rate of the stratospheric aerosol layer formed after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 and its modulation, the aerosol effective radius, and the column mass loading. The stratospheric aerosol decay curves show annual and biennial cycles as well as short-term changes. At 532 nm, the decay time constant was 302 days for the period from February 1992 to August 1994 and had increased to 645 days for the period from September 1994 to December 1997. By 1996 the integrated stratospheric aerosol backscatter had fallen to levels (7.7 × 10-5 sr-1 at 532 nm) close to those seen in 1979 and 1989–1991. This decreasing trend was still continuing in 1997, showing no evidence for any anthropogenic contribution to the stratospheric aerosol.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingstone, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. W. Thomason, G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, L. R. Poole, “A comparison of the stratospheric aerosol background periods of 1979 and 1989–1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3611–3616 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. T. Osborn, R. J. DeCoursey, C. R. Trepte, D. M. Winker, D. C. Woods, “Evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud over Hampton, Virginia,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1101–1104 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18765–18773 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homberg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three northern hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Beyerle, A. Herber, R. Neuber, H. Gernandt, “Temporal development of Mt. Pinatubo aerosols as observed by lidar and sun photometer at Ny-Alesend, Spitsbergen,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2497–2500 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. G. P. Gobbi, “Lidar estimation of stratospheric aerosol properties: surface, volume, and extinction to backscatter ratio,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11219–11235 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Jäger, T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, “Midlatitude lidar backscatter conversions based on balloon-sonde aerosol measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1729–1732 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. M. Weickmann, K. R. Healy, R. J. Willis, “Comparison of Mount Pinatubo and El Chichón volcanic events: lidar observations at 10.6 and 0.69 μm,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 3929–3940 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13875–13899 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, “Methodology for error analysis and simulation of lidar aerosol measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3783–3797 (1979).
    [PubMed]
  14. M. T. Osborn, G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements by LITE,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).
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    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41N: vertical profiles, size distributions, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. E. Hansen, J. W. Hovenier, “Interpretation of the polarization of Venus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137–1160 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Anderson, V. K. Saxena, “Temporal changes of Mount Pinatubo aerosol characteristics over northern midlatitudes derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19455–19463 (1996).
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  26. F. Kasten, “Falling speed of aerosol particles,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 7, 944–947 (1968).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. W. Thomason, G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, L. R. Poole, “A comparison of the stratospheric aerosol background periods of 1979 and 1989–1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3611–3616 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18765–18773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. M. Weickmann, K. R. Healy, R. J. Willis, “Comparison of Mount Pinatubo and El Chichón volcanic events: lidar observations at 10.6 and 0.69 μm,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 3929–3940 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Anderson, V. K. Saxena, “Temporal changes of Mount Pinatubo aerosol characteristics over northern midlatitudes derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19455–19463 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingstone, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (6)

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13875–13899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homberg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three northern hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Beyerle, A. Herber, R. Neuber, H. Gernandt, “Temporal development of Mt. Pinatubo aerosols as observed by lidar and sun photometer at Ny-Alesend, Spitsbergen,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2497–2500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Osborn, R. J. DeCoursey, C. R. Trepte, D. M. Winker, D. C. Woods, “Evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud over Hampton, Virginia,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1101–1104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Gobbi, “Lidar estimation of stratospheric aerosol properties: surface, volume, and extinction to backscatter ratio,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11219–11235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Jäger, T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, “Midlatitude lidar backscatter conversions based on balloon-sonde aerosol measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1729–1732 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. H. Hitchman, M. McKay, C. R. Trepte, “A climatology of stratospheric aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20689–20700 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41N: vertical profiles, size distributions, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

H. Jäger, W. Carnuth, “The decay of the El Chichon stratospheric perturbation observed by lidar at northern midlatitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 696–699 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, “Relationships between extinction, absorption, backscattering, and mass content of sulfuric acid aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 4059–4066 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1974 (1)

J. E. Hansen, J. W. Hovenier, “Interpretation of the polarization of Venus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137–1160 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

F. Kasten, “Falling speed of aerosol particles,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 7, 944–947 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J.

J. Anderson, V. K. Saxena, “Temporal changes of Mount Pinatubo aerosol characteristics over northern midlatitudes derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19455–19463 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bauman, J. J.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingstone, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berardi, V.

P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18765–18773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bergstrom, R. W.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingstone, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Beyerle, G.

G. Beyerle, A. Herber, R. Neuber, H. Gernandt, “Temporal development of Mt. Pinatubo aerosols as observed by lidar and sun photometer at Ny-Alesend, Spitsbergen,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2497–2500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, S. L.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingstone, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carnuth, W.

H. Jäger, W. Carnuth, “The decay of the El Chichon stratospheric perturbation observed by lidar at northern midlatitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 696–699 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W. P.

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chylek, P.

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, “Relationships between extinction, absorption, backscattering, and mass content of sulfuric acid aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 4059–4066 (1980).
[CrossRef]

DeCoursey, R. J.

M. T. Osborn, R. J. DeCoursey, C. R. Trepte, D. M. Winker, D. C. Woods, “Evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud over Hampton, Virginia,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1101–1104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deshler, T.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingstone, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Jäger, T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, “Midlatitude lidar backscatter conversions based on balloon-sonde aerosol measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1729–1732 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41N: vertical profiles, size distributions, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Di Girolamo, P.

P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18765–18773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, E. G.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingstone, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Freudenthaler, V.

H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homberg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three northern hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, T.

H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homberg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three northern hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gernandt, H.

G. Beyerle, A. Herber, R. Neuber, H. Gernandt, “Temporal development of Mt. Pinatubo aerosols as observed by lidar and sun photometer at Ny-Alesend, Spitsbergen,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2497–2500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gobbi, G. P.

G. P. Gobbi, “Lidar estimation of stratospheric aerosol properties: surface, volume, and extinction to backscatter ratio,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11219–11235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grund, C. J.

M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. M. Weickmann, K. R. Healy, R. J. Willis, “Comparison of Mount Pinatubo and El Chichón volcanic events: lidar observations at 10.6 and 0.69 μm,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 3929–3940 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hamill, P.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingstone, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen, J. W. Hovenier, “Interpretation of the polarization of Venus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137–1160 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Healy, K. R.

M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. M. Weickmann, K. R. Healy, R. J. Willis, “Comparison of Mount Pinatubo and El Chichón volcanic events: lidar observations at 10.6 and 0.69 μm,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 3929–3940 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Herber, A.

G. Beyerle, A. Herber, R. Neuber, H. Gernandt, “Temporal development of Mt. Pinatubo aerosols as observed by lidar and sun photometer at Ny-Alesend, Spitsbergen,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2497–2500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hitchman, M. H.

M. H. Hitchman, M. McKay, C. R. Trepte, “A climatology of stratospheric aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20689–20700 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

H. Jäger, T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, “Midlatitude lidar backscatter conversions based on balloon-sonde aerosol measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1729–1732 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Homberg, F.

H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homberg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three northern hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. W.

J. E. Hansen, J. W. Hovenier, “Interpretation of the polarization of Venus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137–1160 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Jäger, H.

H. Jäger, T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, “Midlatitude lidar backscatter conversions based on balloon-sonde aerosol measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1729–1732 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homberg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three northern hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Jäger, W. Carnuth, “The decay of the El Chichon stratospheric perturbation observed by lidar at northern midlatitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 696–699 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, S. G.

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, “Relationships between extinction, absorption, backscattering, and mass content of sulfuric acid aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 4059–4066 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. J.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41N: vertical profiles, size distributions, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kasten, F.

F. Kasten, “Falling speed of aerosol particles,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 7, 944–947 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kent, G. S.

L. W. Thomason, G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, L. R. Poole, “A comparison of the stratospheric aerosol background periods of 1979 and 1989–1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3611–3616 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13875–13899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Osborn, G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements by LITE,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

G. S. Kent, “Dispersion characteristics of volcanically injected aerosol as seen by SAGE I, SAM II, and SAGE II,” in Preprint Volume of Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass.1986), pp. J54–J55.

Livingston, J. M.

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Livingstone, J. M.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingstone, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13875–13899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, “Methodology for error analysis and simulation of lidar aerosol measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3783–3797 (1979).
[PubMed]

McKay, M.

M. H. Hitchman, M. McKay, C. R. Trepte, “A climatology of stratospheric aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20689–20700 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, T.

H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homberg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three northern hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neuber, R.

G. Beyerle, A. Herber, R. Neuber, H. Gernandt, “Temporal development of Mt. Pinatubo aerosols as observed by lidar and sun photometer at Ny-Alesend, Spitsbergen,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2497–2500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Osborn, M. T.

M. T. Osborn, R. J. DeCoursey, C. R. Trepte, D. M. Winker, D. C. Woods, “Evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud over Hampton, Virginia,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1101–1104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Osborn, G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements by LITE,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Pappalardo, G.

P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18765–18773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pepin, T. J.

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pinnick, R. G.

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, “Relationships between extinction, absorption, backscattering, and mass content of sulfuric acid aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 4059–4066 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, J. B.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingstone, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poole, L. R.

L. W. Thomason, G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, L. R. Poole, “A comparison of the stratospheric aerosol background periods of 1979 and 1989–1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3611–3616 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Post, M. J.

M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. M. Weickmann, K. R. Healy, R. J. Willis, “Comparison of Mount Pinatubo and El Chichón volcanic events: lidar observations at 10.6 and 0.69 μm,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 3929–3940 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pueschel, R. F.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingstone, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rozier, W. R.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41N: vertical profiles, size distributions, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingstone, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, “Methodology for error analysis and simulation of lidar aerosol measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3783–3797 (1979).
[PubMed]

Saxena, V. K.

J. Anderson, V. K. Saxena, “Temporal changes of Mount Pinatubo aerosol characteristics over northern midlatitudes derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19455–19463 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Skeens, K. M.

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13875–13899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, N.

P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18765–18773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L. L.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingstone, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Swissler, T. J.

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, “Methodology for error analysis and simulation of lidar aerosol measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3783–3797 (1979).
[PubMed]

Thomason, L. W.

L. W. Thomason, G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, L. R. Poole, “A comparison of the stratospheric aerosol background periods of 1979 and 1989–1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3611–3616 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingstone, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Trepte, C. R.

L. W. Thomason, G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, L. R. Poole, “A comparison of the stratospheric aerosol background periods of 1979 and 1989–1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3611–3616 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Osborn, R. J. DeCoursey, C. R. Trepte, D. M. Winker, D. C. Woods, “Evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud over Hampton, Virginia,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1101–1104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Hitchman, M. McKay, C. R. Trepte, “A climatology of stratospheric aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20689–20700 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Osborn, G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements by LITE,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Uchino, O.

H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homberg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three northern hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Velotta, R.

P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18765–18773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.-H.

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13875–13899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weickmann, A. M.

M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. M. Weickmann, K. R. Healy, R. J. Willis, “Comparison of Mount Pinatubo and El Chichón volcanic events: lidar observations at 10.6 and 0.69 μm,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 3929–3940 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Willis, R. J.

M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. M. Weickmann, K. R. Healy, R. J. Willis, “Comparison of Mount Pinatubo and El Chichón volcanic events: lidar observations at 10.6 and 0.69 μm,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 3929–3940 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D. M.

M. T. Osborn, R. J. DeCoursey, C. R. Trepte, D. M. Winker, D. C. Woods, “Evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud over Hampton, Virginia,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1101–1104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Woods, D. C.

M. T. Osborn, R. J. DeCoursey, C. R. Trepte, D. M. Winker, D. C. Woods, “Evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud over Hampton, Virginia,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1101–1104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (6)

H. Jäger, T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, “Midlatitude lidar backscatter conversions based on balloon-sonde aerosol measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1729–1732 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Jäger, W. Carnuth, “The decay of the El Chichon stratospheric perturbation observed by lidar at northern midlatitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 696–699 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Osborn, R. J. DeCoursey, C. R. Trepte, D. M. Winker, D. C. Woods, “Evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud over Hampton, Virginia,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1101–1104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homberg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three northern hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Beyerle, A. Herber, R. Neuber, H. Gernandt, “Temporal development of Mt. Pinatubo aerosols as observed by lidar and sun photometer at Ny-Alesend, Spitsbergen,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2497–2500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41N: vertical profiles, size distributions, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

F. Kasten, “Falling speed of aerosol particles,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 7, 944–947 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hansen, J. W. Hovenier, “Interpretation of the polarization of Venus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137–1160 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (9)

J. Anderson, V. K. Saxena, “Temporal changes of Mount Pinatubo aerosol characteristics over northern midlatitudes derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19455–19463 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Hitchman, M. McKay, C. R. Trepte, “A climatology of stratospheric aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20689–20700 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, “Relationships between extinction, absorption, backscattering, and mass content of sulfuric acid aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 4059–4066 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Gobbi, “Lidar estimation of stratospheric aerosol properties: surface, volume, and extinction to backscatter ratio,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11219–11235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18765–18773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingstone, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason, G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, L. R. Poole, “A comparison of the stratospheric aerosol background periods of 1979 and 1989–1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3611–3616 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. M. Weickmann, K. R. Healy, R. J. Willis, “Comparison of Mount Pinatubo and El Chichón volcanic events: lidar observations at 10.6 and 0.69 μm,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 3929–3940 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13875–13899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

M. T. Osborn, G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements by LITE,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

G. S. Kent, “Dispersion characteristics of volcanically injected aerosol as seen by SAGE I, SAM II, and SAGE II,” in Preprint Volume of Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass.1986), pp. J54–J55.

V. E. Kousky, ed. “Near real-time analyses, ocean/atmosphere,” Climate Diagnostics Bulletin No. 97/1 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1997).

Smithsonian InstitutionBulletin of the Global Volcanism Network20, No. 10 (1995).

Smithsonian InstitutionBulletin of the Global Volcanism Network21, No. 5 (1996).

Smithsonian InstitutionBulletin of the Global Volcanism Network21, No. 10 (1996).

Smithsonian InstitutionBulletin of the Global Volcanism Network22, No. 1 (1997).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Examples of three-wavelength inverted (aerosol + molecular)/molecular backscattering ratios: (a) 31 March 1992, (b) 14 February 1994, and (c) 2 April 1996. (i), (ii), and (iii) show data obtained at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively. Horizontal dashed lines show the tropopause altitudes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Contour plot of the 532-nm aerosol/(aerosol + molecular) backscattering ratio R as a function of time and altitude. The tropopause altitude is shown by the solid black curve. Note the seasonal variation in tropopause altitude and stratospheric aerosol distribution. The occasional high backscattering ratio below the tropopause is due to high-altitude cloud. Backscattering ratios less than unity at low altitudes correspond to time periods before the receiver shutter is fully open; those at high altitudes are caused by system noise.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three-wavelength integrated backscatter as a function of time. Unless otherwise noted, the integration was carried out from the tropopause upward. Data shown in red are for 1064 nm. Data shown in green are for 532 nm. Data shown in blue are for 355 nm. (a) Data for individual events showing fitted exponential functions for the periods from February 1992 to August 1994 and from September 1994 to June 1997. Note the large error bars in the 355-nm data from September 1994 onward. (b) Data as a function of time of year when the exponential decay was removed and values referred to January 1992. The solid curves show the integrated backscatter from the tropopause upward; the dashed curves are from an altitude of 15 km. (c) Data smoothed by a 1-yr running mean. Also shown is the phase of the QBO in terms of the equatorial wind anomaly at 30 mbars.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theory and experimental data relating to the wavelength variation of the backscatter. (a) Results of Mie theory calculations showing the relationship between the exponents α of the 355-nm/532-nm backscattering ratio and the 532-nm/1064-nm backscattering ratio, for log normal particle size distributions. The curve is annotated with the aerosol effective radius. (b) As in (a) but annotated with the particle volume/backscattering coefficient conversion factor. (c) Experimentally determined relationship between the backscatter exponents for data obtained on 31 March 1992. The curve was color coded according to altitude. (d) As for (c) but showing data obtained on 24 February 1993. (e) As for (c) but showing data obtained on 14 February 1994. (f) Relationship between the backscatter exponents for the integrated backscatter. All data considered statistically significant were plotted and color coded according to date. No useful data were obtained at 355 nm after 1995. Note the change in the value of the exponents and the corresponding particle size between the earlier and later years.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Altitude of the backscattering center of the stratospheric aerosol layer at the three lidar wavelengths, shown as a function of time. Note the annual cycle caused by variations in tropopause altitude and the slight systematic offset in the earlier years between the layer centers at the three wavelengths. Dot–dash curve, 1064 nm; dashed curve, 532 nm; dotted curve, 355 nm; Solid curve, tropopause.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Lidar Specifications

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Table 2 Optical Constants Assumed in the Analysis

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Table 3 Stratospheric Aerosol Decay Time Constants (days)a

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Table 4 Averaged Values for Integrated Backscatter and Estimated Column Mass Loading at Hampton, Virginia

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Table 5 Particle Characteristics Shown in Figure 4

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = I 0 exp - t / t 0 ,
n r = 1 / r   ln σ 2 π exp - ln 2 r / r m / 2   ln 2 σ ,
r eff =   r π r 2 n r d r /   π r 2 n r d r .
r eff = r m exp 2.5   ln 2 σ .
λ 1 / λ 2 - α = B λ 1 / B λ 2 ,
h c =   B λ h d h /     B λ d h ,

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